2. British Egypt (1907-1922)


Crisis Phase (December 7, 1907-March 15, 1922): Egyptian nationalists led by Mustapha Kamel established the Nationalist Party (Wafd) on December 7, 1907. Boutros Ghali, a Christian Copt, was appointed as prime minister on November 12, 1908, but he was assassinated by a Muslim nationalist on February 20, 1910. Britain declared a protectorate over Egypt on December 18, 1914.  Saad Zaghlul Pasha, leader of the Wafd, demanded an end to the British protectorate over Egypt on February 7, 1919. Prime Minister Husayn Rushdi Pasha resigned on March 1, 1919. Saad Zaghul Pasha and other Wafd were arrested and deported to Malta on March 8, 1919. Egyptian nationalists rebelled against the British government beginning on March 18, 1919, when eight British government soldiers were killed in Deirut. The British government proclaimed martial law. The British government released Saad Zaghul Pasha from exile on April 7, 1919, and Husayn Rushdi Pasha formed a government as prime minister on April 9, 1919. Prime Minister Rushdi Pasha resigned on April 21, 1919, and Muhammad Said Pasha formed a government as prime minister on May 21, 1919. The Egyptian Legislative Assembly voted in favor of independence on March 10, 1920. Zaghlul Pasha returned to Egypt on April 5, 1921. Zaghlul Pasha and other Egyptian nationalists were arrested on December 23, 1921, and were deported to Seychelles on March 3, 1922. Britain terminated its protectorate over Egypt on February 28, 1922, and Egypt proclaimed its independence from Britain on March 15, 1922. Sultan Ahmad Fuad became King Faud I. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

[Sources: Langer, 1972, 870, 1075; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 83-84; Vatikiotis 1969/1991.]