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6. Paraguay (1904-present)

 

Crisis Phase (August 4, 1904-January 17, 1911):  Liberals led by Manuel J. Duarte and General Benigno Ferreira rebelled against the government of President Juan Antonio Escurra of the Colorado Party (Partido Colorado – PC) beginning on August 4, 1904.  President Escurra declared a state of siege on August 8, 1904.  The rebel vessel Sojonia commanded by Captain Illdefonso Banegas defeated the government vessel Villa Rica commanded by Captain Eugenio Garay near the town of Pilar on the Paraguay River on August 11, 1904, resulting in the deaths of 28 government sailors.  Eight government soldiers were killed in clashes with rebels near Asunción on August 14-15, 1904.  Brasílio Itiberê da Cunha of Brazil mediated the Pilcomayo Pact on December 12, 1904, which including an agreement by President Escurra to relinquish control of the government to a provisional president.  President Escurra formally resigned, and Juan Bautista Gaona of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was sworn in as provisional president on December 19, 1904.

Map of Paraguay

President Gaona was deposed on December 8, 1905, and Cecilio Báez of the PL was elected interim president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on December 9, 1905.  General Benigno Ferreira was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on November 25, 1906.  Major Albino Jara, representing the Radical faction of the PL, led a military rebellion against the government of President Ferreira in Asunción beginning on July 2, 1908.  U.S. Ambassador  Edward T. O’Brien mediate a ceasefire agreement on July 4, 1908, and President Ferreira decided to submit a letter of resignation to the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies).  The Revolutionary Committee took control of the government, dissolved the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies), and declared a state of siege on July 4, 1908.  Vice-President Emiliano González Navero of the PL was sworn in by the Revolutionary Committee as provisional president on July 5, 1908.  Some 150 individuals were killed during the rebellion.  Dr. Manuel Gondra of the Radical Faction of the PL was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on November 25, 1910.

Conflict Phase (January 18, 1911-May 15, 1912):  President Gondra was overthrown in a military rebellion on January 17, 1911, and Colonel Albino Jara was appointed as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on January 18, 1911.  Former Minister of the Interior Adolfo Riquelme and Major Alfredo Medina launched a rebellion against the government of President Albino Jara in Concepcion on February 21, 1911.  Some 2,000 government troops defeated a force of 800 rebels in a battle near Yuty on March 7, 1911.  Adolfo Riquelme and eleven rebels were captured and executed by government troops on March 17, 1911.  The government declared martial law on March 20, 1911.  Following three months of sporadic rioting and anti-government demonstrations, President Jara was overthrown in a rebellion on July 5, 1911, and Liberato Marcial Rojas of the Civico faction of the PL was elected as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on July 6, 1911.  The National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) confirmed Liberato Marcial Rojas as provisional president on October 5, 1911.  A rebellion led by former president Manuel Gondra, Eduardo Schaerer, and Dr. Jose R. Montero was launched against the government of President Liberato Marcial Rojas in November 1911.  Brazilian naval vessels intervened in support of the government in December 1911.  President Rojas was forced by Major Eugenio Garay to resign from office on February 28, 1912, and Dr. Pedro Pablo Peña was elected as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on February 29, 1912.  Colonel Albino Jara and Captain Hipólito Núñez led a Liberal (Civico faction) rebellion against the government on March 1, 1912.  Rebels troops attacked government troops in Asunción beginning on March 17, 1912, and succeeded in capturing the city on March 22, 1912.  President Peña and some 80 supporters fled south aboard a Brazilian vessel on the Paraguay River to Corrientes, Argentina.  Emiliano González Navero was appointed as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on March 25, 1912.  Colonel Jara was seriously wounded during clashes with government troops near Paraguari on May 11, 1912, and he died of his wounds on May 15, 1912.  More than 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 16, 1912-May 26, 1922):    Eduardo Schaerer of the PL was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on July 19, 1912, and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1912.  A rebellion led by Dr. Freire Gomes Esteves and Luis Freire Esteves against President Schaerer was suppressed by government troops on January 1, 1915.  Manuel Franco of the PL was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies), and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1916.  Legislative elections were held on March 4, 1917.  President Franco died of a heart attack on June 5, 1919, and Vice-President José Pedro Montero of the PL was sworn in as provisional president on June 6, 1919.  Dr. Manuel Gondra was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on June 28, 1920, and he was sworn as president on August 15, 1920.  Supporters of former president Eduardo Schaerer occupied the police headquarters in Asunción on October 29, 1921, and demanded the resignation of President Gondra.  President Gondra submitted his resignation to the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on October 31, 1921.  Vice-President Felix Paiva refused to assume the presidency as required under the constitution.  Senator Eusebio Ayala of the PL was appointed as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on November 7, 1921.

Conflict Phase (May 27, 1922-July 10, 1923):  A “Constitutionalist” rebellion led by Colonel Adolfo Chirife was launched against the government of President Eusebio Ayala in Paraguari on May 27, 1922.  Rebel troops attacked government troops near Asunción on June 9, 1922, but were driven back to Paraguari on June 14, 1922.  President Eusebio Ayala resigned due to ill health on April 11, 1923, and Finance Minister José Eligio Ayala of the PL was appointed as provisional president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) on April 12, 1923.  Rebel commander, Colonel Adolfo Chirife died of an illness near Hernandarias on May 18, 1923, and he was replaced by Colonel Pedro Mendoza.  The Constitutionalist rebellion was defeated on July 10, 1923.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 11, 1923-March 6, 1947):  President José Eligio Ayala resigned on March 17, 1924, and Luis Alberto Riart of the PL was appointed by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) as provisional president on March 18, 1924.  José Eligio Ayala of the PL was elected president by the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies), and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1924.  José Patricio Guggiari was elected president with 57 percent of the vote in a popular election (51,139 votes) in April 1928, and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1928.  President Guggiari declared martial law after the deaths of at least ten student protesters in Asunción on October 23, 1931.  President Guggiari resigned on October 26, 1931, and Vice-President Emiliano Gonzalez Novero was sworn in as president on October 27, 1931.  President Guggiari resumed the presidency on January 26, 1932. Eusebio Ayala, leader of the Liberal faction of the Colorado Party (CP), was elected president unopposed, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1932.  Communists and other left-wing groups established the National Front (NF) in opposition to the government in 1936.  President Eusebio Ayala was deposed during a military rebellion on February 17, 1936, and Colonel Rafael de la Cruz Franco of the Febrerista Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Febrerista – PRF) was appointed as provisional president on February 20, 1936.  The government suppressed a Liberal rebellion led by former president Eusebio Ayala in May 1936.  President Franco was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Colonel Ramon Paredes on August 13-14, 1937, and Felix Pavia of the CP was appointed as provisional president on August 16, 1937.  The government suppressed NF rebellions on September 7-8 and November 2-3, 1937.  General Jose Felix Estigarribia of the CP was elected president unopposed on April 30, 1939, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1939. The National Republican (NR) faction of the CP had boycotted the presidential election.  On February 18, 1940, President Estigarribia dissolved the National Congress (Senate and Chamber of Deputies) and assumed emergency powers following a military rebellion at Campo Grande on February 14, 1940. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on August 4, 1940.  President Estigarribia and his wife were killed in a plane crash on September 7, 1940.  General Higinio Morinigo, the Minister of War, was appointed as provisional president on September 8, 1940.  General Morinigo assumed full control of the government on November 30, 1940. Some 800 Liberals were arrested and imprisoned on December 25, 1940.  The government suppressed left-wing rebellions on April 18 and July 4, 1941.  General Morinigo dissolved the CP in April 1942, and Eusebio Ayala died in exile in Buenos Aires on June 4, 1942.  General Morinigo was elected president without opposition on February 14, 1943, and he was inaugurated as president for a five-year term on August 15, 1943.  The government suppressed a rebellion in January 1944.  President Morinigo lifted the ban on political parties on July 26, 1946.  Communist and CP supporters clashed in Asunción in September 1946, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  On January 11, 1947, the communists (Febreristas) resigned from the cabinet and called for a military rebellion.  President Moringo declared a state-of-siege on January 13, 1947, and outlawed the communist party on January 15, 1947.

Conflict Phase (March 7, 1947-August 20, 1947):  Colonel Rafael Franco led a communist (Febrerista) rebellion against the government in Concepcion beginning on March 7, 1947.  The government of Argentina provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the government.  The Brazilian government offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on April 22, 1947, but the mediation offer was rejected by both parties.  Government troops recaptured Concepcion from rebel troops on July 31, 1947. The U.S. government offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on August 14, 1947. Government troops suppressed the communist rebellion on August 20, 1947. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 21, 1947-April 13, 1949):  Juan Natalicio Gonzalez of the Colorado Party (CP) was elected president without opposition on May 15, 1948.  President Higinio Moringo was deposed in a coup on June 3, 1948, and Juan Manuel Frutos was appointed as provisional president on June 4, 1948.  Juan Natalicio Gonzalez was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1948. The government suppressed a military rebellion in October 1948.  President Gonzalez was overthrown in a coup on January 30, 1949, and General Raimundo Rolon was elected provisional president by the National Congress on January 31, 1949. General Rolon was overthrown on February 26, 1949, and Felipe Benigno Molas of the CP was appointed as provisional president on February 27, 1949. The Brazilian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the provisional government of Paraguay on April 11, 1949, and the U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the provisional government of Paraguay on April 13, 1949.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 14, 1949-May 4, 1954):  Felipe Benigno Molas was elected president without opposition on April 17, 1949, and he was inaugurated as president on May 14, 1949.  President Molas resigned on September 10, 1949, and Dr. Federico Chávez of the Colorado Party (CP) was sworn in as provisional president on September 11, 1949.  President Chávez declared a state of siege in October 1949.  Dr. Federico Chávez was elected president for a three-year term in 1950, and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1950.  President Chávez of the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) was re-elected without opposition on February 15, 1953, and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1953.

Crisis Phase (May 5, 1954-May 15, 1989):  President Federico Chávez was deposed in a military coup led by General Alfredo Stroessner on May 5-6, 1954, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals.  Tomás Romero was appointed as provisional president by the National Congress on May 8, 1954.  General Stroessner, representing the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC), was elected president on July 11, 1954, and he was sworn in as president on August 15, 1954.  Epifanio Mendez Fleitas led a rebellion against the government in December 1955. President Stroessner was re-elected for a five-year term in a plebiscite on February 9, 1958.  Father Ramon Talavera of Asunción criticized the government on February 22 and March 10, 1958. Archbishop Mena Porta criticized the government on March 23, 1958. Lt. Corazon Chamorro led an unsuccessful military rebellion (Febreristas) against the government near Coronel Bogado on April 1, 1958, resulting in the deaths of several individuals. The government lifted the state-of-siege on April 28, 1959, but the government declared a state-of-siege on May 31, 1959. Major Juan Jose Rotela led a rebellion of some 1,000 soldiers against the government beginning on December 12, 1959, but government troops suppressed the rebellion in August 1960.  Legislative elections were held on May 13, 1960, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 60 out of 60 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion near Asunción on December 21, 1960. The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the government of Paraguay beginning on August 25, 1962 (additional military assistance agreements were signed on February 10, 1964 and April 11, 1966). General Stroessner was re-elected as president on February 10, 1963, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1963. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between August 1947 and August 1963.  Opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election. A new constitution providing for a bicameral National Congress went into effect on August 25, 1967.  The government declared a state-of-siege on September 5, 1967.  Legislative elections were held on February 11, 1968, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 40 out of 60 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. General Stroessner was re-elected as president on February 11, 1968. Father Francisco de Paula Oliva, a professor as the Catholic University in Asunción, was arrested on October 22, 1969. Monsenor Ismael Blas Rolon was appointed as archbishop of Asunción on January 27, 1970. Some 900 Ache Indians were massacred between 1962 and 1972. General Stroessner was re-elected as president on February 11, 1973. Government troops fired on peasants near the village of Jejui on February 8, 1975, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. General Stroessner was re-elected as president with 90 percent of the vote on February 12, 1978, and he was inaugurated for a sixth term as president on August 15, 1978. General Stroessner was re-elected as president with 90 percent of the vote on February 6, 1983, and he was inaugurated for a seventh term as president on August 15, 1983. Some 2,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Asunción on February 17, 1984. Some 15,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Asunción on February 14, 1986. Archbishop Ismael Rolon Silvero of Asunción urged Roman Catholics to support anti-government demonstrations on May 28, 1986. The government lifted the state-of-siege on April 8, 1987.  General Stroessner was re-elected as president with 89 percent of the vote on February 14, 1988, and he was inaugurated for an eighth term as president on August 15, 1988. Some 50,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Asunción on August 6, 1988.  General Stroessner was deposed in a military coup led by General Andrés Rodríguez on February 2-3, 1989, resulting in the deaths of some 31 individuals.  Legislative elections were held on May 1, 1989, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 48 out of 72 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. General Andrés Rodríguez of the ANR-PC was elected president with 76 percent of the vote on May 1, 1989, and he was inaugurated as president on May 15, 1989.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 16, 1989-March 22, 1999):  The Free Homeland Current (Corriente Patria Libre – CPL) was established as a Marxist and anti-imperialist group on February 3, 1990.  On December 14, 1990, the military government asked the Organization of American States (OAS) to send a mission to monitor municipal elections.  Municipal elections were held on May 26, 1991.  The OAS sent 47 observers to monitor the election process from March 5 to June 27, 1991. The OAS observation mission issued a report on November 13, 1991.  Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held on December 1, 1991, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 123 out of 198 seats.  The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Autentico – PLRA) won 57 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 33 observers to monitor the election process from November 15 to December 7, 1991.  The OAS observation mission issued a report on March 10, 1992.  The Free Homeland Current (Corriente Patria Libre – CPL) was renamed as the Free Homeland Movement (Movimiento Patria Libre – MPL) in February 1992.  The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution that went into effect on June 22, 1992. The OAS sent four observers on a pre-election observation mission from August 5, 1992 to September 3, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on May 9, 1993, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 36 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Juan Carlos Warmosy of the ANR-PC was elected president with 41 percent of the vote on May 9, 1993, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1993. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 90 observers to monitor the election process from March 23, 1993 to June 20, 1993. On August 5, 1993, the OAS observation mission reported that the elections were free and fair. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Carter Center/Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government (CC/CFEHG) sent 31 observers from 15 countries to jointly monitor the elections from May 5 to May 10, 1993. The National Congress approved legislation banning the involvement of the military in political activities on May 28, 1994.  President Warmosy ordered the dismissal of General Lino César Oviedo, commander of the army, on April 22, 1996.  After resisting the decision of President Warmosy for three days, General Oviedo resigned on April 24, 1996.  On June 14, 1996, General Oviedo was arrested and detained for threatening a military coup in April 1996.  General Ovieda was released from custody by an appeals court on August 7, 1996. Municipal elections were held on November 17, 1996. The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent observers to monitor the municipal elections.  On March 10, 1998, a military tribunal sentenced General Lino César Oviedo, former commander of the army, to ten years in prison for threatening a military coup in April1996.  Legislative elections were held on May 10, 1998, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 45 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Democratic Alliance (DA) won 35 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Raúl Alberto Cubas of the ANR-PC was elected president with 54 percent of the vote on May 10, 1998, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 1998.  The International Federation for Electoral Systems (IFES) sent six observers to monitor the election process from April to May 1998. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 60 observers to monitor the legislative elections from March 7 to May 24, 1998.  President Cubas ordered the release of General Oviedo from prison, but the Supreme Court annulled the president decision on December 3, 1998 (General Oviedo fled to Argentina).

Crisis Phase (March 23, 1999-present):  Vice President Luis Maria Argana, leader of a rival faction of the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC), was assassinated on March 23, 1999.  The Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) and President Bill Clinton of the U.S. condemned the assassination on March 24, 1999.  Six individuals were killed in clashes between government troops and demonstrators in Asunción on March 26, 1999.  President Cubas Grau announced his resignation, and Senator Luis Ángel González Macchi was sworn in as president on March 28, 1999.  General Lino César Oviedo, former commander of the army, returned to Paraguay from exile in Argentina on December 12, 1999.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Asunción beginning on May 18, 2000, and President Gonzalez Macchi declared a 30-day state-of-emergency on May 19, 2000.  More than 100 individuals, including military and police personnel, were arrested by the government.  The U.S. government and the Council of the Organization of American States (OAS) condemned the military rebellion, and expressed support for President Macchi on May 19, 2000.  The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) condemned the military rebellion on May 19, 2000.  Julio Cesar Franco of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was elected vice-president on August 13, 2000.  Two individuals were killed in political violence near Ciudad del Este on July 15, 2002.  President Macchi declared a state-of-emergency on July 15, 2002, and he lifted the state-of-emergency on July 17, 2002.  The Free Homeland Movement (Movimiento Patria Libre – MPL) was registered as a political party – known as the Free Homeland Party (Partido Patria Libre – PPL) in December 2002.  President Macchi survived an impeachment vote in the Senate on February 11, 2003.  Legislative elections were held on April 27, 2003, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 37 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Autentico – PLRA) won 21 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.   Óscar Nicanor Duarte of the ANR-PC was elected president with 38 percent of the vote on April 27, 2003, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 2003.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 14 observers to monitor the elections from April 23 to April 28, 2003.  The International Federation for Election Systems (IFES) sent 24 observers headed by Miguel Angel Rodriguez of Costa Rica to monitor the elections. General Lino César Oviedo, former commander of the army, returned to Paraguay from exile in Brazil on June 28, 2004.  General Ovieda was detained and sentenced to a ten-year prison term.  On September 21, 2004, Cecilia Cubas, daughter of former president Raúl Alberto Cubas, was kidnapped by gunmen in Asunción.  On February 16, 2005, Cecilia Cubas was found dead in Asunción.  On May 27, 2005, the governments of the U.S. and Paraguay signed a military cooperation agreement providing for joint military exercises in Paraguay for an initial period of 18 months.  U.S. military personnel. along with planes, weapons, equipment, and ammunition, arrived in Mariscal Estigarribia, Paraguay on July 1, 2005.  On June 6, 2006, former president Luis Gonzalez Macchi was convicted and sentenced to six years in prison for involvement in illegal bank transfers (the conviction was later overturned on appeal).  On December 4, 2006, former president Luis Gonzalez Macchi was convicted and sentenced to eight years in prison for fraud and embezzlement.  The military cooperation agreement between the U.S. and Paraguay was renewed for another 18 months in December 2006.  General Lino César Oviedo, former commander of the army, was released from prison on parole on September 6, 2007.  General Oviedo’s conviction for attempting a military coup in 1996 was overturned by the Supreme Court on October 30, 2007.  The Paraguayan People’s Army (Ejército del Pueblo ParaguayoEPP) was established in opposition to the government in the city of Horqueta on March 1, 2008.  Legislative elections were held on April 20, 2008, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 30 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Autentico – PLRA) won 27 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Fernando Lugo of the Patriotic Alliance for Change (Alianza Patriótica por el Cambio – APC) was elected president with 41 percent of the vote on April 20, 2008, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 2008.  The International Federation for Electoral Systems (IFES) sent five observers to monitor the elections from February 26 to April 21, 2008.  President Lugo replaced the commanders of the army, navy, and air force on August 22, 2008.  President Fernando Lugo decided to end the joint military exercises with the U.S. government on September 17, 2009.  EPP insurgents ambushed and killed three civilians and one government policeman in northern Paraguay on April 21, 2010.  On April 24, 2010, the National Congress approved legislation imposing a 30-day suspension of constitutional rights in parts of northern Paraguay.  Government troops launched a military operation (“Operation Py’aguapy”) against EPP insurgents from April 25 to May 24, 2010.  Government police killed Severiano Martinez, leader of the EPP, in the northern Chaco region on July 29, 2010.  EPP insurgents attacked a government police station in northern Paraguay on January 16, 2011, resulting in injuries to four government policemen.  Eleven landless farmers and six government policemen died in clashes in Canindeyu province on June 15, 2012.  The Senate voted to impeach and remove President Lugo from office on June 22, 2012.  Vice-President Luis Federico Franco of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was sworn in as interim president on June 22, 2012.  The Southern Common Market (Mercado Común del Sur – MERCOSUR) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Paraguay on June 29, 2012.  The Union of South American Nations (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas – UNASUR) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Paraguay on June 29, 2012.  Presidential candidate, retired General Lino César Oviedo, died in a helicopter crash on February 3, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on April 21, 2013, and the National Republican Association-Colorado Party (Asociación Nacional Republicana – Partido Colorado – ANR-PC) won 44 out of 80 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Authentic Radical Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Radical Autentico – PLRA) won 27 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Horacio Cartes of the ANR-PC was elected president with 48 percent of the vote on April 21, 2013, and he was inaugurated as president on August 15, 2013.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 50 observers led by former president Oscar Arias of Costa Rica to monitor the elections.  The European Union (EU) sent eight election experts, 22 long-term observers, and 52 short-term observers from 28 countries led by Renate Weber of Romania to monitor the elections from March 2 to April 22, 2013.  The UNASUR sent observers led by former prime minister Salomon Lerner to monitor the elections.  The UNASUR Council of Heads of State lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Paraguay on August 15, 2013.  EPP insurgents attacked a ranch in northern Paraguay on August 17, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four private security guards and one government policeman.  On August 22, 2013, the National Congress voted to grant authority to the president to deal with the insurgency in northern Paraguay.

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), May 19, 2000, May 20, 2000; Banks and Muller, 1998, 719-722; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 581-598; Beigbeder, 1994, 37, 232; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), December 11, 1997, May 12, 1998, August 15, 1998, March 23, 1999, March 27, 1999, March 28, 1999, March 29, 1999, May 4, 2000, May 19, 2000, May 22, 2000, August 24, 2000, July 16, 2002, July 17, 2002, December 5, 2002, February 12, 2003, April 28, 2003, January 26, 2004, January 27, 2004, September 28, 2005, June 6, 2006, December 4, 2006, April 21, 2008, August 15, 2008, August 22, 2008, November 6, 2009, April 24, 2010, May 22, 2010, May 25, 2010, July 29, 2010, June 16, 2012, June 22, 2012, June 28, 2012, June 29, 2012, December 2, 2012, December 16, 2012, February 3, 2013, April 22, 2013, August 15, 2013, August 22, 2013; Christian Science Monitor (CSM), December 2, 2005; Clodfelter, 1992, 1181-1182; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1343; Facts on File, January 12-18, 1947, March 2-8, 1947,March 9-15, 1947, August 10-16, 1947, August 17-23, 1947, February 15-21, 1948, May 30-June 5, 1948, January 30-February 5, 1949, February 20-26, 1949, May 1-7, 1949, February 6-12, 1958, December 17-23, 1959, December 22-28, 1960, March 14-20, 1968, May 26, 1978; Foreign Relations of the US (FRUS), 1908, 760-769, 1912, 1265-1278; Hispanic American Report (HAR), May 1954, March 1956, April 1958, May 1959, December 1959, August 1960; International Federation for Election Systems (IFES) press release, April 28, 2003, February 27, 2008; Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) press release, May 19, 2000; Jessup, 1998, 569-571; Keesing’s Record of World Events, September 20-27, 1947, February 5-12, 1949, May 28-June 4, 1949, June 5-12, 1954, May 16-23, 1959, March 9-16, 1963, August 24-31, 1963, March 30-April 6, 1968, March 12-18, 1973, April 14-20, 1975, May 12, 1978, October 13, 1978, June 1983, March 1985, June 1986, June 1987, May 1988, February 1989, May 1989, December 1991, May 1993, August 1993, May 1998, March 1999; Langer, 1972, 1061-1062, 1254-1255; Munro, 1961, 212-223; National Democratic Institute (NDI), May 10, 1993; New York Times (NYT), February 15, 1988, February 3, 1989, May 2, 1989, May 3, 1989, May 9, 1993, August 16, 1993, April 24, 1996, April 25, 1996, August 8, 1996, January 1, 1997, October 5, 1997, March 10, 1998, May 12, 1998, December 3, 1998, March 24, 1999, March 29, 1999, December 12, 1999, May 20, 2000, July 16, 2002, July 18, 2002, February 12, 2003, April 28, 2003, April 21, 2008, November 6, 2009, July 14, 2011, June 16, 2012, June 22, 2012, February 3, 2013, April 21, 2013; Organization of American States (OAS) press release, May 19, 2000, April 23, 2003, May 7, 2003; Reuters, March 24, 1999, March 25, 1999, May 19, 2000, July 15, 2002, July 16, 2002, July 17, 2002, April 27, 2003, April 28, 2003, September 17, 2009, April 22, 2010, April 26, 2010, January 17, 2011, November 22, 2011, June 15, 2012, June 22, 2012, April 21, 2013, September 19, 2013; Robertson, 1943, 251-267; Scheina, 2003, 185-188; South Atlantic News Agency (SANA), June 30, 2012, June 20, 2013, August 11, 2013; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1936, 955, 1937, 623; Washington Post (WP), June 30, 2012.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Abente, Diego. 1989. “The Liberal Republic and the Failure of Democracy,” The Americas, vol. 45 (4), pp. 525-546.

Lewis, Paul H. 1980. Paraguay Under Stroessner. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Miranda, Carlos R. 1990. The Stroessner Era: Authoritarian Rule in Paraguay. Boulder, CO, San Francisco, CA, and London: Westview Press.

Warren, Harris Gaylord. 1949. Paraguay: An Informal History. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Warren, Harris Gaylord. 1950. “Political Aspects of the Paraguayan Revolution, 1936-1940,” The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 30 (1), pp. 2-25.