14. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1922-1956)


Pre-Crisis Phase (February 28, 1922-July 3, 1924): Sudanese nationalists began a movement for independence from Britain and Egypt after the de jure independence of Egypt from Britain on February 28, 1922. The White Flag League, which was headed by Lt. Ali Abdel Latif and Obeid Hag Amin, was established in opposition to the British government on May 24, 1923. Sir Lee Stack, the British governor-general of Sudan, banned demonstrations against the government on June 22, 1924.

Crisis Phase (July 4, 1924-January 1, 1956): Ali Abdel Latif was arrested on July 4, 1924, and he was sentenced to three years in prison on July 11, 1924. Some 50 cadets from the Military School in Khartoum protested the arrest of Ali Abdel Latif on August 8-10, 1924. Sir Lee Stack was assassinated in Cairo on November 19, 1924. Britain ordered the withdrawal of Egyptian troops from Sudan, and the troop withdrawal was completed on December 1, 1924. Several units of the Sudanese military mutinied in Khartoum on November 27, 1924, but British government troops suppressed the mutinies on November 29, 1924. Some 30 individuals were killed in the mutiny, including 15 British government soldiers. Three of the leaders of the mutiny were later executed. The Sudan Defense Force (SDF), which was funded by the British and Egyptian governments, was established on January 1, 1925. Sir Hubert Huddleston was appointed governor-general in 1940. Sir Hubert Huddleston initiated the Advisory Council of the Northern Sudan on May 15, 1944. On January 25, 1947, the British government informed Egypt that it intended to prepare the Sudan for self-government. Egypt opposed self-government for the Sudan. Elections for the Legislative Assembly were held in November 1948, and the Legislative Assembly convened on December 15, 1948. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Khartoum between November 15 and December 15, 1948, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. The Advisory Council was replaced by a 12-member Executive Council. Egypt demanded that Britain withdraw its troops from the Suez Canal and the Sudan on November 16, 1950, and Egypt abrogated the 1899 Condominium Agreement on October 8, 1951. The Independence Front (IF) won a majority of seats in parliamentary elections held on November 15, 1951. On February 12, 1952, Egypt and Britain agreed to allow the Sudanese to hold a referendum to choose between independence and union with Egypt. A majority of Sudanese voted for independence in a referendum held in 1953. The National Unionist Party (NUP) headed by Ismail Azhari won 51 out of 97 seats in parliamentary elections held in November 1953, and the National Assembly convened on January 1, 1954. Ismail Azhari of the NUP formed a government as prime minister on January 9, 1954. Sudan formally attained its independence from Britain and Egypt on January 1, 1956. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

[Sources: Beshir, 1974, 62-101; Butterworth, 1976, 164-166; Clodfelter, 1992, 641; Facts on File, November 27-December 3, 1953; Jessup, 1998, 697-700; Holt, 1961; Langer, 1972, 1280; Rahim, 1969; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 85-86.]