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13. Peru (1912-present)

Crisis Phase (September 24, 1912-January 18, 1920): Guillermo Billinghurst was sworn in as president on September 24, 1912. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of President Billinghurst on July 29, 1913.  President Billinghurst was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Colonel Oscar Benavides on February 4, 1914. Colonel Benavides was appointed as provisional president on February 5, 1914. The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Benavides on February 12, 1914. Jose Pardo Barreda, representing the Civilista, Liberal, and Constitutionalist parties, was elected as president by the Congress in August 1915. Augusto Bernardo Leguia Salcedo was elected president on May 18, 1919, but the government attempted to nullify the result of the election. Workers and students organized a general strike beginning on May 27, 1919. Government troops suppressed the strike in June 1919, resulting in the arrests of some 3,000 workers. President Pardo was overthrown in a military rebellion on July 4, 1919, and Augusto B. Leguia Salcedo was installed as provisional president on July 5, 1919. Two government soldiers were killed during the rebellion. President Leguia Salcedo dissolved the Congress on August 24, 1919. Augusto B. Leguia Salcedo was inaugurated as president on October 12, 1919. A new constitution was approved by the Constituent Assembly on December 27, 1919, and the constitution went into effect on January 18, 1920. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 19, 1920-August 21, 1930): Government police fired on anti-government demonstrators near San Marcos University in Lima on May 23, 1923, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. Government troops suppressed demonstrations in Lima on May 24, 1923. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, a student leader at San Marcos University, was arrested by government police in October 1923, and he was exiled to Panama on October 9, 1923. The American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana – APRA) was established by Victor Raul Haya de la Torre in opposition to the government of President Leguia Salcedo on May 7, 1924. President Leguia Salcedo, representing the Democratic Reform Party (DRP), was re-elected without opposition in November 1924. The Peruvian Socialist Party (Partido Socialista Peruano – PSP) was established by Jose Carlos Mariategui in September 1928. President Leguia Salcedo was re-elected without opposition in 1929, and he was inaugurated for a fourth term on October 12, 1929. Jose Carlos Mariategui died of an illness on April 16, 1930.

Crisis Phase (August 22, 1930-July 28, 1945): Lt. Colonel Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro led a military rebellion against the government in Arequipa beginning on August 22, 1930. President Leguia Salcedo resigned on August 24, 1930, and a military junta headed by Lt. Colonel Sanchez Cerro took control of the government on August 27, 1930. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the military junta on August 28, 1930. Lt. Colonel Sanchez Cerro resigned as president on March 1, 1931, and David Samanez Ocampo was appointed as provisional president on March 2, 1931. The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Samanez Ocampo on March 5, 1931. Former President Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro returned from exile on July 3, 1931, and Victor Raul Haya de la Torre returned from exile on July 12, 1931. Luis Miguel Sanchez Cerro of the Revolutionary Union (Unión Revolucionaria – UR) was elected president on October 11, 1931, and he was inaugurated as president on December 8, 1931. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, presidential candidate of the APRA, claimed election fraud. The government discovered an APRA plot against the government in February 1932, and the government ordered the arrest of Victor Raul Haya de la Torre on March 5, 1932. A member of APRA unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate President Sanchez Cerro in Miraflores on March 6, 1932. Government police captured Victor Raul Haya de la Torre on May 6, 1932. Government troops suppressed a naval rebellion in Callao on May 7-8, 1932, and eight individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion. Members of the APRA led by Manuel Barreta rebelled against the government in Trujillo on July 7, 1932. APRA rebels killed 60 individuals in Trujillo on July 10, 1932. Government troops suppressed the rebellion on July 17, 1932, resulting in the deaths of some 1,500 individuals. Government troops suppressed an APRA rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Gustavo Jiminez near Malabrigo on March 11-14, 1933. The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on March 29, 1933, which prohibited the immediate re-election of a president. The new constitution went into effect on April 9, 1933. President Sanchez was assassinated by a member of the APRA near Lima on April 30, 1933, and General Oscar Benavides was appointed as president by the National Assembly on May 1, 1933. The government released Victor Raul Haya de la Torre from prison on August 10, 1933. Members of the APRA led by Colonel Cesar Pardo rebelled against the government beginning on November 26, 1934, but government troops suppressed the rebellion on November 30, 1934. President Benavides nullified the results of a presidential election held on October 11, 1936, and dissolved the Constituent Assembly on December 8, 1936. President Sanchez issued a law that banned some opposition groups on February 21, 1937. Manuel Prado Ugarteche was elected president on October 22, 1939, and he was inaugurated as president on December 8, 1939. The National Democratic Front (Frente Democratico Nacional – FDN) was established by 26 center-left political leaders in Arequipa on June 3, 1944. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Sgt. Claudio Lopez Lavalle in Ancon on March 18, 1945. The government legalized APRA on May 15, 1945.  Legislative elections were held on June 10, 1945, and the FDN won 73 out of 101 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Jose Luis Bustamente Rivero of the FDN was elected president with the support of APRA on June 10, 1945, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1945. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 29, 1945-January 6, 1947): Communists and APRA supporters clashed in Lima in December 1945, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.

Crisis Phase (January 7, 1947-March 14, 1956): Francisco Grana Garland, associate editor of La Prensa, was assassinated on January 7, 1947, and two Apristas were arrested for their involvement in the assassination in June 1947. APRA leaders called a general strike in Lima and Callao beginning on August 28, 1947, and President Bustamente Rivero suspended civil liberties for thirty days on September 1, 1947. Rear-Admiral Roque Saldias formed a government as prime minister on February 28, 1948. General Armando Revoredo formed a government as prime minister on June 17, 1948. Government troops suppressed a right-wing rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Alfonzo Llosa on July 5-7, 1948. The government declared a state-of-siege on July 5, 1948. Government troops suppressed a naval rebellion led by APRA leaders in Lima and Callao on October 3-4, 1948, resulting in the deaths of some 250 rebels and 60 government soldiers. President Bustamante Rivero outlawed the APRA on October 4, 1948, and some 800 naval personnel were arrested for their involvement in the naval rebellion. General Manuel Odria led a military rebellion against the government in Arequipa beginning on October 27, 1948. President Bustamante Rivero was deposed in a military coup on October 29, 1948, and a military junta headed by General Manuel Odria took control of the government on October 30, 1948. The military junta banned the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana – APRA) and Communist Party of Peru (Partido Communista de Bolivia – PCP) on November 2, 1948. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre, leader of APRA, sought refuge in the Colombian embassy in Lima on January 3, 1949. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Arequipa on June 12-14, 1950, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals. General Odria of the Democratic Union Party (Partido Union Democratica – PUD) was elected president without opposition on July 2, 1950. The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the military government on February 22, 1952. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by General Zenon Noriega in Lima on August 10, 1954. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by General Marciano Merino Pereira in Iquilas on February 16-25, 1956. President Odria declared a state-of-siege on February 16, 1956, but lifted the state-of-siege on March 14, 1956. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 15, 1956-July 17, 1962): Manuel Prado Ugarteche of the Pradista Democratic Movement (Movimiento Democratico Pradista – MDP) was elected president on on June 16, 1956, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1956. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre returned to Peru from exile in Mexico on July 20, 1957. Prime Minister Manuel Cisneros Sanchez resigned on May 30, 1958. Prime Minister Luis Gallo Porras resigned on July 5, 1959. Pedro Beltran formed a government as prime minister on July 20, 1959. Four individuals were killed in political violence in Huancayo on May 13, 1961.  Legislative elections were held on June 10, 1962, and APRA won 114 seats in the Congress. Victor Raul Haya de la Torre of the APRA won a plurality of the vote in presidential elections on June 10, 1962. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between March 1956 and July 1962.

Crisis Phase (July 18, 1962-September 24, 1965): President Prado Ugarteche was deposed in a military coup, and a four-member military junta headed by Major General Ricardo Perez Godoy took control of the government on July 18, 1962. The military junta annulled the results of the recent presidential and legislative elections, dissolved the Congress, and suspended the constitution on July 18, 1962. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government of Major General Perez Godoy on July 18, 1962, and the U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) and economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on July 20, 1962. Nine Latin American countries, including Venezuela, Colombia, Costa Rica, and the Dominican Republic, imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the military junta on July 18, 1962. Venezuela, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and Honduras referred the matter to the Organization of American States (OAS) Council on July 27, 1962, but Peru argued that the OAS should not interfere in its domestic affairs. The OAS Council voted against holding a meeting to discuss the matter on August 10, 1962. Paraguay provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military junta on August 14, 1962. The U.S. government lifted diplomatic sanctions against the government on August 17, 1962, and lifted military sanctions against the government in October 1962. Four individuals were killed in political violence in Lima and Chiclayo on January 2-4, 1963, and the government declared a state-of-siege on January 5, 1963. Major Perez Godoy was overthrown as head of the military junta on March 3, 1963, and General Nicholas Lindley Lopez became provisional president on March 4, 1963.  Legislative elections were held on June 9, 1963, and the APRA won 58 out of 140 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Popular Action Party (Partido Accion Popular – PAP)/Christian Democratic Party – (Partido Democrata Cristiana – PDC) coalition won 50 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Fernando Belaunde Terry of the PAP/PDC coalition was elected president on June 9, 1963, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1963. Oscar Trelles Montes of the PAP formed a government as prime minister on July 28, 1963. Venezuela lifted diplomatic sanctions against the government on July 29, 1963. Municipal elections were held on December 15, 1963, and the PAP/PDC coalition won 51 percent of the vote. The APRA/Union Nacional Odriista (UNO) coalition won 48 percent of the vote. Prime Minister Trelles resigned on December 31, 1963, and Fernando Schwalb was appointed as prime minister on January 1, 1964. Prime Minister Schwalb resigned on September 13, 1965, and Daniel Becerra de la Flor formed a government as prime minister on September 15, 1965. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (September 25, 1965-January 31, 1966): The National Liberation Army (Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional – ELN) headed by Hector Bejar Rivera rebelled against the government beginning on September 25, 1965. Cuba provided military assistance to the ELN. Government troops suppressed the ELN rebellion in January 1966. Some 8,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (February 1, 1966-July 28, 1980): Edgardo Seoane Corrales, secretary-general of the PAP, formed a government as prime minister on September 8, 1967. Raul Ferrero Rebagliati formed a government as prime minister on November 17, 1967. Osvaldo Hercelles formed a government as prime minister on May 31, 1968. Miguel Mujica Gallo formed a government as prime minister on October 2, 1968. President Belaunda Terry was deposed in a military coup led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado on October 3, 1968. A military junta headed by General Velasco Alvarado took control of the government and dissolved the Congress on October 4, 1968. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the military junta on October 7, 1968, but the U.S. government lifted diplomatic sanctions against the military junta on October 25, 1968. General Velasco Alvarado expropriated the property of the International Petroleum Company (IPC) on February 13, 1969. General Ernesto Alfonso Navarro formed a government as prime minister on April 1, 1969. Four individuals were killed in political violence in Puno on June 27-July 3, 1972. The government declared a state-of-siege in Puno on July 3, 1972. General Francisco Morales Bermudez was sworn in as prime minister and minister of war on February 1, 1975. The government declared a state-of-emergency on February 5, 1975, and some 100 individuals were killed in political violence on February 5-10, 1975. The government lifted the state-of-emergency on May 7, 1975. General Velasco Alvarado was deposed in a military coup led by General Francisco Morales Bermudez Cerruti on August 29, 1975, and General Bermudez Cerruti was inaugurated as president on August 30, 1975. On July 1, 1976, the government declared a state-of-emergency following several days of rioting. General Jorge Fernandez Maldonado resigned as prime minister on July 16, 1976, and General Guillermo Arbulu Galliani formed a government as prime minister on July 17, 1976. General Francisco Morales Bermudez lifted the state-of-emergency on August 29, 1977. The government proclaimed a state-of-emergency on April 19, 1978. The government lifted the state-of-emergency on June 9, 1978. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on June 18, 1978. The government imposed martial law on January 6, 1979. The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution in July 1979. Fernando Belaunda Terry of the PAP was elected president on May 18, 1980, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1980. Terry. Manuel Ulloa Elias formed a government as prime minister on July 28, 1980. Some 500 individuals were killed in political violence between February 1966 and July 1980.

Conflict Phase (July 29, 1980-July 14, 1999): The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso – SL) headed by Abimael Guzman Reynoso rebelled against the government of President Belaunda. Shining Path rebels killed two civilians in Aycarza on December 24, 1980. Prime Minister Ulloa Elias resigned in December 1982, and Fernando Schwalb Lopez Aldana formed a government as prime minister. President Belaunda Terry declared a state-of-emergency on December 29, 1982. President Belaunda Terry declared a state-of-emergency on May 30, 1983. Shining Path rebels attacked the headquarters of the Popular Action Party (PAP) in Lima on July 11, 1983, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. The Movimento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru (MRTA) was established in opposition to the government on November 6, 1983. Prime Minister Schwalb Lopez Aldana resigned on April 9, 1984, and Sandro Mariategui Chiappe formed a government as prime minister on April 10, 1984. Prime Minister Mariategui Chiappe resigned on October 12, 1984, and Luis Percovich Roca formed a government as prime minister on October 13, 1984. The MRTA headed by Victor Polay Campos (“Rolando”) rebelled against the government on September 7, 1984.  Legislative elections were held on April 14, 1985, and the APRA won 107 out of 180 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Alan Garcia Perez of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) was elected president with 46 percent of the vote on April 14, 1985, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1985. Shining Path rebels killed 14 civilians in Ayacucho on September 27, 1985. MRTA rebels attacked the residence of the U.S. ambassador to Peru on May 16, 1985. The government proclaimed a state-of-emergency on February 7, 1986. The government suppressed a rebellion at three prisons in Lima on June 18-20, 1986, resulting in the deaths of some 270 prisoners. Municipal elections were held in November 1986, and the APRA won 53 percent of the vote. In February 1987, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for covering-up the massacre of several dozen of the prisoners during the June 1986 prison rebellions. Prime Minister Luis Alva Castro resigned on June 29, 1987, and Guillermo Larco Cox was appointed prime minister on June 30, 1988. Prime Minister Larco Cox resigned on May 17, 1988, and Armando Villanueva del Campo was appointed prime minister on May 18, 1988. Government police arrested Victor Polay, leader of MRTA, in February 1989. Some 62 individuals, including 42 MRTA rebels and 20 civilians, were killed by government troops on April 28, 1989. Prime Minister Villanueva del Campo resigned on May 7, 1989, and he was replaced by Guillermo Larco Cox on September 30, 1989. General Enrique Lopez Albujar, a former Minister of Defense, was assassinated by Shining Path rebels on January 9, 1990. Alberto Keinya Fujimori of the Change ‘90 Party was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on June 10, 1990. Victor Polay and 46 MRTA rebels escaped from Canto Grande prison in Lima in July 1990. Alberto Fujimori was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1990. President Fujimori appointed Juan Carlos Hurtado Miller as prime minister in August 1990. Some 3,404 individuals were killed in political violence in 1990. Prime Minister Hurtado Miller resigned on February 14, 1991, and he was replaced by Carlos Torres y Torres Lara. The OAS Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) sent a fact-finding mission to investigate human rights conditions in Peru on October 28-31, 1991.  More than 3,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1991. President Fujimori suspended the constitution, and dissolved the Congress on April 5, 1992. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government, and Venezuela imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government.  The Spanish government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government, and the German government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government. The European Community (EC) condemned President Fujimori’s coup on April 8, 1992.  OAS foreign ministers condemned President Fujimori’s coup on April 13, 1992.  Government police arrested Victor Polay, leader of the MRTA, on June 10, 1992. Abimael Guzman Reynoso, the commander of the Shining Path, was captured in Lima on September 12, 1992.  Oscar Ramirez Durand became commander of the Shining Path in September 1992.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on November 13, 1992.  Elections for the Democratic Constituent Congress (CCD) were held on November 22, 1992, and the New Majority-Change’90 coalition headed by President Fujimori won 44 out of 80 seats in the CCD. Four opposition political parties, including the APRA and Popular Action (AP), boycotted the election.  The OAS sent 228 observers headed by Mario Gonzalez Vargas of Colombia to monitor the election process from October 8 to December 12, 1992.  President Fujimori’s party won 44 out of 80 seats in the CCD.  The CCD convened in Lima on December 30, 1992.  Some 2,893 individuals were killed in political violence in 1992.  Municipal elections were held on January 29, 1993.  The OAS sent 70 observers to monitor the municipal elections. The OAS observation mission issued a report on May 19, 1993. A referendum on the constitution was held on October 31, 1993, and a new constitution was approved by 52 percent of the vote.  The OAS sent 30 observers to monitor the referendum process from October 11 to December 17, 1993.  The new constitution was promulgated on December 2, 1993.  The OAS mission issued a report on December 29, 1993.  Some 1,315 individuals were killed in political violence in 1993, and some 640 individuals were killed in political violence in 1994.  Legislative elections were held on April 9, 1995, and the New Majority-Change ‘90 coalition won 67 out of 120 seats in the Congress.  President Fujimori was re-elected as president with 64 percent of the vote on April 9, 1995.  The OAS provided electoral assistance to the Peruvian government beginning on September 1, 1994, and sent 70 observers to monitor the elections beginning on February 7, 1995.  The OAS mission issued its final report on May 26, 1995. Some 527 individuals, including 196 civilians, 193 rebels, and 138 government security personnel, were killed in political violence in 1995. On May 13, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses against civilians. MRTA rebels seized and held 72 hostages in the Japanese embassy in Lima on December 17, 1996. Government troops ended the siege on April 22, 1997, resulting in the deaths of some 25 MRTA rebels. On December 11, 1997, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the Peruvian government for human rights abuses against civilians. The European Union (EU) and Oxfam International (OI) provided humanitarian assistance to internally-displaced individuals beginning in September 1997. Government troops largely suppressed the Shining Path and MRTA rebellions in 1997. Municipal elections were held on October 11, 1998. The OAS sent 30 observers to monitor the municipal elections from October 1 to October 13, 1998. Some 117 individuals, including 27 government security personnel, 21 rebels, and 69 civilians, were killed in political violence in 1998. Shining Path rebels killed nine civilians in Rio Frio and Tintaypuquio on June 3, 1999, and killed eight civilians in Azul de Magdalena on June 15, 1999. Oscar Ramirez Durand, the commander of the Shining Path, was captured by government troops near Huancayo on July 14, 1999.  Some 69,000 individuals were killed, and some 600,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 15, 1999-present): Government troops and Shining Path rebels clashed near Ayacucho on November 5, 1999, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and six rebels. Some 60 individuals were killed in political violence in 1999.  The U.S.-based non-governmental organizations, the National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Carter Center, sent four six-member pre-election assessment delegations to Peru between November 28, 1999 and May 5, 2000.  Presidential and legislative elections were held on April 9, 2000.  The OAS sent 70 observers headed by Eduardo Stein of Guatemala to monitor the elections beginning on March 8, 2000.  Alejandro Toledo withdrew from the presidential run-off election on May 22, 2000, which had been scheduled for May 28, 2000.  The OAS mission withdrew from the country on May 26, 2000.  President Fujimori resigned on November 20, 2000, and Valentin Paniagua was named interim president by the Congress on November 22, 2000.  The NDI and CC sent a pre-election assessment mission headed by Ramiro de Leon Carpio of Guatemala on January 18-26, 2001.  Shining Path rebels killed one government soldier on February 17, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on April 8, 2001, and the Possible Peru (Perú Posible – PP) won 41 out of 120 seats in the Congress.  The APRA won 29 seats in the Congress.  The OAS sent 50 observers headed by Eduardo Stein to monitor the elections.  The EU sent six election experts, 12 long-term observers, and 32 short-term observers headed by Eva Zetterberg of Sweden to monitor the elections from February 23 to June 15, 2001.  The NDI and CC sent 35 observers led by Jimmy Carter to jointly monitor the elections on April 4 to April 10, 2001.  Alejandro Toledo was elected president with 52 percent of the vote in a run-off election on June 3, 2001.  A faction of the Shining Path killed four government police east of Lima on August 7, 2001.  Shining Path rebels killed ten individuals in a bombing Lima on March 20, 2002.  OAS Secretary-General Cesar Gaviria condemned the killings on March 21, 2002.  Shining Path rebels killed one government policeman on November 15, 2002.  Regional and municipal elections were held on November 17, 2002.  The OAS sent some 20 observers headed by Diego Paz Bustamante to monitor the elections.  President Toledo declared a state-of-emergency on May 28, 2003.  Shining Path rebels killed one government soldier in Huanta province on June 25, 2003.  President Toledo lifted the state-of-emergency on June 26, 2003.  Shining Path rebels killed eight government policemen in the Huanuca region on December 22, 2005.  Legislative elections were held on April 9, 2006, and the Union for Peru (Union por el Peru – UP) won 45 out of 120 seats in the Congress.  The Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano – PAP) won 36 seats in the Congress.  Alan Garcia Perez of the PAP was elected president with 53 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on June 4, 2006.  The OAS sent 126 observers headed by Lloyd Axworthy of Canada to monitor the elections from January 19 to June 6, 2006.

[Sources: Americas (English edition), March 2001, 53; Associated Press (AP), June 4, 1999, July 14, 1999, July 19, 1999, April 9, 2000, April 13, 2000, May 22, 2000, November 20, 2000, April 7, 2001, June 4, 2001; Banks and Muller, 1998, 723-731; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 615-632; Beigbeder, 1994, 232; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), April 11, 2000, June 5, 2001, March 21, 2002, June 26, 2003, June 4, 2006; Brogan, 1992, 502-509; Butterworth, 1976, 336-337; Cable News Network (CNN), July 14, 1999, April 8, 2001; The Carter Center, February 11, 2000, March 9, 2001, April 3, 2001, April 6, 2001; Clodfelter, 1992, 699, 1189-1190; Degenhardt, 1988, 290-292; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1343-1344; European Union (EU), April 6, 2001; Facts on File, July 4-10, 1948, October 3-9, 1948, October 24-30, 1948, November 7-13, 1948, June 9-15, 1950, February 15-21, 1956, March 14-20, 1956, May 18-24, 1961, June 28-July 5, 1962, July 12-18, 1962, January 1-9, 1963, June 20-26, 1963, October 17-23, 1968, July 16-22, 1972, February 15, 1975, September 6, 1975; Foreign Relations of the U.S. (FRUS), 1919, 720-740; Hispanic American Report (HAR), June 1950, July 1950, February 1956, June 1956, July 1956, June 1958, January 1961, June 1962, July 1962, August 1962, June 1963, July 1963, December 1963; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), March 12, 1993; Jessup, 1998, 581-584; Keesing’s Record of World Events, March 6-13, 1948, June 26-30, 1948, November 6-13, 1948, December 21-31, 1968, August 26-September 2, 1950, September 28-October 5, 1957, April 23-30, 1960, March 23-30, 1963, August 17-24, 1963, December 21-31, 1968, August 29-September 5, 1970, March 3-9, 1975, September 22-28, 1975, October 1, 1976, October 31, 1980, May 1983, December 1983, April 1990, April 1992, November 1992; Langer, 1972, 1063-1064, 1256-1257; National Democratic Institute (NDI), December 3, 1999, February 11, 2000, March 24, 2000, May 5, 2000, January 26, 2001; New York Times, May 26, 2000, March 21, 2002, May 28, 2003, August 29, 2003, June 5, 2006; Organization of American States (OAS), February 18, 2000, February 2, 2001, March 21, 2002, November 21, 2002, January 19, 2006, January 27, 2006, April 7, 2006, April 9, 2006, April 10, 2006, May 9, 2006, June 6, 2006; Reuters, February 27, 1996, June 15, 1999, November 5, 1999, April 12, 2000, May 22, 2000, November 22, 2000, April 8, 2001, June 3, 2001, November 15, 2002, June 25, 2003; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1930, 572, 1933, 597.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Gorriti, Gustavo. 1999. The Shining Path: A History of the Millenarian War in Peru. Chapel Hill, NC and London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Gott, Richard. 1971. Guerrilla Movements in Latin America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc.

Masterson, Daniel M. 1991. Militarism and Politics in Latin America: Peru from Sanchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso. New York, Westport, CT, and London: Greenwood Press.

Munro, Dana G. 1961. The Latin American Republics: A History. 3d edition. London, Toronto, Wellington, Sydney: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.

Radu, Michael and Vladimir Tismaneanu. 1990. Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals, Methods. Washington DC, New York, London: Pergamon-Brassey’s.

Robertson, William S. 1943. History of the Latin-American Nations. 3d. New York and London: D. Appleton-Century Company.

Santa-Cruz, Arturo. 2005. “Monitoring Elections, Redefining Sovereignty: The 2000 Peruvian Electoral Process as an International Event,” Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 37 (4), pp. 739-767.

Werlich, David P. 1978. Peru: A Short History. Carbondale and Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.