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14. Brazil (1910-present)

 

Crisis Phase (March 1, 1910-July 4, 1924):  Marshall Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca was elected president with 57 percent of the vote on March 1, 1910.  First Class Helmsman João Cândido Felisberto, known as the “Black Admiral”, led a mutiny of mostly black sailors aboard four Brazilian warships on November 22-26, 1910.  The mutineers demanded the abolition of flogging and a general amnesty.  The National Congress approved the demands of the mutineers on November 25, 1910.  Several individuals were killed during the mutiny.  On November 28, 1910, President Hermes Rodrigues da Fonseca issued a decree permitting the Minister of the Navy to expel sailors from the Brazilian navy.  Eventually over a thousand sailors were expelled from the Brazilian navy.  A second naval mutiny took place on Ilha das Cobras (Snake Island) on December 9, 1910.  The National Congress declared a state of siege, and the mutiny was suppressed.  Naval forces loyal to the government imprisoned 18 sailors, including João Cândido Felisberto and João Avelino Lira, on Ilha das Cobras (Snake Island) on December 24, 1910.  Sixteen of the 18 sailors were killed in their prison cells that same evening.  Jose Maria (Miguel Lucena) Boaventura began a rebellion against the government in the Contestado region of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil in October 1912.

Venceslau Brás of the Mineiro Republican Party (Partido Republicano Mineiro – PRM) was elected president with 92 percent of the vote on March 1, 1914.  Government soldiers led by General Fernando Setembrino de Carvalho suppressed the rebellion in southern Brazil in August 1916.  Several thousand individuals were killed during the rebellion.  Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves of the Republican Party of São Paulo (Partido Republicano Paulista – PRP) was elected president with 99 percent of the vote on March 1, 1918.  Since President-elect Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves fell ill with the Spanish flu, Delfim Moreira da Costa Ribeiro was sworn in as acting-president on November 15, 1918.  Epitácio Lindolfo da Silva Pessoa of the Paraíba’s Republican Party was elected president with 71 percent of the vote on April 13, 1919, and he was inaugurated as president on July 28, 1919.  Arturo da Silva Bernardes of the PRM was elected president with 56 percent of the vote on March 1, 1922, and he was inaugurated as president on November 15, 1922. The government of President Epitacio Pessoa suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Antonio de Siqueira Campos and Captain Euclides Hermes da Fonseca at Fort Copacaban in Rio de Janeiro on July 5-6, 1922, resulting in the deaths of 16 rebel soldiers. Thirty-five government soldiers were killed or wounded during the rebellion. Conflict broke out between supporters of Governor Borges de Medeiros (Chimangos) and opponents (Maragatos) led by Joaquim Francisco de Assis Brasil in the state of Rio Grande do Sul on January 25, 1923. The federal government extended the state-of-siege for eight months on May 3, 1923. The parties agreed to a cessation of military hostilities in Rio Grande do Sul on November 7, 1923, and signed a peace agreement on December 15, 1923. Several thousand individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (July 5, 1924-February 4, 1927): Colonel Isidor Dias Lopes and Joaquim Tavora led a military rebellion of 3,500 troops against the government in São Paulo beginning on July 5, 1924. Government troops and rebel troops clashed near Tres Lagoas on August 18, 1924, resulting in the deaths of 110 rebel soldiers and 41 government soldiers. President Bernardes declared martial law, and some 12,000 government troops commanded by General Candido Rondon launched a military offensive (Belarmino-Catanduvas Campaign) against Colonel Lopes’ rebel troops on November 23, 1924. Captain Luis Carlos Prestes led another 2,000 rebels against the government in southern Brazil beginning on October 24, 1924. Government troops and Luis Carlos Prestes’ rebel troops clashed near Palmeiras on January 3, 1925, resulting in the deaths of 40 rebel soldiers. Government troops defeated Colonel Lopes’s rebels near Catanduvas on March 25, 1925, resulting in the deaths of several hundred rebels and 179 government soldiers. Some 1,600 rebel troops led by Miguel Costa, Captain Prestes, and Juarez Tavaro retreated to the interior of the country in April 1925. Government troops and rebel troops clashed near Goias in June 1925, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels.  Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa of the Republican Party of São Paulo (Partido Republicano Paulista – PRP) was elected president with 98 percent of the vote on March 1, 1926, and he was inaugurated as president on November 15, 1926.  Captain Prestes and 620 rebel troops entered Bolivia on February 4, 1927.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (February 5, 1927-October 2, 1930): The government banned worker strikes on August 13, 1927.  Júlio Prestes de Albuquerque of the Republican Party of São Paulo (Partido Republicano Paulista – PRP) was elected president with 58 percent of the vote on March 1, 1930. Eleven individuals were killed in election-related violence. Alianca Liberal (AL) candidate, Getulio Dornelles Vargas of the state of Rio Granda do Sul, claimed election fraud on May 31, 1930. Joao Pessoa, Getulio Vargas’ vice-presidential running mate, was assassinated by Joao Duarte Dantas in Recife on July 25, 1930. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between February 1927 and October 1930.

Conflict Phase (October 3, 1930-November 3, 1930): Getulio Vargas led a rebellion against the government in southern Brazil (states of Minas Geraes, Parahyba, and Rio Grande do Sul) beginning on October 3, 1930.  Rebel troops captured Porto Alegre on October 4, 1930, resulting in the deaths of 20 individuals. Government troops and rebel troops clashed in Belo Horizonte on October 4-8, 1930, resulting in the deaths of 16 government soldiers. Government troops and rebel troops clashed in Paraiba on October 4, 1930, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. Government troops and rebel troops clashed in Recife on October 4-5, 1930, resulting in the deaths of 35 individuals. President Luis Pereira de Sousa declared a state-of-siege on October 6, 1930. The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the rebels on October 22, 1930. The government of President Luis Pereira de Sousa was overthrown on October 24, 1930, and a three-member military junta headed by Tasso Fragoso took control of the government on October 25, 1930. The military junta appointed Getulio Vargas as provisional president on October 30, 1930, and Getulio Vargas was sworn in as provisional president on November 3, 1930. Some 100 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 4, 1930-July 20, 1934): President Vargas suspended the constitution and dissolved the Constituent Assembly on November 11, 1930. The U.S. government lifted military sanctions against the military junta on March 2, 1931. General Bertholdo Klinger led a rebellion against the government in the state of São Paulo on July 9, 1932, but the rebellion was suppressed by government troops on October 3, 1932. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the rebellion. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on May 3, 1933. The Constituent Assembly convened on October 15, 1933, and the constitution of the Second Republic of Brazil went into effect on July 16, 1934 . The constitution limited the president to one four-year term, and established a 250-member Chamber of Deputies elected by popular vote.  Getúlio Vargas was elected president with 175 out of 248 votes in the Constituent Assembly on July 17, 1934, and he was inaugurated as president on July 20, 1934. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between November 1930 and July 1934.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 21, 1934-November 22, 1935):

Crisis Phase (November 23, 1935-September 18, 1946): The National Liberty Alliance (Allianca Nacional Liberatadora – ANL) headed by Luis Carlos Prestes led 3,200 communist rebels against the government of President Getúlio Vargas in Natal, Recife, and Rio de Janeiro beginning on November 23, 1935.  President Getúlio Vargas declared a one-month state-of-siege on November 25, 1935, and government troops violently suppressed the rebellion on November 28, 1935. Several hundred individuals were killed during the rebellion, including 24 individuals killed in Rio de Janeiro.  The National Congress extended the state-of-siege for ninety days on December 20, 1935.  President Getúlio Vargas declared a state-of-siege to combat the “communist threat” in October 1937.  President Getúlio Vargas dissolved the National Congress and proclaimed a new constitution on November 10, 1937, which allowed him to be re-elected to a six-year term. President Getúlio Vargas banned political parties on December 2, 1937.  The government suppressed a right-wing rebellion led by Plinio Salgado in Rio de Janeiro on May 10, 1938.  President Getúlio Vargas was forced by the military to resigned on October 17, 1945, and Jose Linhares was sworn in as provisional president on October 18, 1945.  Legislative elections were held on December 2, 1945, and the Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democratico – PSD) won 151 out of 286 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) won 81 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Enrico Gaspar Dutra, leader of the PSD, was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on December 2, 1945, and he was inaugurated as president on January 31, 1946.  The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on September 17, 1946, and the constitution went into effect on September 18, 1946. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 19, 1946-November 10, 1955):  Legislative elections were held on January 19, 1947, and the Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democratico – PSD) won eleven out of nineteen contested seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) won four contested seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The government banned the Communist Party of Brazil (Partido Communista de Brasil – PCB) on May 7, 1947. Thirty-four individuals were killed in a bombing at the Deodoro arsenal near Rio de Janeiro on April 15, 1948, and government police arrested some 1,000 communists on April 16-24, 1948.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 1950, and the Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democratico – PSD) won 112 out of 304 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) won 81 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Getúlio Vargas and Joao Cafe Filho of the Brazilian Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro – PTB) were elected president and vice-president on October 3, 1950, and they were inaugurated as president and vice-president on January 31, 1951. The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the government on March 15, 1952. Joao Belchoir Marques Goulart resigned as minister of labor on February 20, 1954. President Getulio Vargas committed suicide on August 24, 1954 (after military leaders force him to agree to relinquish control of the government to the vice-president on August 23, 1954), and Vice-President Cafe Filho was sworn in as president on August 24, 1954.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 1954, and the PSD won 114 out of 326 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) won 74 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Juscelino Kubitschek of the PSD and Joao Goulart of the PTB were elected president and vice-president with about 34 percent of the vote on October 3, 1955.  President Cafe Filho suffered a heart attack on November 3, 1955, and Carlos Coimbra da Luz was sworn in as interim president on November 8, 1955.

Crisis Phase (November 11, 1955-February 1, 1956): General Henrique Teixeira Lott overthrew the government of President da Luz on November 11, 1955, and former Vice-President Nereu Ramos was sworn in as interim president on November 12, 1955. President Ramos appointed General Teixeira Lott as minister of war on November 12, 1955. Congress approved a state-of-siege on November 24, 1955.  Juscelino Kubitschek and Joao Goulart were inaugurated as president and vice-president on January 31, 1956. The government lifted the state-of-siege on February 1, 1956.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 2, 1956-March 30, 1964): Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Major Haroldo Coimbra Velosa and Captain Jose Chavez Lameirao in Jacare-Acanga on February 11-29, 1956, resulting in the death of one individual.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 1958, and the  Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democratico – PSD) won 115 out of 326 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) won 70 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Haroldo Veloso, Joao Paulo Moreira Burnier, and Colonel Luis Mendes da Silva in Aragarcas on December 3-4, 1959. Janio da Silva Quadros was elected president with 45 percent of the vote on October 3, 1960, and he was inaugurated as president on January 31, 1961. President Quadros resigned on August 25, 1961, and Ranieri Mazzili was named interim president by the Chamber of Deputies. Vice-President Joao Goulart was inaugurated as president on September 7, 1961, and President Goulart appointed Tancredo Neves as prime minister on September 8, 1961. Prime Minister Tancredo Neves resigned on June 26, 1962, and Francisco Brochado da Rocha formed a government as prime minister on July 10, 1962.  Prime Minister da Rocha resigned on September 13, 1962.  Legislative elections were held on October 7, 1962, and the PSD won 116 out of 409 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Brazilian Labor Party (Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro – PTB) and the National Democratic Union (União Democrática Nacional – UDN) each won 66 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Hermes Lima formed a government as prime minister on November 30, 1962.  The parliamentary system of government was rejected in a referendum on January 6, 1963.

Crisis Phase (March 31, 1964-January 22, 1966):  President Goulart was deposed in a military coup led by General Humberto Castelo Branco on April 1, 1964, and Pascoal Rabieri Mazzilli, president of the Chamber of Deputies, was sworn in as interim president on April 2, 1964. President Lyndon Johnson of the U.S. government expressed support for the interim government on April 2, 1964.  General Castelo Branco was elected as provisional president by the National Congress on April 11, 1964, and he was inaugurated as provisional president on April 15, 1964. General Branco abolished political parties and established the National Renovation Alliance (Alianca Renovadora Nacional – ARENA) and Brazilian Democratic Movement (Movimento Democrático Brasileiro – MDB) on October 27, 1965. The National Congress approved a new constitution on January 22, 1966.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 23, 1966-March 31, 1968):  General Artur Costa e Silva was elected president by the National Congress on October 3, 1966, and he was inaugurated as president on March 15, 1967.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1966, and the National Renewal Alliance Party (Aliança Renovadora Nacional – ARENA) won 277 out of 409 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Brazilian Democratic Movement (Movimento Democrático Brasileiro – MDB) won 132 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.

Crisis Phase (April 1, 1968-April 22, 1985):  The Revolutionary Brazilian Communist Party (Partido Communista Brasileiro Revolucionario – PCBR) was established in opposition to the government in April 1968. President Costa e Silva took control of the government on December 13, 1968.  The Roman Catholic bishops in Brazil criticized the military government in February 1969. On October 7, 1969, General Emillo Garrastazu Medici was chosen as president by the High Command of the Armed Forces (Alto-Comando das Forcas Armada – ACFA) following the incapacitation of President Costa e Silva on August 31, 1969. A new constitution was promulgated on October 20, 1969. Carlos Marighela, leader of the National Liberation Action (Acao Libertadora Nacional – ALN), was killed on November 4, 1969. A strict censorship law went into effect on December 6, 1969.  On July 22, 1970, the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government for holding some 12,000 political prisoners.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1970, and the National Renewal Alliance Party (Aliança Renovadora Nacional – ARENA) won 223 out of 310 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Brazilian Democratic Movement (Movimento Democrático Brasileiro – MDB) won 87 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Municipal elections were held on November 15, 1972, and the ARENA won some 75 percent of the vote. Some 30 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Government police killed six members of the Vanguarda Popular Revoluciondria (VPA) near Recife on January 8, 1973. The Vatican City appealed to the Brazilian military to “respect the rights of men” and to “guarantee economic justice in the country” on August 28, 1973. General Ernesto Geisel of the ARENA was elected president by the electoral college (503 members of the parliament and state legislative assemblies) on January 15, 1974, and he was inaugurated as president on March 15, 1974.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1974, and the ARENA won 203 out of 364 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The MDB won 161 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The National Conference of Brazilian Bishops (NCBB) issued a document on November 17, 1974, which accused the military government of torturing opponents and persecuting the Roman Catholic Church. General Joao Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo was elected president on October 15, 1978, and he was inaugurated as president on March 15, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1978, and the ARENA won 231 out of 422 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The MDB won 191 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in right-wing political violence in 1980.  Legislative elections were held on November 15, 1982, and the Democratic Social Party (Partido Democrático Social – PDS) won 235 out of 479 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro – PMDB) won 200 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Some 200,000 persons demonstrated for democracy in São Paulo on January 25, 1984.  Tancredo Neves was chosen as president on January 15, 1985, but he died six weeks later.  Vice President Jose Sarney was selected as Acting-President on March 15, 1985, and he was sworn in as president on April 22, 1985. Some 1,500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 23, 1985-present):  Legislative and provincial elections were held on November 15, 1986, and the Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro – PMDB) won 260 out of 487 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Liberal Front Party (Partido da Frente Liberal – PFL) won 118 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution on September 2, 1988. The constitution, which provided for the popular election of presidents, went into effect on October 5, 1988. Fernando Collor de Mello of the National Reconstruction Party (NRP) was elected president on December 17, 1989, and he was inaugurated as president on March 15, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 1990, and the PMDB won 109 out of 502 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PFL won 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Collor de Mello was impeached by the Chamber of Deputies in September 1992, and he resigned on December 29, 1992.  Vice President Itamar Franco was sworn in as president.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 1994, and the PMDB won 107 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira – PSDB) won 62 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Fernando Henrique Cardoso of the PSDB was elected president with 54 percent of the vote on October 3, 1994, and he was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1995.  Legislative elections were held on October 4, 1998, and the PFL won 105 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PSDB won 99 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Fernando Henrique Cardoso was re-elected with 53 percent of the vote on October 4, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on October 6, 2002, and the Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores – PT) won 91 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PFL won 84 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva of the PT was elected president with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on October 27, 2002, and he was inaugurated president on January 1, 2003.  Legislative elections were held on October 1, 2006, and the PMDB won 89 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PT won 83 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Lula da Silva was re-elected with 61 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on October 29, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on October 3, 2010, and the PT won 88 out of 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PMDB won 79 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Dilma Rousseff of the PT was re-elected with 56 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on October 31, 2010.  Several thousand individuals demonstrated in responses to increases in public transportation fares, high cost of living, government corruption, police brutality, and inadequate social services beginning in São Paulo on June 6, 2013.  An estimated one million individuals protested across the country on June 20, 2013.  The demonstrations spread to dozens of other Brazilian cities.  President Dilma Rousseff, who met with protest leaders on June 24, 2013, announced several policy reforms (including spending more than $22 billion on public transportation systems).  Protesters clashed with government police during the final match of the Confederations Cup in Rio de Janeiro on June 30, 2013.  Workers staged a one-day, nationwide general strike on July 11, 2013.  Pope Francis appealed for “dialogue” between the government and protesters on July 27, 2013.  Thousands of individuals demonstrated against the government in Rio de Janeiro and other cities on September 7, 2013.  At least ten individuals were killed during the demonstrations.

[Sources: Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 469-508; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), September 29, 1998, October 3, 1998, October 9, 2002, October 26, 2002, October 28, 2002, October 1, 2006, October 2, 2006, October 30, 2006, October 6, 2008, October 4, 2010, October 31, 2010, November 1, 2010, November 9, 2010, June 14, 2013, June 16, 2013, June 18, 2013, June 19, 2013, June 21, 2013, June 25, 2013, June 30, 2013, July 12, 2013, July 27, 2013, October 8, 2013, October 15, 2013, October 25, 2013; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), October 28, 2002; Clodfelter, 1992, 697-699, 704; Degenhardt, 1988, 27; Dupoy and Dupoy, 1977, 1342; Facts on File, April 11-17, 1948, October 6-12, 1955, November 10-16, 1955, February 15-21, 1956, February 29-March 6, 1956, August 24-30, 1961, August 31-September 6, 1961, September 7-13, 1961, March 26-April 1, 1964, April 2-8, 1964, April 9-15, 1964, November 17-23, 1966, July 30-August 5, 1970, November 26-December 2, 1970, December 3-9, 1972, December 14, 1974, October 20, 1978, March 23, 1979; Hispanic American Report (HAR), October 1950, January 1951, February 1954, August 1954, September 1954, October 1954, September 1955, October 1955, November 1955, December 1955, January 1956; Jessup, 1998, 89-91; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 1-5, 1946, February 2-9, 1946, March 22-29, 1947, May 8-15, 1848, December 30, 1950-January 6, 1951, February 3-10, 1951, December 6-13, 1958, May 2-9, 1964, March 25-April 1, 1967, January 30-February 6, 1971, March 6-13, 1971, April 30-May 6, 1973, February 4-10, 1974, January 20-26, 1975, April 6, 1979, January 1987, November 1988, December 1989; Langer, 1972, 1066, 1259-1260; Levine 1970; Munro, 1961, 323-346; New York Times (NYT), October 1, 2006, June 13, 2013, June 20, 2013, June 21, 2013, June 24, 2013, July 4, 2013, July 11, 2013, July 13, 2013, July 27, 2013, September 7, 2013, October 2, 2013; Radu and Tismaneanu, 1990, 115-130; Reuters, June 14, 2013, June 17, 2013, June 18, 2013, June 19, 2013, June 20, 2013, June 21, 2013, June 22, 2013, July 22, 2013; Robertson, 1943, 179-211; Scheina, 2003, 127-132; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1930, 555, 1931, 511, 1932, 589, 1937 (vol.1), 610; Washington Post (WP), October 30, 2006, June 13, 2013.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Bello, Jose Maria. 1966. A History of Modern Brazil, 1889-1964. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Doyle, Henry Grattan. 1934. “Brazil Restores Democracy.” Current History (September): pp. 716-718.

Dulles, John W. F. 1967. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin, TX and London: University of Texas Press.

Dulles, John W. F. 1970. Unrest in Brazil: Political-Military Crises, 1955-1964. Austin, TX and London: University of Texas Press.

Skidmore, Thomas E. 1967. Politics in Brazil, 1930-1964: An Experiment in Democracy. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Skidmore, Thomas E. 1988. The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964-1985. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smallman, Shawn C. 1999. “Military Terror and Silence in Brazil, 1910-1945,” Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, vol. 24 (47), pp. 5-27.

“The Political Situation in Brazil,” Bulletin of International News, Volume 14 (November 27, 1937), pp. 11-13.

Tiller, Ann Quiggins. 1965. “The Igniting Spark-Brazil, 1930,” The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 45 (3), pp. 384-393.

Young, Jordan M. 1963. “The Brazilian Congressional Elections,” Journal of Inter-American Studies, vol. 5 (1), pp. 123-132.

Young, Jordan M. 1964. “Military Aspects of the 1930 Brazilian Revolution.” Hispanic American Historical Review 44 (May): pp. 180-196.

Young, Jordan M. 1967. The Brazilian Revolution of 1930 and the Aftermath. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.