Guidelines for Classroom Copying of Books, Periodicals and Coursepacks

Single Copying for Faculty Members:

A single copy may be made of any of the following by or for a faculty member at his/her request:

1. A chapter from a book

2. An article from a periodical or newspaper

3. A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or not from a collective work;

4. A chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture from a book, periodical or newspaper.

Multiple Copies for Classroom Use:

Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one copy per student in a course) may be made by or for a faculty member giving the course for classroom use or discussion, provided that:

1. The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity;

2. Meets the cumulative effect test; and

3. Each copy includes a notice of copyright.


1. Poetry: A complete poem if less than 250 words and if printed on not more than two pages, or from a longer poem, an excerpt of not more than 250 words;

2. Prose: Either a complete article, story or essay of less than 2,500 words; an excerpt from any prose work of not more than 1,000 words or 10% of the work, whichever is less, but in any event a minimum of 500 words;

(The numerical limits stated in 1 and 2 may be expanded to permit the completion of an unfinished line of a poem or of an unfinished prose paragraph).

3. Illustration: One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon, or picture per book or per periodical issue; and

4. Special Works: Certain works in poetry, prose, or in poetic prose which often combine language with illustrations and which are intended sometimes for children and at other times for a more general audience fall short of 2,500 words in their entirety. Special works may not be reproduced in their entirety. However, an excerpt comprising not more than two of the published pages of such special work and not containing more than 10% of the words found in the text thereof, may be reproduced.


1. The copying is at the instance and inspiration of an individual faculty member; and

2. The inspiration and decision to use the work and the moment of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply to a request for permission.

Cumulative Effect:

1. The copying of the material is for only one course in the university in which the copies are made;

2. Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay or two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more than three from the same collective work or periodical volume during one class term; and

3. There shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple copying for one course during one class term.

(The limitations stated in 2 and 3 do not apply to current news periodicals and newspapers and current news sections of other periodicals).

Notwithstanding any of the above-noted information from the section entitled “Multiple Copies for Classroom Use”, the following is PROHIBITED:

1. Copying shall not be used to create or to replace or substitute for anthologies, compilations or collective works. Such replacement or substitution may occur whether copies of various works or excerpts are accumulated or reproduced and used separately;

2. There shall be no copying of or from works intended to be “consumable” in the course of study or of teaching. These include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and test booklets and answer sheets and like consumable material;

3. No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual cost of the photocopying;

4. Copying shall not:

  1. Substitute for the purchase of books, publisher’s reprints or periodicals;
  2. Be directed by higher authority;
  3. Be repeated with respect to the same item by the same faculty member from term to term.