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2. Cuba (1902-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (February 24, 1902-August 15, 1906): Tomas Estrada Palma of the Conservative Party (CP) was elected president by the electors on February 24, 1902, and he was inaugurated as president on May 20, 1902. Parliament convened on May 5, 1902. Parliamentary elections were held on December 1, 1905 and March 19, 1906, and the CP won a majority of the seats. President Estrada Palma was re-elected without opposition on December 1, 1905, and he was inaugurated as president on May 20, 1906. The Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) boycotted the presidential election, and sought the nullification of the results of the elections.

Crisis Phase (August 16, 1906-May 19, 1912): General Jose Miguel Gomez and General Faustino Guerra led a liberal rebellion of some 20,000 rebels against the government in Pinar del Rio province on August 16, 1906. President Estrada Palma requested the deployment of US naval ships to the region on September 8, 1906, and the US naval ship Denver was deployed in support of the government in the Havana harbor on September 12, 1906. President Estrada Palma suspended the constitution on September 9, 1906. The US deployed some 125 troops in support of the government in Havana on September 13, 1906, but the US troops were withdrawn on September 14, 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt of the US appointed William Taft and Robert Bacon to mediate negotiations between the parties on September 17, 1906. US mediation failed, and President Estrada Palma resigned on September 28, 1906. Some 6,000 US peacekeeping troops commanded by General J. Franklin Bell were deployed to maintain order throughout the island on September 28, 1906, and William Taft established a provisional government on the island on September 29, 1906. Charles Magoon was appointed as head of the provisional government on October 13, 1906. Governor Magoon nullified the December 1905 and March 1906 parliamentary elections on December 3, 1906. Provincial and municipal elections were held on August 1, 1908, and the CP won three out of six governorships and 28 mayoralties. Congressional elections were held on November 14, 1908, and the LP won 51 out of 83 seats in the House of Representatives. General Jose Miguel Gomez of the PL was elected president on November 14, 1908, and he was inaugurated as president on January 28, 1909. Colonel Enoch Chowder of the US supervised the presidential elections. US peacekeeping troops completed their withdrawal from the island on March 31, 1909. Congressional elections were held in November 1910. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (May 20, 1912-June 27, 1912): Evaristo Estenoz led a Negro rebellion against the government beginning on May 20, 1912. US naval ships were deployed in support of the government near Cuba on May 25, 1912. Some 2,500 US troops were deployed in support of the government in the Oriente province and Havana from June 5 to August 5, 1912. The rebellion ended after Evaristo Estenoz was killed by government troops on June 27, 1912. Some 5,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 28, 1912-February 8, 1917): US naval ships were withdrawn from Cuban waters on June 30, 1912. General Mario Garcia Menocal of the CP was elected president on November 1, 1912, and he was inaugurated as president in May 1913. Presidential elections were held on November 1, 1916, but results were declared invalid in Santa Clara and Oriente provinces. Some 50 individuals were killed in election-related violence in 1916. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between June 1912 and February 1917.

Conflict Phase (February 9, 1917-April 18, 1917): Former President Gomez led a liberal rebellion against the government in Santa Clara, Camaguey, and Oriente provinces beginning on February 9, 1917. Presidential elections were held again in Santa Clara province on February 14, 1917. US Secretary-of-State Robert Lansing expressed support for the government on February 18, 1917, and provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the government. US troops were deployed in support of the government in Camaguey Province on February 19, 1917. Government troops defeated rebel troops near Placetas in Santa Clara Province on March 8, 1917, resulting in the deaths of some 20 government soldiers and 200 rebels. Government troops defeated rebel troops near Arroyo Hondo in Camaguey Province on March 20, 1917, resulting in the deaths of 27 rebels. Rebels troops surrendered to government troops in Oriente Province on March 30, 1917. Rebel troops commanded by General Gustavo Caballero were defeated by government troops in Oriente Province on April 18, 1917, resulting in the deaths of some 40 rebels. Some 500 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 19, 1917-January 31, 1921): Mario Garcia Menocal was elected president, and he was inaugurated as president on May 20, 1917. Alfredo Zayas of the Cuban Popular Party (Partido Popular Cubano – PPC) and the CP was elected president on November 1, 1920. The US sent 14 observers to monitor the presidential election (one observer was sent to each of the 14 provinces). The PL claimed election fraud. General Enoch Crowder of the US mediated an agreement in January 1921, which provided for another presidential election.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 1, 1921-September 29, 1930): Alfredo Zayas was elected president on March 15-26, 1921, and he was inaugurated as president on May 20, 1921. General Enoch Crowder of the US supervised the presidential election, and he issued a final report on the election on April 7, 1921. The PL had boycotted the presidential election. The US recognized the election of Alfredo Zayas as president on April 17, 1921. US troops were withdrawn from Camaguey Province on February 15, 1922. General Gerardo Machado of the PL was elected president on November 1, 1924, and he was inaugurated as president on May 20, 1925. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on March 5, 1928. The Nationalist Union (Union Nacionalista – UN) led by Colonel Carlos Mendieta did not participate in the elections. President Machado was re-elected without opposition on November 1, 1928.

Crisis Phase (September 30, 1930-December 10, 1935): President Machado was granted emergency powers by the Congress after student demonstrations in Havana on September 30-October 4, 1930, resulting in the death of one individual. Congressional elections were held on November 1, 1930. President Machado declared a state-of-siege on November 30, 1930. On August 10, 1931, President Machado proclaimed martial law after clashes occurred between supporters of the CP and PL. Sumner Welles of the US began mediation between political factions on July 1, 1933. President Machado resigned on August 11 1933, and Carlos Manuel de Cespedes was appointed as provisional president on August 12, 1933. The US deployed naval vessels near Havana on August 13-18, 1933. President Cespedes was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Sargeant Fulgencio Batista on September 4-5, 1933, and Ramon Grau San Martin was appointed as president on September 10, 1933. The US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government, and deployed naval vessels near Havana on September 5-9, 1933. Mexico expressed support for the government of President Martin on September 8, 1933. Some 100 government soldiers were killed during the rebellion, which was suppressed by government troops on October 2, 1933. Peru provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Martin on October 11, 1933, and Spain provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Martin on October 12, 1933. The government suppressed a rebellion in Havana on November 8-9, 1933. Some 220 government soldiers were killed during the rebellion. Sumner Wells ended his mediation effort on November 24, 1933. President Martin resigned on January 17, 1934, and Colonel Carlos Mendieta of the UN was named provisional president on January 18, 1934. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Mendieta on January 23, 1934. Former President Martin established the Cuban Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Cubano – PRC) in opposition to the government on February 8, 1934. Rebels exploded bombs in Havana on March 29, 1934 and Santiago on April 9, 1934, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers. Rebels exploded several bombs in Havana on April 21-27, 1934, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. The government restored the 1901 constitution on June 1, 1935. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 11, 1935-December 22, 1936): President Mendieta resigned on December 11, 1935, and Jose Barnet was appointed as provisional president on December 12, 1935. Miguel Mariano Gomez was elected president on January 10, 1936, and he was inaugurated as president on May 21, 1936.

Crisis Phase (December 23, 1936-October 10, 1940): President Gomez was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Colonel Batista on December 23, 1936, and Vice-President Frederico Laredo Bru assumed the presidency on December 24, 1936. The Cuban Communist Party (Partido Comunista Cubano – PCC) was legalized on September 25, 1938. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on November 15, 1939, and approved a new constitution on July 1, 1940. Colonel Batista of the Socialist Democratic Coalition (Coalicion Socialista Democratica – CSD) was elected president on July 14, 1940, and he was inaugurated as president on October 10, 1940. The new constitution went into effect on October 10, 1940.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 11, 1940-March 9, 1952): The government suppressed a military rebellion on February 3, 1941. Congressional elections were held on March 15, 1942. Ramon Grau San Martin of the PRC was elected president on June 1, 1944. Congressional elections were held on June 1, 1946. Carlos Prio Socarras was elected president on June 1, 1948, and he was inaugurated as president on October 10, 1948.

Crisis Phase (March 10, 1952-December 1, 1956): President Carlos Prio Socarras was deposed in a military coup led by General Fulgencio Batista Zaldivar on March 10, 1952, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. A provisional government headed by General Batista Zaldivar took control of the country on March 11, 1952. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Batista Zaldivar on March 27, 1952, and provided military assistance (military advisors) to the government beginning in 1952. Four individuals were killed in political violence in Havana on February 23, 1953. Government troops suppressed a rebellion led by Fidel Castro in Santiago de Cuba and Bayamo, Oriente province on July 26, 1953, resulting in the deaths of 77 rebels and 19 government soldiers. Fidel Castro was captured and imprisoned. The Communist Party of Cuba (Partido Communista de Cuba – PCC) was banned by the government on November 2, 1953. General Batista Zaldivar was elected president without opposition on November 1, 1954, and he was inaugurated as president on February 24, 1955. Fidel Castro was released from the Isle of Pines prison on May 15, 1955. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Ramon Barquin on April 3, 1956, and some 250 military personnel were arrested for their involvement in the military rebellion. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Matanzas on April 29, 1956, resulting in the deaths of 10 rebels. Some 250 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (December 2, 1956-January 8, 1959): Fidel Castro resumed the rebellion against the government of President Batista Zaldivar on December 2, 1956. The Dominican Republic provided military assistance to the rebels between December 1956 and December 1957. Some 50 rebels attacked the presidential palace in Havana on March 13, 1957, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels and five government soldiers. On May 20, 1957, Fidel Castro appealed to the US to stop sending weapons to the Cuban government. Government troops suppressed a naval revolt in Cienfuegos on September 5, 1957, resulting in the deaths of some 300 rebels and 12 government soldiers. The US imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and rebels on April 2, 1958.  Fidel Castro called for a rebellion against the government of General Batista Zaldivar on April 1, 1958. Some 12,000 government troops commanded by General Eulogio Cantillo Porra launched a military offensive against the rebels in the Sierra Maestra on May 24, 1958, resulting in the deaths of some 230 soldiers and 100 rebels. Rebel troops launched a military offensive against the government in August 1958. On August 28, 1958, President Batista Zaldivar requested that the US lift military sanctions against the government. Government troops and rebels commanded by Ernesto “Che” Guevara clashed in Camaguey province on September 13-14, 1958, resulting in the deaths of some 40 government soldiers. Andres Rivero Aguero was elected president on November 1, 1958. Opposition political parties claimed election fraud. Rebel troops captured Santa Clara and Santiago on December 31, 1958. President Batista Zaldivar and 50 supporters fled into exile to the Dominican Republic on January 1, 1959. Some 500 Cubans fled to the US. Fidel Castro named Manuel Urrutia as provisional president and Jose Miro Cardona as prime minister on January 3, 1959. Argentina, Britain, Brazil, Chile, Egypt, and Nicaragua provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Urrutia. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Urrutia on January 7, 1959. Fidel Castro and 5,000 rebels arrived in Havana on January 8, 1959. Some 8,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 9, 1959-October 31, 1965): The US withdrew 34 military advisors from Cuba on January 27, 1959. Fidel Castro formed a government as prime minister on February 16, 1959. Some 621 individuals were executed by the government for war crimes between January 8 and May 15, 1959. President Manuel Urrutia resigned on July 17, 1959. The government suppressed a rebellion on August 14, 1959, and some 4,000 individuals were arrested for suspected involvement in the rebellion. The Dominican Republic provided military assistance to the rebels. President Dwight Eisenhower of the US imposed economic sanctions (reduction in sugar quota) against the government on July 6, 1960. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Las Villas province on September 20-October 9, 1960, and five rebel leaders were executed on October 13, 1960. The government nationalized banks and large industries on October 16, 1960, and the US imposed economic sanctions (partial trade embargo) against the government on October 19, 1960. On October 28, 1960, the US brought to the attention of the Organization of American States (OAS) Council the allegation that Cuba was receiving military assistance from the Soviet bloc. Cardinal Arteaga, the archbishop of Havana, and eight other Roman Catholic bishops criticized the government on December 4, 1960. Some 17,000 Soviet troops were deployed in support of the government. The US imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on January 3, 1961. Three individuals were executed for counter-revolutionary activities in Havana on January 17, 1961. El Salvador imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on March 1, 1961. The opposition groups, the Democratic Front and the Revolutionary Movement of the People, established the National Revolutionary Council (NRC) headed by Jose Miro Cardona in New York City on March 21, 1961. Government troops and rebels clashed in the Escambray mountains in March 1961, resulting in the deaths of 39 rebels and 28 government soldiers. The NRC urged Cubans to rebel against the Castro government on April 9, 1961. Some 1,500 Cubans exiles, trained by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in Guatemala, invaded southern Cuba near Bahia de los Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on April 17-20, 1961. The Soviet Union demanded the withdrawal of rebels troops from Cuba on April 18, 1961. Some 115 Cuban exiles were killed during the invasion, and another 1,200 were captured by government troops. Several hundred government soldiers were killed during the rebel invasion. Honduras imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on April 24, 1961. Prime Minister Castro declared Cuba a Socialist Republic on May 1, 1961. On September 9, 1961, Costa Rica imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government after the execution of five rebels. Panama imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on December 8, 1961. The US imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against Cuba on February 7, 1962. Argentina imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on February 8, 1962. The OAS Meeting of Foreign Ministers (MFM) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government on February 14, 1962. Ecuador imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on April 3, 1962. On September 2, 1962, the Soviet Union decided to provide the Cuban government with additional weapons and military advisors. OAS foreign ministers declared on October 3, 1962 that the Soviet Union’s intervention in Cuba “threatens the unity of the Americans and its democratic institutions.” On October 22, 1962, President John Kennedy of the US accused the Soviet Union of deploying nuclear missiles in Cuba, and President Kennedy ordered an air and naval blockade of Cuba beginning on October 24, 1962. The OAS MFM authorized the use of military force to enforce the blockade on October 23, 1962. On October 28, 1962, President Kennedy and Soviet Prime Minister Khrushchev agreed that Soviet missiles would be removed from Cuba and that the US would not invade Cuba. The Soviet Union withdrew the missile from Cuba on November 7, 1962, and the US blockade of Cuba ended on November 20, 1962. The OAS MFM imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the Cuban government on July 26, 1964.  Fidel Castro agreed to allow Cuban citizens to leave the country in October 1965, and some 260,000 Cubans departed for the US. Some 5,000 individuals were killed, and some 300,000 individuals were displaced since January 1959.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 1, 1966-present): The OAS lifted economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the Cuban government on July 29, 1975.  A new constitution was adopted, and a National Assembly was established in 1976. The National Assembly elected Fidel Castro as head-of-state in December 1976. Some 125,000 Cubans fled to the U.S. in April 1980.  Cuban government military aircraft shot down two aircraft flown by the Cuba-American group Brothers to the Rescue (BTTR) on February 24, 1996, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  In July 1996, the UN Security Council condemned the Cuban government for shooting down the BTTR aircraft.  On March 21, 1998, the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) condemned human rights abuses in Cuba.  On March 16, 1999, US Secretary-of-State Madeleine Albright condemned the Cuban government for jailing four leading Cuban dissidents.  On March 26, 2003, the EU condemned the Cuban government for the arrest of 72 Cuban dissidents.  The government arrested several armed individuals who hijacked a ferry near Havana on April 3-4, 2003.  On April 11, 2003, the government executed three individuals involved in the hijacking.  Pope John Paul II condemned the Cuba government for the executions on April 13, 2003.  The EU imposed diplomatic sanctions (limitations on high-level government visits) against the government on June 5, 2003,  On September 5, 2003, the European Parliament (EP) condemned human rights violations in Cuba.  On July 31, 2006, Raul Castro assumed presidential duties following Fidel Castro’s emergency surgery.  Some 1.2 million individuals have fled as refugees since November 1966.

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), September 5, 2003; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 747-756; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 86-87; British Broadcasting Corporation (BCC), March 21, 1998, March 16, 1999, April 4 2003, April 11, 2003, April 26, 2003, June 5, 2003; Butterworth, 1976, 201-203, 280-281, 295-299, 340-341; Cable News Network (CNN), February 24, 1996, February 25, 1996; Clodfelter, 1992, 693-694, 1162-1166; Ellsworth, 1974, 62-64; Facts on File, October 10-16, 1948, March 7-13, 1952, February 20-26, 1953, July 24-30, 1953, January 1-7, 1959, May 14-20, 1959, March 23-29, 1961; Fitzgibbon 1935; Foreign Relations of the US (FRUS), 1917, 350-405; Garcia-Perez 1998; Hackett, 1934, 333-335;  Hispanic American Report (HAR), March 1952, April 1952, June 1952, August 1952, September 1952, July 1953, April 1956, March 1957, September 1957, September 1958, December 1958, January 1959, August 1959, September 1961; Jessup, 1998, 60, 111-112, 142-143; Keesing’s Record of World Events, April 10-17, 1954, February 7-14, 1959, February 14-21, 1959, July 11-18, 1959, July 23-30, 1960, December 3-10, 1960, June 17-24, 1961, April 21-28, 1962, November 3-10, 1962, September 1991; Langer, 1972, 860-861, 1072, 1245-1248; Lockmiller, 1938; Millett, 1968; Munro, 1961, 455-456; Munro, 1964, 125-140, 469-529; Munro, 1974, 16-43, 342-370; Reuters, March 26, 2003; Robertson, 1943, 401-410; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1933, 582-583, 1934, 696, 1935, 416; Weisburd, 1997, 213-218.]