8. Kingdom of Nadj-Hijaz (1916-1932)

Crisis Phase (June 27, 1916-May 31, 1918):  Hussein ibn-Ali proclaimed the establishment of an Arab state (Hijaz province) on June 27, 1916, and he was proclaimed “King of the Arabs” in Mecca on October 29, 1916.  The governments of Britain, France, and Russia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to King Hussein ibn-Ali on November 6, 1916.  The British government provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud in March 1918 and August 1918.

Conflict Phase (June 1, 1918-August 31, 1920):  Ikhwan (fundamentalist Wahhabi) tribesmen attacked Hashemite tribesmen near the village of al-Khurma in June 1918, resulting in the deaths of 14 Hashemite tribesmen.  Hashemite tribesmen attacked Khurma in June 1918, resulting in the deaths of 28 Hashemite tribesmen.  Hashemite tribesmen led by Amir Shakir and Ikhwan (fundamentalist Wahhabi) tribesmen clashed near al-Khurma in July-August 1918.  Hashemite tribesmen commanded by Abdullah ibn-Hussein, son of King Hussein ibn-Ali, captured Turabah on May 21, 1919.  Hashemite tribesmen were defeated by Wahabbi tribesmen led by Khalid ibn-Mansur near Turabah on May 25-26, 1919, resulting in the deaths of some 1,350 Hashemite tribesmen.  The British government mediated a cessation of military hostilities in August 1920.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 1, 1920-August 27, 1924):  Ikhwan tribesmen attacked Jahra, Kuwait on October 10, 1920, resulting in the deaths of some 200 Kuwaitis.  Abdullah ibn-Hussein became Amir of Transjordan in 1921.  Faisal ibn-Hussein, son of King Hussein ibn-Ali, became King of Iraq in August 1921.  Wahhabi and Ikhwan tribesmen captured the emirate of Jabal Shammar on November 21, 1921.  Ikhwan tribesmen attacked Iraqi troops in Abu al-Ghar and Shagra (British mandate of Iraq) on March 11, 1922.  Representatives of the British government and Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud signed the Treaty of al-Muhammara on May 5, 1922.  Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud and Sir Percy Cox of Britain held negotiations in al-Uqair on November 21-26, 1922.  Representatives of Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud and Sir Percy Cox of Britain signed the al-Uqair Protocols on December 2, 1922, which provided for Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud’s recognition of the border of Iraq.  Colonel Knox of Britain mediated negotiations concerning border problems between Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud, King Faisal of Iraq, and King Abdullah of Transjordan in Kuwait from December 17, 1923 to April 12, 1924.  Ikhwan tribesmen led by Faisal al-Dawish attacked Diwaniya, Iraq on March 14, 1924, resulting in the deaths of some 150 individuals.

Conflict Phase (August 28, 1924-December 23, 1925):  Wahhabi tribesmen led by Khalid ibn-Luwai attacked the Hijaz province beginning on August 29, 1924, and captured Ta’if on September 5, 1924, resulting in the massacre of some 400 individuals. King Hussein ibn-Ali requested military assistance from the British in September 1924, but the British government declared its neutrality in the conflict.  Wahhabi tribesmen captured Hada on September 26, 1924.  Some 1,500 merchants fled from Mecca to Jeddah.  King Hussein ibn-Ali abdicated on October 3, 1924, and Ali ibn-Hussein was proclaimed King of Hijaz on October 6, 1924.  King Ali ibn-Hussein offered to negotiate with Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud on October 5, 1924, but Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud rejected the negotiation offer.  Wahhabi tribesmen led by Khalid ibn-Luwai captured Mecca on October 18, 1924.  Ikhwan tribesmen led by Faisal al-Dawish attacked Dhafir, Iraq on December 26, 1924, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals.  Some 6,000 Ikhwan tribesmen began a siege of Jeddah on January 6, 1925.  King Faud of Egypt sent a commission of inquiry to the Arabian peninsula on September 10-October 4, 1925.  The commission investigated allegations that religious monuments had been damaged by Wahhabi tribesmen in Medina.  Wahhabi tribesmen captured Medina (al-Madina) on December 5, 1925.  King Ali ibn-Hussein abdicated on December 19, 1925, and he fled to Iraq on December 22, 1925.  Wahhabi tribesmen captured Jeddah on December 23, 1925.  Some 5,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 24, 1925-November 30, 1928): Abdul Aziz ibn-Saud was proclaimed King of the Hijaz and Sultan of Najd on January 8, 1926. Britain and France provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of King Ibn Saud.  The government of the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of King Ibn Saud on February 16, 1926.  Representatives of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Nadj-Hijaz signed the Treaty of Jeddah on May 20, 1927, which provided for British recognition of the independence of the Kingdom of Najd-Hijaz. Ikhwan tribesmen clashed with Iraqi troops near Busayya on November 5, 1927, resulting in the deaths of 20 individuals. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between December 1925 and November 1928.

Conflict Phase (December 1, 1928-January 10, 1930):  Ikhwan tribesmen led by Faisal al-Dawish and Ibn Bijad rebelled against the government of King Saud beginning in December 1928.  Some 30,000 government troops defeated some 10,000 Ikhwan tribesmen near Sibila on March 30-31, 1929, resulting in the deaths of some 500 rebels and 200 government soldiers.  The British government agreed to a requested for military assistance (weapons and ammunition) by King Ibn Saud in May 1929.  Ikhwan tribesmen and government troops clashed in the Jabal Shammar region in August 1929, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 individuals.  Ikhwan tribesmen attacked the Awazim tribe on October 5, 1929, resulting in the deaths of some 250 individuals.  Faisal al-Dawish fled to Kuwait in October 1929, and government troops suppressed the rebellion on January 10, 1930 (when Ikhwan rebel leaders surrendered to the British).  Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 11, 1930-September 22, 1932): British officials extradited Faisal al-Dawish and two other Ikhwan leaders to King Ibn-Saud on January 27-28, 1930 (Faisal al-Dawish died in prison in Riyadh on October 3, 1931). King Ibn-Saud and King Faisal of Iraq signed a peace treaty on board the British naval ship Lupin in the Persian Gulf on February 22, 1930. King Saud consolidated his control over most of the Arabian peninsula, and the Kingdom of Najd-Hijaz was renamed Saudi Arabia on September 22, 1932.

[Sources: Brogan, 1992, 649-653; Clodfelter, 1992, 628; Habib 1978; Helms, 1981, 198-274; Kostiner 1993; Langer, 1972, 1093-1095; Leatherdale, 1983, 37-75; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925, 271-324, 1925 (supplement), 5-6, 1926, 512, 1932, 608; Troeller, 1976, 34-235; Vassiliev 1998.]



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Leatherdale, Clive. 1983. Britain and Saudi Arabia, 1925-1939, London and Totowa, NJ: Frank Cass.

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