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16. Costa Rica (1913-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (December 7, 1913-January 26, 1917):  In 1913, a constitutional amendment provided for the direct election of the president and vice-president.  Presidential elections were held on December 7, 1913, but no candidate received a majority of the vote.  Legislative elections were held on December 7, 1913, and the National Republican Party (Partido Republicano Nacional – PRN) won 42 percent of the vote.  The National Union Party (Partido Union Nacional – PUN) won 31 percent of the vote.  Alfredo González Flores was elected president by the Constitutional Congress on May 8, 1914.  Legislative elections were held on December 5, 1915, and the PRN won 67 percent of the vote.

Crisis Phase (January 27, 1917-May 8, 1920): President Alfredo González Flores was deposed in a military rebellion led by Minister of War Frederico Tinoco on January 27, 1917, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  President Alfredo González Flores and his supporters fled to Nicaragua.  The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of Frederico Tinoco on February 9, 1917.  Constituent Assembly elections were held on April 1, 1917.  Frederico Tinoco was elected president without opposition on April 1, 1917.  A new constitution went into effect on June 8, 1917.  Rogelio Fernandez Guell led a rebellion against the government beginning on February 22, 1918.  Government troops killed four individuals in La Pascua on February 23, 1918.  Rogelio Fernandez Guell and five other individuals were killed by government troops near the Panamanian border on March 20, 1918.  Some 500 Costa Rican government troops were deployed along the Costa Rican-Nicaraguan border on May 25, 1918.  President Chamorro announced Nicaragua’s neutrality in the conflict in Costa Rica on December 15, 1918.  Some 1,500 rebels led by Julio Acosta invaded Costa Rica from Nicaraguan territory, and established a provisional government in Pena Blanca on May 6, 1919.  The U.S. naval ship Castine was deployed near Puerta Limon (Port of Limon) as a show of force against the rebels on June 14, 1919.  President Tinoco fled the country on August 12, 1919, and Juan Bautista Quiros was elected provisional president by the Constitutional Congress on August 20, 1919. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of President Quiros on August 30, 1919.  Francisco Aguilar Barquero was elected provisional president by the Constitutional Congress on September 3, 1919.  Five individuals were killed during demonstrations in Puntarenas on September 4, 1919.  The U.S. naval ship Denver was deployed near Puntarenas on September 5, 1919, and the U.S. naval ship Baltimore was deployed near Puntarenas on September 11, 1919.  Legislative elections were held on December 7, 1919, and the Constitutional Party (Partido Constitucional – PC) won 75 percent of the vote.  Julio Acosta Garcia of the PC was elected president on December 7, 1919, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1920.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 9, 1920-July 19, 1947): The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Acosta Garcia on August 3, 1920.  Legislative elections were held on December 2, 1921, and the Agricultural Party (Partido AgrícolaPA) won a plurality of the vote.  Legislative elections were held on December 2, 1923, and the PRN won 52 percent of the vote.  Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez of the PRN won a plurality of the vote in the presidential election on December 2, 1923.  Since no candidate received at least 50 percent of the vote, the Constitutional Congress vote to elect Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez as president.  Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1924.  Legislative elections were held on December 6, 1925, and the PRN won some 40 percent of the vote.  Cleto de Jesús González Víquez of the PUN was elected president on February 12, 1928, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1928.  Legislative elections were held on February 9, 1930, and the PUN won 33 percent of the vote.  The Workers’ and Peasants’ Bloc (Bloque de Obreros y Campesinos – BOC) was established by a group of law students on June 16, 1931.  Legislative elections were held on February 14, 1932, and the Independent National Republican Party (Partido Republicano Nacional Independiente – PRNI) won 47 percent of the vote.  Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez of the PRNI was elected president by the Constitutional Congress on May 1, 1932, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1932.  Government police arrested several communists who attended a meeting organized by Manuel Mora, Jaime Cerdas, and Luis Carballo on May 28, 1932.  President Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez ordered the immediate release of the communists from prison.  Legislative elections were held on February 11, 1934, and the PRNI won 48 percent of the vote.  On August 9, 1934, Carlos Luis Falla organized a strike involving 30 labor unions representing more than 10,000 employees (banana plantation workers) of United Fruit Company.  The unions demanded an eight-hour day, overtime pay, and cash wages (rather than coupons that had to be used at the company stores).  President Romualdo Ricardo Jiménez facilitated an agreement between the company and unions on August 28, 1934, but the company later rejected the agreement.  Legislative elections were held on February 9, 1936, and the PRNI won 59 percent of the vote.  León Cortés Castro of the PRNI was elected president with 60 percent of the vote on February 9, 1936, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1936.  Legislative elections were held on April 13, 1938, and the PRNI won 62 percent of the vote.  Rafael Ángel Calderón of the PRNI was elected president with 85 percent of the vote on February 11, 1940, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1940.  President Rafael Ángel Calderón implemented a series of progressive social and economic reforms, including establishing a social security system and a progressive taxation system.  Legislative elections were held on February 8, 1942, and the PRNI won 63 percent of the votes.  The BOC won 16 percent of the vote.  After criticizing the government of President Rafael Ángel Calderón, José María Hipólito Figueres was forced into exile in Mexico on April 12, 1942.  The BOC was renamed the Popular Vanguard Party (Partido Vanguardia Popular – PVP) on June 13, 1943.  The PRNI and PVP formed the Victory Bloc (Bloque de la Victoria – BV) on September 22, 1943.  Legislative elections were held on February 13, 1944, and the PRNI won 28 out of 45 seats in the Constitutional Congress.  Teodoro Picado Michalski of the BV was elected president with 75 percent of the vote on February 13, 1944, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1944.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  The 1944 elections were also marred by political violence, including the deaths of four individuals in the towns of Sabanilla and Llano Grande.  José María Hipólito Figueres established the Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata – PSD) in March 1945.  Legislative elections were held on February 10, 1946, and PRNI won 51 percent of the vote.  The PSD won 42 percent of the vote.  The Constitutional Congress adopted income tax reform and electoral reform laws in 1946.  The electoral reform law established the National Electoral Tribunal (Tribunal Nacional Electoral – TNE) to oversee national elections.

Crisis Phase (July 20, 1947-March 11, 1948):  Government police and opposition demonstrators clashed in Cartago on July 20, 1947, resulting in the death of at least one opposition demonstrator.  Five university students were killed during clashes between government police and protesters in San José on July 21, 1947.  An alliance of political parties opposed to President Teodoro Picado Michalski, including the PSD, PUN, and Democratic Action (Acción Demócrata – AD), supported a general strike of businesses to protest against the income tax and electoral reform laws beginning on July 23, 1947.  At least five individuals were reportedly killed in violence in San José and other cities on the first day of the strike.  On August 2, 1947, several thousand women led by Emma Gamboa marched in San José against electoral fraud.  Opposition political parties signed a “nine-point agreement” with the government on August 3, 1947.  The strike ended on August 4, 1947.  A presidential election was held on February 8, 1948, and Otilio Ulate Blanco of the PUN  received 55 percent of the vote.  There were allegations of electoral fraud.  On February 28, 1948, the TNE ruled that Otilio Ulate Blanco had won the presidential election.  On March 1, 1948, the Constitutional Congress nullified the presidential election by a vote of 27-19.  Otilio Ulate Blanco was arrested by government police on March 2, 1948, but he was released from police custody on March 3, 1948.  Msgr. Victor Manuel Sanabria, Archbishop of Costa Rica, offered to mediate negotiations between the parties, but he withdrew the mediation offer on March 10, 1948.

Conflict Phase (March 12, 1948-April 24, 1948):  National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional – ELN) rebels led by José María Hipólito Figueres invaded the country from Guatemalan territory on March 12, 1948.  The government of Guatemala had provided military assistance (weapons and military advisors) to ELN rebels beginning in 1947.  President Teodoro Picado Michalski declared martial law on March 13, 1948.  The Nicaraguan government provided military assistance (two military aircraft and 70 military personnel) to the Costa Rican government beginning on March 15, 1948.  The Nicaraguan government withdrew its troops from Costa Rica on March 31, 1948.  ELN rebels captured Cartago on April 12, 1948.  The ambassadors from the Papal Nuncio, U.S., Mexico, Argentina, and Panama attempted to mediate a ceasefire between government and ELN rebel representatives in San José beginning on April 13, 1948.  Some 500 Nicaraguan government troops intervened in support of the Costa Rican government from April 17-21, 1948.  The Pact of Ochomogo was concluded by José María Hipólito Figueres and Manuel Mora, leader of the PVP, on April 17, 1948.  President Teodoro Picado Michalski signed an agreement mediated by the group of ambassadors at the Mexican embassy in San José on April 19, 1948.  After resigning the presidency, Teodoro Picado Michalski and former President Rafael Ángel Calderón fled to Nicaragua on April 20, 1948.  Vice President Leon Herrera was appointed as acting president on April 21, 1948.  ELN rebels entered San José on April 24, 1948. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 25, 1948 to May 8, 1958):  José María Hipólito Figueres was appointed head of a eleven-member military junta, known as the Founding Junta of the Second Republic of Costa Rica (Junta Fundadora de la Segunda Republica), on May 8, 1948.  The military junta issued a decree that nationalized banks and imposed a ten percent tax on capital above ¢50,000.  The Costa Rican military was officially disbanded by the military junta on December 1, 1948.  Constituent Assembly elections were held on December 8, 1948, and the PUN won 33 out of 45 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  Some 1,000 Costa Rican rebels led by former President Rafael Ángel Calderón invaded the country from Nicaragua on December 10-11, 1948.  The Costa Rican government referred the matter to the Organization of American States (OAS) Council on December 11, 1948.  The OAS Council established a five-member commission of inquiry (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, U.S.) chaired by Juan Batista de Lavalle of Peru on December 14, 1948.  The OAS commission of inquiry, which was assisted by ten staff personnel, arrived in Costa Rica on December 17, 1948.  Six men affiliated with the PVP were kidnapped and murdered by government soldiers near Siquirres in Limón Province on December 19, 1948.  Government military aircraft attacked rebel bases in Nicaragua on December 20, 1948, and Costa Rican troops captured La Cruz from the rebels on December 23, 1948.  The OAS commission of inquiry issued a report on December 24, 1948, which concluded that Nicaragua had failed to prevent the exile invasion of Costa Rica, but that no Nicaraguan soldiers were directly involved in the invasion.  The OAS Council demanded a ceasefire on December 24, 1948, and established a five-member military observation commission (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, and the U.S.) to monitor the ceasefire.  The Constituent Assembly convened on January 15, 1949.   The Constituent Assembly verified the election of Otilio Ulate Blanco as president.  Representatives of Costa Rica and Nicaragua signed the Pact of Amity in Washington DC on February 21, 1949, and the OAS military observation commission was withdrawn from the region.  Rafael Ángel Calderón was arrested by Nicaraguan troops on March 3, 1949.  The Minister of Public Security, Colonel Edgar Cardona Quirós, organized an unsuccessful military coup against the military junta on April 3, 1949, resulting in the deaths of nine individuals.   Legislative elections were held on October 2, 1949, and the PUN won 33 out of 45 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Constituent Assembly approved a draft constitution on November 7, 1949.  Otilio Ulate Blanco was inaugurated as president on November 8, 1949.  José María Hipólito Figueres established the National Liberation Party (Partido Liberacion Nacional – PLN) in 1951.  Legislative elections were held on July 26, 1953, and the PLN won 30 out of 45 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  José María Hipólito Figueres of the PLN was elected president on July 26, 1953, and he was inaugurated as president on November 8, 1953.  Some 400 supporters of former president Rafael Ángel Calderón invaded Costa Rica from Nicaragua and seized Villa Quesada on January 11, 1955.  The government of Costa Rica declared a state-of-emergency and severed diplomatic relations with Nicaragua.  The government of Costa Rica accused Nicaragua of aggression and referred the matter to the OAS Council, which established a five-member commission of inquiry (Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, and U.S.).  On January 14, 1955, the OAS established a peace observation mission in Costa Rica, involving military aircraft from the U.S. (two aircraft and 28 crew), Mexico (two aircraft eight crew), and Ecuador (one aircraft and four crew).  The mission also included 19 military observers from Brazil (two personnel), Peru, (one personnel), Ecuador (eight personnel), Mexico (three personnel), and the U.S. (five personnel), as well as a communications team from the U.S. consisting of 5 personnel.  The governments of Costa Rica and Nicaragua accepted an OAS proposal to established a demilitarized zone along the border on January 20, 1955.  Some 300 rebels surrender to Nicaraguan troops on January 25, 1955. Costa Rican government troops killed ten rebels and captured eight rebels near the Nicaraguan border on January 29 and February 1, 1955. Government troops captured Los Chiles from rebel troops on February 5, 1955.  The Legislative Assembly voted 31 to 10 to suspend two of its members, Guillermo Jimenez Ramirez and Mario Echandi, for their support for the rebellion.  The OAS commission of inquiry issued a report on February 17, 1955, and the OAS peace observation mission withdrew from Costa Rica on February 25, 1955.  The government suppressed an attempted assassination of President José María Hipólito Figueres on May 21, 1957.  Legislative elections were held on February 2, 1958, and the PLN won 20 out of 45 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PRN won 11 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Mario Echandi of the PUN was elected president with 46 percent of the vote on February 2, 1958, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1958.  The United Nations (UN) secretariat sent three observers from Canada, Sweden, and Uruguay to monitor the elections.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 9, 1958-present):  Former president Rafael Ángel Calderón was allowed to return to Costa Rica from exile in Mexico on June 8, 1958.  Legislative elections were held on February 4, 1962, and the PLN won 30 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Francisco José Orlich Bolmarcich of the PLN was elected president on February 4, 1962.  The OAS sent three short-term observers to monitor the elections in response to an invitation on January 26, 1962, and the OAS mission issued a report of the elections on February 8, 1962.  The Organization of Central American States (Organizacion de Estados Centroamericanos – ODECA) sent two observers to monitor the elections.  Legislative elections were held on February 6, 1966.  José Joaquín Trejos of the PUN was elected president on February 6, 1966, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1966.  The OAS sent three short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from January 31 to February 9, 1966.  Legislative elections were held on February 1, 1970, and the PLN won 32 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  José María Hipólito Figueres of the PLN was elected president on February 1, 1970, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1970.  The OAS sent three short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Legislative elections were held on February 3, 1974, and the PLN won 25 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Daniel Oduber Quirós of the PLN was elected president with 43 percent of the vote on February 3, 1974, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1974.  A bomb exploded in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs building on February 7, 1975.  Legislative elections were held on February 5, 1978, and the Democratic Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Democratico – PRD)/United Coalition (Coalicion Unidad – CU) won 27 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PLN won 25 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Rodrigo Carazo Odio of the PRD/CU was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on February 5, 1978, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1978.  The OAS sent three short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The U.S. government provided security assistance beginning in 1981, including a 22-member U.S. special forces team that provided training to Costa Rican guardsmen in the town of Murcielago in 1985.  Legislative elections were held on February 7, 1982, and the PLN won 33 seats out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Luis Alberto Monge of the PLN was elected president on February 7, 1982, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1982.  The OAS sent three short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  On May 30, 1984, seven individuals, including three journalists and four Nicaraguan Contra rebels were killed in a bombing in the village of La Penca near the Costa Rica-Nicaragua border.  Legislative elections were held on February 2, 1986, and the PLN won 29 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Social Christian Unity Party (Partido Unidad Social Cristiana – PUSC) won 25 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Óscar Arias Sánchez of the PLN was elected president with 52 percent of the vote on February 2, 1986, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on February 4, 1990, and the PUSC won 29 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PLN won 25 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Rafael Ángel Calderón Fournier of the PUSC was elected president with 50 percent of the vote on February 4, 1990, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1990.  The OAS sent four short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from February 2 to February 6, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on February 6, 1994, and the PLN won 28 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PUSC won 25 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  José Maria Figueres of the PLN was elected president with 50 percent of the vote on February 6, 1994, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1994.  Legislative elections were held on February 1, 1998, and the PUSC won 29 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PLN won 22 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Miguel Ángel Rodríguez of the PUSC was elected president on February 1, 1998, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 1998.  President Miguel Ángel Rodríguez announced a plan to privatize state-owned telecommunications and electricity utilities.  Thousands of workers, farmers, students, and other individuals protested against the privatization plan beginning on March 18, 2000.  On March 20, 2000, the Legislative Assembly approved a bill to begin the process of privatizing state-owned telecommunications and electricity utilities.  On April 5, 2000, representatives of the government, labor unions, and other groups signed an agreement that called for the suspension of consideration of the privatization plan in the Legislative Assembly and the establishment of a legislative commission to review the privatization plan.  Legislative elections were held on February 2, 2002, and the PUSC won 19 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PLN won 17 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Abel Pacheco de la Espriella of the PUSC was elected president in the second round of presidential elections with 58 percent of the vote on April 7, 2002, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 2002.  On October 15, 2004, former president Miguel Ángel Rodríguez was arrested in San José after being accused of bribery related to a contract awarded to the French telecommunications company Alcatel in 2001.  Legislative elections were held on February 5, 2006, and the PLN won 25 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Citizens’ Action Party (Partido Accion Ciudadana – PAC) won 17 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Óscar Arias of the PLN was elected president with 41 percent of the vote on February 5, 2006, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 2006.  The OAS sent short-term observers led by Ambassador Paul Durand of Canada to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  On September 30, 2007, some 100,000 individuals demonstrated in San José against the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA).  Costa Rica’s ratification of DR-CAFTA was approved in a referendum by 52 percent of voters on October 7, 2007.  Legislative elections were held on February 7, 2010, and the PLN won 24 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PAC won 11 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Laura Chinchilla of the PLN was elected president with 46 percent of the vote on February 7, 2010, and she was inaugurated as president on May 8, 2010.  The OAS sent 52 short-term observers from 18 countries led by former foreign minister María Emma Mejía of Colombia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  Municipal elections were held on December 5, 2010.  The OAS sent short-term observers led by former foreign minister María Emma Mejía of Colombia to monitor the municipal elections from December 3 to December 6, 2010.  On April 27, 2011, former president Miguel Ángel Rodríguez was sentenced to five years in prison after being convicted of corruption charges (the conviction was later reversed by a Costa Rican appeals court).  On June 25, 2013, students and other individuals protested peacefully in San José in support of bills introduced in the Legislative Assembly to reform labor procedures and to legalize strikes in several public sectors, including health care, water, electricity, fuel distribution, and ports.  Legislative elections were held on February 2, 2014, and the PLN won 18 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The PAC won 13 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Luis Guillermo Solís Rivera of the PAC was elected president with 78 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on April 6, 2014, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 2014.  The OAS sent 22 experts and short-term observers from eight countries led by Josefina Vázquez Mota of Mexico to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from January 9 to April 7, 2014.  Municipal elections were held on February 7, 2016.  The OAS sent 21 experts and short-term observers from 12 countries led by former deputy minister Edgardo Ortuño of Uruguay to monitor the municipal elections.  Legislative elections were held on February 4, 2018, and the PLN won 17 out of 57 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The National Restoration Party (Partido Restauración Nacional – PRN) won 14 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Carlos Alvarado of the PAC was elected president with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on April 1, 2018, and he was inaugurated as president on May 8, 2018.  The OAS sent 15 short-term observers from 13 countries led by former president Andrés Pastrana of Colombia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  On September 2, 2018, hundreds of individuals protested in San José against Nicaraguan migrants.  Members of public sector unions launched strikes beginning on September 10, 2018, after which thousands of individuals demonstrated in San José and other cities against government fiscal reform proposals.  Government police clashed with protesters in several locations.  The government announced the terms of a proposed $1.75 loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), including tax reform and a public sector wage freeze.  On September 17, 2020, the government proposed ¢6.4 billion in higher taxes on income, property, and banking transactions, as well as ¢2.3 billion in reductions in government spending.  On September 30, 2020, the National Rescue Movement (Movimiento Rescate Nacional – MRN) led by José Miguel Corrales and Célimo Guido organized demonstrations in front of the Ministry of Finance and Legislative Assembly in San José, as well as several road blockades.  On October 4, 2020, President Carlos Alvarado announced that government would withdraw the proposed increase in taxes and spending cuts.   On October 8, 2020, José Miguel Corrales resigned from the MRN.  On October 12, 2020, government police clashes with protesters in San José, resulting in injuries to eleven police officers.  On October 14, 2020, the MRN ended all road blockades.  On October 16, 2020, the government charged six MRN leaders with several offenses, including obstruction of public highways and public services.  On March 1, 2021, the IMF Executive Board approved a three-year $1.78 billion loan from the Extended Fund Facility (EFF) to the Costa Rican government.

[Sources: Al Jazeera, October 4, 2018, January 16, 2021; Associated Press (AP), December 2, 2013, February 3, 2018, April 1, 2018, April 2, 2018, September 14, 2018; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 738-741; Beigbeder, 1994, 232; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 56, 62-63, 79-80; Bloomberg, February 11, 2020, March 19, 2021, April 9, 2021; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 133-135; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), February 1, 1998, February 2, 1998, February 3, 1998, February 4, 2002, April 8, 2002, October 5, 2004, October 15, 2004, October 21, 2004, February 6, 2006, February 21, 2006, March 4, 2006, May 9, 2006, February 8, 2010, February 3, 2014, March 6, 2014, April 7, 2014, June 26, 2014, February 5, 2018, April 1, 2018, April 2, 2018, April 18, 2019; Clodfelter, 1992, 1157-1158; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1339; The Economist, April 15, 2021; Euronews, September 3, 2018; Facts on File, July 20-26, 1947, February 8-14, 1948, February 29-March 6, 1948, March 7-13, 1948, March 14-20, 1948, March 21-27, 1948, March 28-April 3, 1948, April 11-17, 1948, April 18-24, 1948, May 2-8, 1948, December 5-11, 1948, November 13-19, 1949, January 6-12, 1955, January 13-19, 1955, January 20-26, 1955, January 27-February 2, 1955, February 10-16, 1955, May 22-28, 1958, February 1-7, 1962; Financial Times (FT), April 25, 2021; Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), 1917, 301-349, 1918, 229-275, 1919, 803-865; Hispanic American Report (HAR), December 1948, January 1949, February 1949, March 1949, June 1949, July 1949, October 1949, January 1955, May 1957, December 1957, January 1958, February 1958, May 1958, October 1961, December 1961, January 1962, February 1962; Jessup, 1998, 137-138; Keesing’s Record of World Events, March 13-20, 1948, May 15-22, 1948, January 8-15, 1949, January 29-February 5, 1949, April 12-19, 1958; Langer, 1972, 1068, 1243; Los Angeles Times, May 12, 1985; Munro, 1934, 206-207; Munro, 1964, 426-448; New York Times, August 20, 1934, August 29, 1934, March 28, 1947, July 24, 1947, July 25, 1947, August 4, 1947, January 12, 1955, January 26, 1955, January 29, 1955, June 9, 1958, February 8, 1975, August 8, 1993, October 1, 2007, September 22, 2018; Organization of American States (OAS), February 22, 2006, November 25, 2009, December 1, 2009, November 12, 2010, January 20, 2011, January 28, 2014, February 3, 2014, April 6, 2014, February 2, 2016, February 8, 2016, April 20, 2016, January 24, 2018, February 5, 2018; Reuters, April 1, 2018; Scheina, 2003, 180-182; Schooley, 1987, 96-105; The Costa Rica News, June 26, 2013; The Tico Times, November 30, 2014, August 26, 2020, October 4, 2020; Tillema, 1991, 22-24; Voice of America (VOA), August 20, 2018; Washington Post, September 2, 2018; Weisburd, 1997, 174, 177-178; Wright 1964, 97-101.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Bell, John P. 1971. Crisis in Costa Rica: The 1948 Revolution. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Bowman, Kirk and Scott Baker. 2007. “Noisy Regimes, Causal Processes, and Democratic Consolidation: The Case of Costa Rica,” The Latin Americanist, vol. 50 (2), pp. 23-57.

Breuer, Anita. 2009. “Costa Rica’s 2007 Referendum on the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR): Citizen Participation or Citizen Manipulation?,” Representation – Journal of Representative Democracy, vol. 45 (4), pp. 455-469.

Díaz-Arias, David. 2019. “Battle of Memories in Costa Rica: Inventions, Testimonies, and Violence during the Civil War of 1948,” Sociologies in Dialogue: Journal of the Brazilian Sociological Society, vol. 5 (2), pp. 4-23.

Frajman, Eduardo. 2009. “Information and Values in Popular Protests: Costa Rica in 2000,” Bulletin of Latin American Research, vol. 28 (1), pp, 44-62.

Frajman, Eduardo. 2012. “The People, Not the Movement: Opposition to CAFTA in Costa Rica, 2002-2007,” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 39 (6), pp, 116-132.

Lehoucq, Fabrice E. 1991. “Class Conflict, Political Crisis and the Breakdown of Democratic Practices in Costa Rica: Reassessing the Origins of the 1948 Civil War,” Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 23 (1), pp. 37-60.

Lehoucq, Fabrice E. 1993. “Democratization, Institutional Reform, and Political Conflict: Evaluating Alternative Explanations of Electoral Reform in Costa Rica,” Working Paper #189, The Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana.

Olander, Marcia. 1996. “Costa Rica in 1948: Cold War or Local War?”, The Americas, vol. 52 (4), pp. 465-493.

Wells, Henry. 1970. “The 1970 Election in Costa Rica,” World Affairs, vol. 133 (1), pp. 13-28.

Willis, Eliza J. and Janet A. Seiz. 2012. “The CAFTA Conflict and Costa Rica’s Democracy: Assessing the 2007 Referendum,” Latin American Politics and Society, vol. 54 (3), pp. 123-156.