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9. Haiti (1908-present)

 

Crisis Phase (January 15, 1908-October 16, 1918):  General Gumau led a rebellion against the government of President Nord Alexis in Gonaives and St. Marc on January 15-28, 1908. General Antoine Simon led a rebellion against the government in Aux Cayes from November 19 to December 6, 1908. General Simon was elected president by the National Assembly on December 17, 1908. The United States government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Simon on December 18, 1908. General Firman led a rebellion against the government of President Simon beginning on July 20, 1911, and General Cincinnatus Leconte took control of the government on July 23, 1911.

The U.S. government deployed the naval ships Petrol and Peoria near Port-au-Prince on July 21, 1911. President Leconte and 300 individuals were killed in a explosion in the presidential palace on August 8, 1912. President Tancrede Auguste died on May 2, 1913, and Michel Oreste was elected president by the Haitian Congress on May 4, 1913. President Oreste resigned on January 27, 1914 after a rebellion led by Davilmar Theodore broke out in northern Haiti.  Britain, France, and Germany deployed peacekeeping troops to maintain order in Port-au-Prince in January 1914. U.S. peacekeeping troops commanded by Lt. Andrew Drum were deployed to maintain order in Port-au-Prince on January 29, 1914. Britain, France, and Germany withdrew their peacekeeping troops from Port-au-Prince in February 1914.  General Oreste Zamor took control of the government as president on February 8, 1914, and U.S. peacekeeping troops were withdrawn from Port-au-Prince on February 9, 1914.  Rebel troops overthrew the government of President Zamor in October 1914, and Davilmar Theodore was elected provisional president by the Congress on November 7, 1914.  General Villbrun Guillaume Sam overthrew the government of President Theodore on February 22, 1915, and he was elected president by the Congress on March 4, 1915.  Ronsalvo Bobo led a rebellion against the government in northern Haiti beginning on March 18, 1915.  Rebel troops captured Cap-Haitien on April 25, 1915, but government troops re-captured the city on June 19, 1915.  French peacekeeping troops were deployed to Cap-Haitien on June 19, 1915.  U.S. peacekeeping troops commanded by Captain George Van Orden were deployed to maintain order in  Cap-Haitien on July 9, 1915.  More than 150 political prisoners were massacred in a prison in Port-au-Prince on July 27, 1915.  President Guillaume Sam was killed by Haitians in Port-au-Prince, and some 2,000 U.S. peacekeeping troops commanded by Admiral Caperton were deployed to maintain order in Port-au-Prince beginning on July 28, 1915.  Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave was elected and sworn in as president by the Congress on August 12, 1915.  The U.S. government assumed control of the country’s finances and customs on August 16, 1915.  Admiral Caperton proclaimed martial law in Port-au-Prince on September 3, 1915, and extended martial law throughout the country on September 21, 1915.  The U.S. government established a 20-year protectorate over Haiti on September 16, 1915, and the Haitian Senate ratified the U.S. protectorate on November 11, 1915.  Admiral Caperton dissolved the Congress on June 19, 1917, and established a military government.  A new constitution was approved in a plebiscite on June 18, 1918.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (October 17, 1918-May 19, 1920): Charlemagne Perlate and Benoit Batraville led a Cacos rebellion against the Haitian government and U.S. peacekeeping troops from October 17, 1918 to May 19, 1920.  Some 2,000 rebels, 28 U.S. soldiers, and 70 Haitian government soldiers were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 20, 1920-June 17, 1935):  Louis Borno was elected president by the Haitian Council of State on April 11, 1922. Brigadier General John H. Russell of the U.S. Marine Corps was appointed as High Commissioner in Haiti in 1922.  President Borno was re-elected by the Haitian Council of State on April 12, 1926.  U.S. peacekeeping troops and Haitians clashed in Aux Cayes on December 7, 1929, resulting in the deaths of six individuals. The government declared martial law. Eugene Roy was elected provisional president by the Haitian Council of State on April 21, 1930, and he was inaugurated as provisional president on May 15, 1930.  Legislative elections were held on October 14, 1930.  Stenio Vincent was elected president by the National Assembly on November 18, 1930.  U.S. peacekeeping troops completed their withdrawal from Haiti on August 15, 1934. A new constitution was ratified in a referendum on June 2, 1935, and the constitution went into effect on June 17, 1935. Some 7,000 individuals were killed in political violence between May 1920 and June 1935.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 18, 1935-January 9, 1946): Elie Lescot was elected president by the National Assembly on April 15, 1941. On April 20, 1944, the National Assembly amended the constitution and extended the term of President Lescot.  The U.S. government provided economic assistance to the government beginning in 1944.

Crisis Phase (January 10, 1946-August 16, 1946): Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Port-au-Prince on January 10, 1946, resulting in the deaths of several individuals. President Lescot was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Colonel Paul Magloire on January 11, 1946, and a three-member military junta took control of the government on January 12, 1946. Fourteen individuals were killed during the rebellion.  Legislative elections were held on May 12, 1946.  Five individuals were killed in political violence in Cap-Haitien on May 14, 1946. Dumarsais Estime was elected president by the National Assembly on August 16, 1946.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 17, 1946-January 8, 1954): The government banned the Communist Party of Haiti (Partido Communista de Haiti – PCH) on February 11, 1948.  President Estime resigned on May 10, 1950, and a three-member military junta took control of the government on May 11, 1950.  Colonel Magloire of the Movement of Workers and Peasants (MWP) was elected president with 99 percent of the vote on October 8, 1950. Colonel Magloire was inaugurated as president on December 6, 1950. Opposition candidate Fenelon Alphonse claimed election fraud.

Crisis Phase (January 9, 1954-April 16, 1954): The government suppressed a rebellion by the Popular Labor Movement (PLM) headed by Daniel Fignole on January 9, 1954. Some 171 individuals were arrested for their involvement in the rebellion. On April 16, 1954, President Magloire granted amnesty to Daniel Fignolé and other individuals involved in the rebellion.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 17, 1954-May 20, 1956): The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the government beginning on September 12, 1955.

Crisis Phase (May 21, 1956-October 23, 1957): The Haitian Congress declared a state-of-siege on May 21, 1956. Opposition political groups exploded a bomb in Port-au-Prince on December 7, 1956, and the government responded by suspending political activity. President Paul Magloire resigned on December 12, 1956, and he fled into exile to Jamaica on December 13, 1956. Joseph Nemours Pierre-Louis became provisional president on December 15, 1956, but he resigned on February 3, 1957. Franck Sylvain was appointed as provisional president by the Haitian Congress on February 6, 1957. President Sylvain announced the dissolution of the National Assembly on March 30, 1957. President Sylvain resigned on April 2, 1957, and a provisional executive council took control of the government beginning on April 6, 1957. Government police fired on demonstrators in Port-au-Prince on May 18, 1957, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. General Leon Contave dissolved the executive council and took control of the government on May 21, 1957. Some 50 individuals were killed during civil violence in Port-au-Prince on May 24-26, 1957.  Daniel Fignolé was appointed as provisional president on May 26, 1957. President Daniel Fignolé was deposed in a military coup led by General Antonio Kebreau on June 14, 1957, and a three-member military junta took control of the government on June 15, 1957. Some 50 individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on June 15-17, 1957.  Legislative elections were held on September 22, 1957, and supporters of Francois Duvalier won 35 out of 37 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Francois Duvalier was elected president with 72 percent of the vote on September 22, 1957. Opposition presidential candidate Louis Dejoie claimed election fraud. Four government soldiers were killed during political violence on September 26, 1957, and the government declared martial law on September 27, 1957.  Francois Duvalier was inaugurated as president on October 22, 1957, and he lifted martial law on October 23, 1957.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 24, 1957-May 1, 1958):

Crisis Phase (May 2, 1958-April 21, 1971): The National Assembly declared a state-of-siege on May 2, 1958.  The government suppressed a rebellion in Port-au-Prince on July 29, 1958, resulting in the deaths of eight rebels.  The National Assembly authorized President Duvalier to govern by emergency decree on August 1, 1958.  Three Haitians were sentenced to death for subversion on October 26, 1958.  President Duvalier formed the Tonton Macoutes (TM), a secret police force, to intimidate political opposition. Haitian exiles opposed to the government of President Duvalier invaded Haiti on August 15, 1959. The rebels, which were supported militarily by Cuba, were defeated by government troops.  Some 26 individuals were killed during the invasion.  The Inter-American Peace Committee (IAPC) sent a five-member fact-finding mission headed by John Drier of the U.S. to the country on September 3-4, 1959.  On November 22, 1960, President Duvalier declared martial law as a result of a student strike in Port-au-Prince. President Duvalier lifted martial law on January 14, 1961. President Duvalier dissolved the bicameral parliament on April 7, 1961.  Legislative elections were held on April 30, 1961, and the National Unity Party (Parti de l’Unite Nationale – PUN) won 67 out of 67 seats in the National Assembly.  President Duvalier was re-elected without opposition on April 30, 1961, and he was inaugurated for a second term on May 22, 1961. On April 16, 1963, the government announced that it had uncovered a plot to overthrow the government.  Several individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on April 26, 1963.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) and military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government on April 29, 1963.  The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the Haitian government on May 17, 1963. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the Haitian government on June 3, 1963. Government troops killed ten members of the Committee of Haitian Democratic Forces (Comite des Forces Democratiques Haitiennes – CFDH) near Cazeau on July 13, 1963. Government troops and Haitian rebels clashed near Petionville and Kenscoff on July 13-15, 1963, resulting in the deaths of some 65 soldiers. Government troops suppressed a rebel invasion in northern Haiti on August 5-7, 1963.  The Haitian government referred the matter to the Organization of American States (OAS) on August 5, 1963, and the OAS Permanent Council established a five-member commission of inquiry on August 6, 1963.  The U.S. government mobilized naval ships in the area as a show of force against the Haitian government between August 6, 1963 and August 22, 1963.  Government troops suppressed a rebel invasion from the Dominican Republic on August 15, 1963. The Haitian parliament granted emergency powers to President Duvalier on August 22, 1963. President Duvalier was proclaimed president-for-life on April 1, 1964, and a new constitution went into effect on June 21, 1964. The government suppressed an attempted exile invasion on May 20-22, 1968, resulting in the deaths of five rebels. Haiti accused the U.S. government of supporting the invasion. Some 2,000 individuals were executed by the government from 1957 to 1968. The United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH) was established in opposition to the government in 1969. The government suppressed a rebellion on April 24, 1970, and nine individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion on April 28, 1970. President Duvalier died in Port-au-Prince on April 21, 1971.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 22, 1971-January 8, 1982): Jean Claude Duvalier assumed the presidency on April 22, 1971. The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Haitian government in 1973.  Legislative elections were held on February 11, 1973, and the  National Unity Party (Parti de l’Unite Nationale – PUN) won 58 out of 58 seats in the National Assembly.  The Inter-American Human Rights Commission (IAHRC) sent a three-member fact-finding mission to Haiti on August 16-25, 1978.  Legislative elections were held on February 11, 1979, and the National Unity Party (Parti de l’Unite Nationale – PUN) won 57 out of 58 seats in the National Assembly. Silvio Claude established the Haitian Christian Democratic Party (Parti Democratique Chretien d’Haiti – PDCH) on July 5, 1979.

Crisis Phase (January 9, 1982-February 7, 1988): The government suppressed a rebel invasion on January 9, 1982, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and eight rebels.  Municipal elections were held on April 10 and May 15, 1983.  A new constitution went into effect on August 27, 1983.  Legislative elections were held on February 12, 1984, and the National Unity Party (Parti de l’Unite Nationale – PUN) won 59 out of 59 seats in the National Assembly.  Two individuals were killed by government troops in Port-au-Prince on April 22, 1985.  The “presidency-for-life” was approved by 99 percent of the vote in a referendum on July 22, 1985.  Haitian government troops suppressed a student demonstration in Gonaives on November 27-28, 1985, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Marc Louis Bazin established the Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (Mouvement pour l‘Instauration de la Democratie en Haiti – MIDH) in 1986. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Haitian government on January 29, 1986.  The government declared a state-of-siege on January 29, 1986.  President Jean Claude Duvalier fled to France on February 7, 1986, and the five-member National Council of Government (Conseil National du Gouvernement – CNG) headed by General Henri Namphy took control of the government. The CNG dissolved the National Assembly and suspended the constitution on February 10, 1986.  The Haitian government lifted the state-of-siege on February 14, 1986.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions against the Haitian government on February 26, 1986. Ten individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on March 19, 1986. The European Community (EC) provided $4.9 million in economic assistance on October 8, 1986. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on October 19, 1986. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Port-au-Prince on November 17-18, 1986, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance (transportation sector) to the government beginning on February 3, 1987.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on March 29, 1987.  Some 24 individuals were killed during demonstrations against the National Council of Government (Conseil National du Gouvernement – CNG) in late June and early July 1987.  Several hundred peasants were killed by members of the Tontons Macoutes (TM) near the town on Jean Rabel on July 23-24, 1987. Eight individuals were killed by government troops in Port-au-Prince on July 29, 1987 (the individuals were protesting the government’s failure to control the TM).  Louis Eugene Athis, leader of the Haitian Democratic Liberation Movement (HDLM) was assassinated in Leogane on August 2, 1987.  Presidential elections were held on November 29, 1987, but balloting was suspended as a result of violence.  Thirty-four individuals were killed in political violence on November 29, 1987.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Haitian government on December 1, 1987.  The French government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic sanctions) against the Haitian government on January 2, 1988.  Leslie Manigat of the Rally of Progressive National Democrats (Rassemblement des Democrates Nationaux Progressistes – RDNP) was elected president with 50.2 percent of the vote on January 17, 1988, and he was inaugurated as president on February 7, 1988. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent observers to monitor the elections.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 8, 1988-June 18, 1988):

Crisis Phase (June 19, 1988-February 7, 1991): President Manigat was deposed in a military coup led by General Henri Namphy on June 19, 1988. General Namphy dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution on June 20, 1988. The Organization of American States (OAS)/Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) sent a fact-finding mission to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti on August 29-September 2, 1988. The OAS/IACHR issued a report on human rights conditions in Haiti on September 7, 1988. Thirteen individuals were massacred in San Juan Bosco Church in Port-au-Prince on September 11, 1988. General Namphy was deposed in a military coup led by General Prosper Avril, and General Avril took control of the government on September 18, 1988. The World Bank provided reconstruction assistance (water sector) to the government between June 27, 1989 and June 30, 1999.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Haitian government in August 1989.  The government imposed a state-of-siege on January 20-30, 1990.  The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to Haitians beginning in 1989. General Avril resigned as president on March 10, 1990, and he fled to the U.S. on March 12, 1990.  Twenty individuals were killed in political violence on March 10-12, 1990. Ertha Pascal Trouillot, a member of the Haitian Supreme Court, was sworn in as president on March 13, 1990.  Seventeen individuals were killed in political violence on March 23-24, 1990. The OAS/IACHR sent a three-member fact-finding mission and four staff personnel to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti on April 17-20, 1990. The United Nations (UN) secretary-general appointed Joao Augusto de Medicis as his personal representative to Haiti on June 19, 1990. President Trouillot requested UN electoral assistance on June 23, 1990.  The UN General Assembly established the United Nations Observer Mission to Verify the Electoral Process in Haiti (ONUVEH) on October 10, 1990. ONUVEH consisted of an electoral division (193 election observers from 43 countries), security division (64 security observers from six countries), and administrative division (26 personnel). Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on December 5, 1990.  Legislative elections were held between December 16, 1990 and January 20, 1991.  The National Front for Change and Democracy (NFCD) won 27 out of 81 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Alliance for Democracy and Progress (NADP) won 17 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected president with 67 percent of the vote on December 16, 1990, and he was inaugurated as president on February 7, 1991. The Carter Center/Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government (CC/CFEHG) and the National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent observers to jointly observe the presidential election.  The OAS sent 200 observers from 26 countries to monitor the presidential elections from November 15, 1990 to February 15, 1991.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by Roger Lafontant on January 6-7, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 70 individuals.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 8, 1991-September 29, 1991): ONUVEH was disbanded on February 22, 1991.

Crisis Phase (September 30, 1991-October 15, 1994): President Aristide was deposed by a military junta headed by Lt. General Raoul Cedras on September 30, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 26 individuals.  The Organization of American States (OAS) Council condemned the military junta on September 30, 1991.  Argentina, France, US, and Venezuela condemned the military junta on October 1, 1991.  The OAS Meeting of Foreign Ministers (MFM) convened on October 3, 1991.  The president of the UN Security Council condemned the military junta on October 3, 1991.  Joseph Nerette was appointed as provisional president by the military junta on October 7, 1991.  The OAS MFM condemned the military junta on October 8, 1991.  The OAS MFM imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the military junta on October 8, 1991.  On October 8, 1991, the OAS MFM established an 18-personnel civilian mission (OAS-DEMOC) headed by Augusto Ramirez Ocampo of Colombia to monitor human rights conditions in the country.  The UN General Assembly condemned the military junta on October 11, 1991, and the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) condemned the military junta on October 12, 1991.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) and military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the Haitian military junta on October 29, 1991.  The OAS Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) sent a fact-finding mission head by Patrick Robinson to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti on December 5-7, 1991.  The OAS/IACHR issued a report to the OAS Council on January 9, 1992.  The European Community (EC) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Haitian government.  The UN secretary-general reported on “gross and widespread human rights abuses” in Haiti since the military coup.  The UN General Assembly condemned human rights abuses by the military junta in Haiti on November 24, 1992.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Dante Caputo of Argentina as UN special representative on December 11, 1992, and the OAS secretary-general appointed Dante Caputo as OAS special representative on January 13, 1993.  On February 9, 1993, the OAS and UN established the Joint International Civilian Mission (Mission Civile Internationale en Haiti – MICIVIH) to monitor human rights conditions in Haiti.  MICIVIH consisted of 240 human rights observers and 100 staff personnel from 45 countries.  OAS-DEMOC was disbanded on February 12, 1993.  Colin Granderson of Trinidad and Tobago was appointed as executive director of the OAS-UN MICIVIH on March 3, 1993.  Lawrence Pezzullo was appointed as U.S. Special Envoy to Haiti in March 1993.  The UN General Assembly authorized UN participation in MICIVIH on April 20, 1993.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (oil embargo) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against Haiti on June 16, 1993.  The UN Security Council temporarily suspended the economic and military sanctions from August 25 to October 13, 1993.  Representatives of the military junta and President Aristide signed the U.S.-mediated Governor’s Island Agreement on July 3, 1993.  The OAS/IACHR sent a five-member fact-finding mission and six staff personnel headed by Michael Reisman to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti on August 23-27, 1993.  Five individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on September 8, 1993, and twelve individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on September 11-12, 1993.  On April 1, 1994, the U.S. government condemned the “increasing violence and intimidation” in Haiti.  Lawrence Pezzullo resigned as U.S. Special Envoy to Haiti on April 27, 1994.  The military junta violated the Governor’s Island Agreement on October 11, 1993. The OAS/IACHR sent a three-member fact-finding mission and six staff personnel to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti and the Haitian refugee situation in the Bahamas from May 16-27, 1994.  The military junta ordered MICIVIH out of Haiti on July 13, 1994.  On July 31, 1994, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of a multinational force to ensure the restoration of President Aristide and to assist in maintaining law and order in Haiti.  Jimmy Carter, Sam Nunn, and Colin Powell, representing the U.S. government, mediated an agreement between the military junta and President Aristide on September 18, 1994.  A US-led multinational military force (Operation Uphold Democracy) consisting of some 22,000 troops from 28 countries was deployed in the country on September 19, 1994.  One individual was killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on September 19-20, 1994. Dante Caputo resigned as UN-OAS special representative on September 19, 1994, and UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria as UN special representative to Haiti on September 23, 1994.  US troops clashed with Haitian military police in Cap Haitien on September 24, 1994, resulting in the deaths of ten Haitian military policemen.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions and military sanctions against the Haitian government on September 26, 1994.  Five individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on September 29, 1994, and two individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on September 30, 1994.  The military junta resigned, and President Aristide was restored to power on October 15, 1994.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed, and some 340,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 16, 1994-July 1, 2000): The UN Security Council lifted economic and military sanctions against the Haitian government on October 16, 1994.  The United Nations (UN) and Organization of American States (OAS) Joint International Civilian Mission (Mission Civile Internationale en Haïti – MICIVIH), which consisted of 260 human rights monitors, returned to Haiti on October 22, 1994. The OAS/Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) sent a three-member fact-finding mission, which included seven staff personnel, to investigate human rights conditions in Haiti on October 24-27, 1994.  President Aristide appointed Smarck Michel as prime minister on October 25, 1994.  The World Bank provided reconstruction assistance (emergency economic recovery credit) to the government between December 20, 1994 and December 31, 1995.  The World Bank provided reconstruction assistance (road maintenance and rehabilitation) to the government between March 23, 1995 and December 31, 2001.  The U.S.-led multinational military force was replaced by the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) on March 31, 1995.  UNMIH’s mandate was to “assist the democratic Government of Haiti in fulfilling its responsibilities in connection with sustaining a secure and stable environment established during the multinational phase and protecting international personnel and key installations; assist with the professionalization of the Haitian armed forces and the creation of a separate police force; and assist the legitimate constitutional authorities of Haiti in establishing an environment conducive to the organization of free and fair legislative elections to be called by those authorities.”  UNMIH consisted of 6,065 peacekeeping troops commanded by Major-General Joseph Kinzer of the U.S. and 847 civilian police observers commanded by Chief Superintendent Neil Pouliot of Canada.  UNMIH peacekeeping troops and civilian police personnel came from 33 countries.  MICIVIH’s electoral mandate ended on May 1, 1995.  Legislative and local elections were held between June 25 and October 8, 1995, and supporters of President Aristide won 67 out of 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The OAS Council established the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM I-Haiti), which consisted of some 400 personnel headed by Ron Gould of Canada, to monitor legislative and local elections from May 1 to October 31, 1995. The OAS Council established the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM II-Haiti), which consisted of 320 observers to monitor the presidential election from November 17 to December 27, 1995.  Peace Brigades International (PBI) established a mission consisting of four personnel to promote human rights in Haiti on December 10, 1995.  Rene Preval of the Lavalas Movement (LM) was elected president with 88 percent of the vote on December 17, 1995, and he was inaugurated as president on February 7, 1996.  Rosny Smarth formed a government as prime minister on February 27, 1996.  On June 28, 1996, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH) to assist in maintaining law and order and to provide protection at the National Palace and at the residence of former President Aristide.  At maximum strength, UNSMIH consisted of 1,297 military personnel commanded by Brigadier-General J.R.P. Daigle of Canada and 291 civilian police personnel commanded by Colonel Robert Pigeyre of France from thirteen countries.  UNSMIH was launched on July 1, 1996.  UNMIH was disbanded on June 30, 1996.  Six UNMIH peacekeeping soldiers and three UNMIH civilian police personnel were killed during the mission.  The OAS component of MICIVIH was disbanded on November 30, 1996.  Jean-Bertrand Aristide formed the Lavalas Family (Famni Lavalas-FL) in November 1996.  The first and second round of municipal elections were held between April 6 and July 13, 1997.  Elections for nine Senate seats were held in April 1997.  The Lavalas Political Organization (Organisation Politique Lavalas – OPL) claimed election fraud in the senatorial elections.  The OAS sent 63 observers to monitor the elections between April and July 1997.  Prime Minister Rosny Smarth resigned on June 9, 1997, and Eric Pierre was appointed as prime minister on July 25, 1997.  The UN Security Council established the United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH) on July 30, 1997.  UNTMIH, which consisted of 250 civilian police personnel and 50 military personnel from twelve countries, was headed by Enrique ter Horst of Venezuela. UNSMIH was disbanded on July 31, 1997, and UNTMIH was deployed on August 1, 1997.  One UNSMIH civilian police personnel was killed during the mission. UNTMIH was replaced by the United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (Mission de la Police Civile des Nations Unies en Haiti – MIPONUH) on November 30, 1997.  MIPONUH consisted of 300 civilian police personnel and 72 staff personnel from eleven countries headed by Julian Harston of Britain.  President Rene Preval nominated Jacques-Edouard Alexis as prime minister on July 16, 1998.  President Preval dissolved parliament by decree on January 11, 1999, and Jacques-Edouard Alexis formed a transitional government as prime minister on March 26, 1999.  Alfredo Lopes Cabral of Guinea-Bissau was appointed as UN Representative and Head of MIPONUH on September 21, 1999.  MIPONUH and the UN component of MICIVIH were disbanded on March 15, 2000.  Six MIPONUH civilian police personnel was killed during the mission.  The UN General Assembly established the International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH), which began on March 16, 2000.  Legislative and municipal elections were held between May 21 and July 9, 2000.  The Fanmi Lavalas (FL) won 72 out of 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and 18 out of 19 seats in the Senate in the first round of legislative elections.  The OAS sent 19 observers headed by Orlando Marville of Barbados to monitor the elections from February 23 to July 7, 2000 (the OAS mission did not observe the second round of legislative elections on July 9, 2000). The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) sent observers headed by Prime Minister John Compton of Saint Lucia to monitor the elections.  The World Council of Churches (WCC) and Lutheran World Federation (LWF) sent 13 observers from France, Germany, Switzerland, and the U.S. to jointly observe the first round of legislative elections from May 19-27, 2000.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud and boycotted the second round of legislative elections scheduled for July 9, 2000.

Crisis Phase (July 2, 2000-May 14, 2011): Two supporters of Jean-Bertrand Aristide were killed in political violence on Ile-a-Vache, an island off the country’s southern coast, on July 2, 2000.  One individuals was killed in a bombing in Port-au-Prince on November 22, 2000.  Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected president on November 25, 2000, and he was inaugurated as president on February 7, 2001.  MICAH was disbanded on February 6, 2001.  Opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  The Council of the European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on January 29, 2001.  Opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  Supporters of President Aristide clashed with opponents in Petionville beginning on March 14, 2001.  OAS Secretary-General Cesar Gaviria condemned the violence in Haiti on March 20, 2001. Five government policemen were killed in political violence on July 28, 2001.  OAS Secretary-General Cesar Gaviria condemned the violence in Haiti on July 31, 2001.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in St. Marc on November 30, 2001.  One individual was killed in political violence in the town of Petit-Goave on December 3, 2001.  Ten individuals, including two government policemen, were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on December 17, 2001.  Prime Minister Jean Marie Cherestal resigned on January 21, 2002.  On March 1, 2002, the OAS agreed to send a special fact-finding mission to Haiti. President Aristide appointed Yvon Neptune of the Lavalas Party (LP) as prime minister on March 15, 2002.  On April 5, 2002, the OAS established a three-member commission of inquiry (Dominica, Honduras, Mexico) to investigate the December 2001 political violence in Port-au-Prince, and the OAS established the Special Mission to Strengthen Democracy in Haiti (SMSDH) headed by David Lee of Canada.  Five individuals were killed in political violence between November 17 and December 7, 2002.  The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) initiated a mediation effort on January 9, 2004.  One individual was killed in political violence in Gonaives on January 26, 2004.  Armed opposition groups, which became known as the National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti (NRFLH), captured Gonaives on February 5, 2004.  The OAS Permanent Council condemned the violence in Haiti on February 19, 2004.  NRFLH rebels led by Guy Philippe captured Cap-Haitien on February 22, 2004, and rebels captured Les Cayes on February 26, 2004.  President Aristide resigned and departed from the country, and Boniface Alexandre was sworn in as interim president on February 29, 2004.  On February 29, 2004, the Multinational Interim Force (MIF) was deployed in Haiti to maintain law and order and to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian assistance.  The MIF consisted of some 3,800 troops from the U.S. (2,000 military personnel), France (900 military personnel), Canada (500 military personnel), and Chile (300 military personnel).  On March 4, 2004, the EU Commission decided to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to Haitians.  Church World Service (CWS) provided humanitarian assistance beginning on March 8, 2004.  Gerard Latortue formed a 13-member transitional government as prime minister on March 12, 2004.  On April 30, 2004, the UN Security Council established the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) to provide security for the transitional government and elections, assist with the demobilization of military forces in Haiti, and assist with maintaining law and order.  At maximum strength, MINUSTAH consisted of some 8,940 military personnel commanded by Brazilian military officers and 4,391 civilian police personnel.  MINUSTAH was officially launched on June 1, 2004.  MIF was disbanded on May 31, 2004.  The Canadian government decided to provide economic assistance to the Haitian government on July 18, 2004.  Government police killed five demonstrators in Port-au-Prince on February 28, 2005.  The International Mission for Monitoring Haitian Elections (IMMHE), consisting of representatives from Brazil, Canada, Chile, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, and the U.S., was established on June 16, 2005.  The IMMHE deployed 20 long-term observers in Haiti in August 2005.  Rene Preval was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on February 7, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on February 7 and April 21, 2006, and the Front for Hope (FFH) won 23 out of 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats (Fusion des Sociaux-Democrates Haitienne-FSDH) won 17 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The EU sent 10 election experts, 24 long-term observers, and 34 short-term observers headed by Johan Van Hecke of Belgium to monitor the elections from November 12, 2005 to April 22, 2006.  Canada sent 106 observers to monitor the elections.  CARICOM sent six observers headed by Noel Lee of Jamaica to monitor the elections from February 4 to February 8, 2006.  The Organisation Internationale La Francophonie (OIF) sent observers headed by Paul Berenger of Mauritius to monitor the elections from February 1 to February 8, 2006.  The IMMHE sent 130 short-term observers to monitor the elections from February 2 to April 22, 2006.  The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent 10 long-term observers and 24 short-term observers to monitor the elections.  Rene Preval was inaugurated as president on May 14, 2006.  President Rene Preval nominated Jacques-Edouardo Alexis as prime minister on May 17, 2006, and Jacques-Edouardo was sworn in as prime minister on June 9, 2006.  The U.S. government lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Haitian government on October 11, 2006 (military sanctions remained imposed against Haitian opposition groups).  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers were killed by gunmen in Port-au-Prince on November 12, 2006.  Municipal elections were held on December 3, 2006.  CARICOM sent 17 observers to monitor the municipal elections.  The Canadian government sent twenty-two observers to monitor the municipal elections from October 22 to December 13, 2006.  UN peacekeeping troops killed four individuals during clashes in Port-au-Prince on January 24, 2007.  Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon appointed Hedi Annabi of Tunisia as Special Representative and Head of MINUSTAH in Haiti beginning on September 1, 2007.  Five individuals were killed in food riots in southern Haiti on April 3-9, 2008.  One UN peacekeeping soldier was killed in violence in Port-au-Prince on April 12, 2008.  The Haitian Senate voted to dismiss Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard Alexis on April 12, 2008, and Michele Pierre-Louis was approved  as prime minister on September 5, 2008.  Eleven UN personnel were killed in a plane crash in western Haiti on October 9, 2009.  President Rene Preval nominated Jean-Max Bellerive as prime minister on October 30, 2009.  Jean-Max Bellerive became prime minister on November 11, 2009.  More than 100 UN personnel (97 peacekeeping personnel and five other UN officials), including UN Special Representative Hedi Annabi, were killed in an earthquake in Port-au-Prince on January 12, 2010.  On June 4, 2010, the UN Security Council increased the size of MINUSTAH to 8,940 peacekeeping troops (19 contributing countries) and 4,391 civilian police personnel (49 contributing countries). On August 3, 2010, the OAS and CARICOM established the Joint Electoral Observation Mission (JEOM) headed by Ambassador Colin Granderson from Trinidad and Tobago.  One individual was killed in clashes with UN peacekeeping soldiers in Cap Haitien on November 16, 2010.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Port-au-Prince on November 22, 2010.  Legislative and presidential elections were held on November 28, 2010 and March 20, 2011, and the Unity Party won 33 out of 98 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Four individuals were killed in post-election violence in Cayes and Cap Haitien.  The OAS/CARICOM JEOM consisting of 118 observers monitored the first round of legislative and presidential elections.  The Organisation Internationale La Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the first round of the legislative and presidential elections.  The second round of the legislative and presidential elections was held on March 20, 2011.  Michel Martelly of the Farmer’s Response Party (Repons Peyizan-RP) was elected president with 68 percent of the vote.  The OAS/CARICOM JEOM consisting of 201 observers monitored the second round of legislative and presidential elections.  The Organisation Internationale La Francophonie (OIF) sent five observers headed by Ambassador Jacques Crete of Canada to monitor the second round of the legislative and presidential elections on March 16-23, 2011.  One individual was killed in political violence on April 21, 2011.  Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive resigned on May 14, 2011.  Michel Martelly was sworn in as president on May 14, 2011.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 15, 2011-present):  The OAS/CARICOM Joint Electoral Observation Mission (JEOM) was disbanded on May 17, 2011.  President Michel Martelly nominated Daniel-Gerard Rouzier as prime minister on May 20, 2011, but the nomination was rejected by the parliament on June 22, 2011.  President Martelly nominated Garry Conille as prime minister on September 5, 2011, and Garry Conille was approved by the parliament on October 15, 2011.  Prime Minister Garry Conille took office on October 18, 2011.  Prime Minister Garry Conille resigned on February 24, 2012.  President Martelly nominated Laurent Lamothe as prime minister on March 1, 2012, and Laurent Lamothe was sworn in as prime minister on May 16, 2012.  On June 19, 2012, President Martelly signed a new constitution, which grants Haitians the right to hold dual citizenship.  Hundreds of Haitians protested against the government in Port-au-Prince on October 14, 2012.  Former Haitian dictator, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier appeared at a Haitian court hearing in Port-au-Prince on February 28, 2013.  Government police clashed with anti-government protesters in Port-au-Prince on November 18, 2013.  Lt. General Jose Luiz Jaborandy of Brazil was appointed Commander of the UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSTAH, on March 13, 2014.  Government police clashed with anti-government protesters in Port-au-Prince on June 5, 2014.  On June 11, 2014, the government announced upcoming legislative and municipal elections scheduled for October 26, 2014.  Former Haitian dictator Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier died of a heart attack in Port-au-Prince on October 4, 2014.  As a result of a stalemate between the government and opposition political parties concerning an electoral law, legislative and municipal elections were postponed on October 26, 2014.  Government police clashed with anti-government protesters in Port-au-Prince on December 5, 2014.  Prime Minister Laurent Lamothe resigned on December 14, 2014, and Florence Duperval Guillaume was named as Interim Prime Minister on December 21, 2014.  President Michel Martelly nominated former Port-au-Prince Mayor Evans Paul as prime minister on December 25, 2014.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSTAH, consisted of 4,957 troops, 2,256 civilian police personnel, and 344 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  MINUSTAH’s fatalities include 67 military personnel, 33 civilian police personnel, and 42 international civilian personnel.

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Selected Bibliography

Doyle, Kate. 1994. “Hollow Diplomacy in Haiti,” World Policy Journal, vol. 11 (1), pp. 50-58.

Munro, Dana G. 1969. “The American Withdrawal from Haiti, 1929-1934,” The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 49 (1), pp. 1-26.

Posner, Walter H. 1964. “American Marines in Haiti, 1915-1922,” The Americas, vol. 20 (3), pp. 231-266.

Schmidt, Hans. 1971. The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Shamsie, Yasmine. 2004. “Building ‘Low Intensity’ Democracy in Haiti: The OAS Contribution,” Third World Quarterly, vol. 25 (6), pp. 1097-1115.

Wentges, J. Taylor. 1996. “Electoral Monitoring and the OAS/UN International Civil Mission to Haiti,” Peacekeeping & International Relations, vol. 25 (6), pp. 3-5.