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30. Upper Volta/Burkina Faso (1960-present)

Crisis Phase (August 5, 1960-June 21, 1970):  Upper Volta formally achieved its independence from France with Maurice Yaméogo as the country’s first president on August 5, 1960. The United States government recognized Upper Volta’s independence and formally established diplomatic relations with Upper Volta on August 5, 1960.  The National Assembly adopted a constitution on November 6, 1960, and the constitution was approved in a referendum held on November 27, 1960.  The National Assembly unanimously elected Maurice Yaméogo as president on December 8, 1960. President Maurice Yaméogo signed a military assistance agreement with the French government on April 24, 1961.  On January 11, 1965, President Maurice Yaméogo issued a decree ending government subsidies for traditional chiefs.  President Maurice Yaméogo was re-elected without opposition on October 3, 1965.  Legislative elections were held on November 7, 1965, and the Voltaic Democratic Union – African Democratic Rally (Union Démocratique VoltaiqueRassemblement Démocratique Africain – UDV-RDA) won 75 out of 75 seats in the National Assembly.  Union workers demonstrated against the government in Ouagadougou beginning on December 31, 1965.  President Maurice Yaméogo declared a state-of-emergency on January 1, 1966.  President Maurice Yaméogo resigned on January 4, 1966.  Lt. Colonel Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana took control of the government and arrested Maurice Yaméogo.  Lt. Colonel Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana suspended the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly on January 5, 1966.  Lt. Colonel Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana assumed the presidency on January 7, 1966.  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana prohibited political party activities on September 21, 1966.  On May 8, 1969, former president Maurice Yaméogo was sentenced to five years imprisonment.  A new constitution providing for a civilian government and an elected assembly was approved in a referendum with 99 percent of the vote on June 14, 1970.  The new constitution went into effect on June 21, 1970.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 22, 1970-November 24, 1980):  Former president Maurice Yaméogo was released from prison on August 5, 1970.  Legislative elections were held on December 20, 1970, and the UDV-RDA won 37 out of 57 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Regroupment Party (Parti du Regroupement Africain – PRA) won 12 seats in the National Assembly.  Gerard Kango Ouedraogo of the UDV-RDA formed a government as prime minister on February 18, 1971.  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana dismissed the government of Prime Minister Kango Ouedraogo on February 8, 1974.  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana dissolved the National Assembly and suspended the constitution on February 8, 1974.   President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana appointed himself as prime minister on February 11, 1974.  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana dissolved his cabinet on January 29, 1976, and he announced a new cabinet on February 9, 1976.  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana lifted the ban on political party activity on October 1, 1977.  A new constitution legalizing political parties was approved in a referendum with 99 percent of the vote on November 27, 1977.  Legislative elections were held on April 30, 1978, and the UDV-RDA won 28 out of 57 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Union for the Defence of Democracy (Union Nationale pour la Defense de la Democratie – UNDD) won 13 seats in the National Assembly.  Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana was elected as president with 56 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on May 29, 1978.  Joseph Issoufou Conombo of the UDV-RDA formed a government as prime minister on July 7, 1978.

Crisis Phase (November 25, 1980-June 2, 1991):  President Aboubakar Sangoulé Lamizana was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Saye Zerbo on November 25, 1980, and the Military Committee of Recovery for National Progress (Comite Militaire de Redressment pout le Progress National – CMRPN) headed by Colonel Saye Zerbo took control of the government on November 26, 1980.  The CMRPN suspended the 1977 constitution, banned political parties, and dissolved the National Assembly on November 26, 1980.  Colonel Saye Zerbo formed a government as prime minister on December 7, 1980.  Colonel Saye Zerbo was deposed in a military coup on November 6-7, 1982, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals.  The People’s Salvation Council (Conseil du Salut du Peuple – CSP) headed by Major Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo took control of the government on November 8, 1982.  Captain Thomas Sankara was appointed as prime minister on January 10, 1983.  Major Ouedraogo was deposed in a military coup led by Captain Thomas Sankara on August 4, 1983, resulting in the deaths of 13 individuals.  The National Revolutionary Council (Conseil National de la Revolution – CNR) chaired by Captain Thomas Sankara took control of the government on August 5, 1983.  Colonel Muammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya, expressed support for Captain Thomas Sankara on August 6, 1983.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on August 9-10, 1983, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Captain Thomas Sankara formed a government as head-of-state on August 24, 1983.  The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Didier Tiendrebeogo on May 27, 1984, and seven military officers were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on June 11, 1984.  Captain Thomas Sankara proclaimed the change in the name of the country to Burkina Faso on August 4, 1984.  Three government soldiers were killed in a bomb explosion by government opponents at a military barracks in Ouagadougou on May 31, 1985.  Captain Thomas Sankara was killed during a military coup led by Captain Blaise Compaoré on October 15, 1987, resulting in the deaths of at least 80 individuals.  President Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo expressed support for Captain Blaise Compaoré on October 26, 1987.  Captain Guy Lamoussa Sayogo, deputy commander of Bodo-Dioulasso military region, was killed by military personnel on October 28, 1988.  On December 28-29, 1988, seven military personnel were executed for their involvement in the killing of Captain Sayogo.  The Organization for People’s Democracy-Labor Movement (Organisation pour la Democratie Populaire – Mouvement du Travail – ODP-MT) was established on April 15, 1989.  The government suppressed a rebellion led by Major Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani and Captain Henri Zongo on September 18-19, 1989.  The leaders of the rebellion and two other individuals were executed on September 19, 1989.  The government suppressed an attempted military rebellion on December 24-25, 1989, resulting in the executions of seven individuals and arrest of some 30 individuals.  Captain Blaise Compaoré formed a transitional government on June 16, 1990.  A new constitution allowing for a multi-party system, as well as an elected president and legislature, was approved in a referendum with 93 percent of the vote on June 2, 1991.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 3, 1991-February 14, 2011):  Blaise Compaoré was elected president without opposition on December 1, 1991.  Opposition political parties, which had formed the Coordination of Democratic Forces (CDF), had boycotted the presidential election.  The governments of France and Tunisia sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Oumarou Clément Ouédraogo, secretary-general of the opposition Burkinabé Labor Party (Parti du Travail du Burkina – PTB), was assassinated in Ouagadougou on December 9, 1991.  Legislative elections were held on May 24, 1992, and the ODP-MT won 78 out of 107 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social Democratic Party (Convention Nationale des Patriotes Progressistes-Parti Social Démocrate – CNPP-PSD) won eight seats in the National Assembly.  President Blaise Compaoré dissolved the transitional government on June 15, 1992, and appointed Youssef Ouédraogo as prime minister on June 16, 1992.  Prime Minister Youssef Ouédraogo resigned on March 17, 1994, and Christian Kaboré was appointed as prime minister on March 20, 1994.  Students demonstrated against the government in Ouagadougou on May 9, 1995, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Prime Minister Christian Kaboré resigned on February 6, 1996, and Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo was appointed as prime minister on February 7, 1996.  On February 6, 1996, the Congress for Democracy and Progress (Congres pour la Democratie et le Progres – CDP) was established by President Blaise Compaoré as a result of a merger of the ODP-MT and other political parties.  Five opposition political parties merged to form the Party for Democracy and Progress (Parti pour le Democratie et le Progress – PDP) on March 29, 1996.  Legislative elections were held on May 11, 1997, and the CDP won 97 out of 111 seats in the National Assembly.  The PDP won six seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  On February 21, 1998, opposition political parties formed a coalition in support of the establishment of an independent electoral commission.  On May 7, 1998, the National Assembly approved a bill creating the 15-member National Electoral Commission.  President Blaise Compaoré of the CDP was re-elected with 88 percent of the vote on November 15, 1998.  Opposition political parties had boycotted the presidential election.  The European Union (EU) sent nine observers headed by Alain Terrenoire of France to monitor the presidential election.  The OIF sent seven observers from seven countries headed by Salek Ould Abdel Jelil of Mauritania to monitor the presidential election from November 9 to November 19, 1998.  Prime Minister Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo resigned on January 9, 1999, and President Blaise Compaoré re-appointed Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo as prime minister on January 11, 1999.   In 2000, the constitution was amend to limit the president of Burkina Faso to two, five-year terms.  Municipal elections were held on September 24, 2000, and the CDP won 802 out of 1,100 municipal council seats throughout the country.  Opposition political parties boycotted the municipal elections.  Prime Minister Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo resigned on November 6, 2000, and Paramanga Ernest Yonli was appointed as prime minister on November 7, 2000.  Legislative elections were held on May 5, 2002, and the CDP won 57 out of 111 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties won 54 seats in the National Assembly.  The OIF sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  On October 7, 2003, government police arrested 12 individuals, mostly government soldiers, for plotting to overthrow the government.  On April 18, 2004, seven individuals, including a military officer, were convicted and sentenced to prison terms for their involvement in the 2003 plot to overthrow the government.  Six other individuals, including opposition political leader Norbert Tiendrebeogo, were acquitted of charges related to the 2003 plot.  President Blaise Compaoré was re-elected with 80 percent of the vote on November 13, 2005.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Government police and military personnel clashed in Ouagadougou on December 20-26, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and two government police officers.  Legislative elections were held on May 6, 2007, and the CDP won 73 out of 111 seats in the National Assembly.  The Alliance for Democracy and Federation-African Democratic Rally (Alliance pour la Démocratie et la Fédération–Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – ADF-RDA) won 14 seats in the National Assembly.  The AU, West African Economic and Monetary Union (Union économique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine – UEMOA), and Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Tertius Zongo replaced Paramanga Ernest Yonli as prime minister on June 11, 2007.  Protesters attacked government buildings in Ouagadougou on February 29, 2008.  President Blaise Compaoré was re-elected with 80 percent of the vote on November 21, 2010.  The ECOWAS sent 75 observers led by Koffi Sama of Togo to monitor the presidential election from November 19 to November 23, 2010.

Crisis Phase (February 15, 2011-present):  Government soldiers mutinied over pay issues in Ouagadougou and other cities in Burkina Faso beginning on February 15, 2011.  As the result of the death of a student, Justin Zongo, in Koudougou on February 20, 2011, violent protests by students and others occurred throughout the country.  Three civilians, including two students, were killed in clashes with government security forces in Koudougou on February 23, 2011.  Three individuals, including two students and one government policeman, were killed in clashes in Poa and Kindi on February 24, 2011.  On March 11, 2011, three government policemen were arrested in connection with the death of Justin Zongo, who had been questioned and allegedly beaten by government police on several occasions prior to his death on February 20th.  The government ordered the closure of all universities in the country on March 13, 2011.  Protesting students set fire to the headquarters of the CDP in Yako in Passoré province on April 11, 2011.  Tens of thousands of individuals demonstrated against high food prices in Ouagadougou on April 14, 2011.  Members of the presidential guard of President Blaise Compaoré and other government soldiers mutinied in Ouagadougou beginning on April 14-15, 2011.  President Blaise Compaoré dismissed the government of Prime Minister Tertius Zongo on April 15, 2011, and Ambassador Luc-Adolphe Tiao was appointed as prime minister on April 18, 2011.  President Blaise Compaoré appointed himself as Defense Minister on April 21, 2011.  On April 29, 2011, President Blaise Compaoré announced that the military agreed to end their mutinies.  On April 30, 2011, members of opposition political parties demonstrated in Ouagadougou and demanded the resignation of President Blaise Compaoré.  Secondary school teachers went on strike on May 16-20, 2011, and students went on strike in support of their teachers in Ouagadougou on May 24, 2011.  Three individuals were killed in protests by students and government soldiers in Ouagadougou on May 24, 2011.  The government and teachers’  union reached an agreement on May 25, 2011.  Government soldiers mutinied in Tenkodogo on May 27, 2011 and in Bobo-Dioulasso on June 1, 2011.  Seven individuals, including six soldiers and one young girl, were killed in clashes between pro-government soldiers (including a unit of the presidential guard) and rebel soldiers in Bobo-Dioulasso on June 3, 2011.  Fifty-seven soldiers were arrested for their involvement in the Bobo-Dioulasso mutiny.  The government replaced all thirteen regional governors on June 9, 2011.  On July 7, 2011, President Blaise Compaoré issued a decree dismissing some 566 government soldiers for their involvement in the mutinies.  On August 23, 2011, a court found two government policemen guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to ten-year prison terms for the February 20th death of Justin Zongo.  The National Assembly approved legislation granting amnesty to President Blaise Compaoré and previous heads of state on June 11, 2012.  The vote in the National Assembly was boycotted by opposition political parties.  Legislative elections were held on December 2, 2012, and the CDP won 70 out of 111 seats in the National Assembly.  The ADF-RDA won 19 seats in the National Assembly.  The AU sent 37 observers led by former prime minister Bernard Makuza of Rwanda to monitor the legislative elections from November 24, 2012 to December 4, 2012.  The ECOWAS sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  On July 28, 2013, thousands of individuals organized by Zéphirin Diabré protested in Ouagadougou against changes to the constitution that would potentially allow President Blaise Compaoré to run for another term.  On January 18, 2014, Zéphirin Diabré organized a “national day of protest” in Ouagadougou and other cities against making changes to the constitution regarding presidential term limits.  Several former members of the CDP established the Movement of People for Progress (Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès – MPP) on January 25, 2014.  President Alassane Ouattara of Côte d’Ivore unsuccessfully attempted to mediate negotiations among political leaders, including Roch Marc Christian Kaboré, Salif Diallo, Simon Compaoré, and Zéphirin Diabré on March 21-25, 2014.  On May 31, 2014, several thousand individuals demonstrated in Ouagadougou against a proposed referendum that would lift the two-term limit and permit President Blaise Compaoré to run for re-election in 2015.  Negotiations between representatives of the government and opposition regarding proposed constitutional changes ended without resolution on October 7, 2014.  On October 21, 2014, the government announced that it would submit a bill in the National Assembly to remove the two-term limit for the presidency.  On October 28-30, 2014, government security forces clashed with anti-government protesters in Ouagadougou, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 individuals.  On October 30, 2014, President Blaise Compaoré dissolved the government and declared a state of emergency following three days of violent protests, including damage to the National Assembly building in Ouagadougou.  Later the same day, General Honoré Nabéré Traoré announced the dissolution of the National Assembly and the creation of a transitional government.  President Blaise Compaoré announced his resignation from office on October 31, 2014, and he fled to Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivore.  On November 1, 2014, Lt. Colonel Isaac Zida, deputy commander of the presidential guard, was named as the transitional president.  The U.S. Department of State condemned the military’s seizure of power in Burkina Faso.  On November 3, 2014, the AU Peace and Security Council (PSC) strongly condemned the military’s seizure of power and the suspension of the constitution in Burkina Faso.  The AU threatened sanctions against the military if it did not relinquish power to a civilian-led transitional government within two weeks.  The ECOWAS send a three-member delegation consisting of President Macky Sall of Senegal, President Goodluck Johnson of Nigeria, and President John Mahama of Ghana to facilitate a resolution of the political crisis in Burkina Faso.  Following the signing of the Charter for the Transition in Burkina Faso on November 16, 2014, Michel Kafando was appointed as the transitional president.  The 90-member National Transitional Council (NTC) was also established.  On November 18, 2014, Michal Kafando was inaugurated as interim president.  On November 19, 2014, Lt. Colonel Isaac Zida was appointed as transitional prime minister.  On April 10, 2015, the CDP announced that it was withdrawing from the NTC and the National Commission for Reconciliation and Reforms (NCRR) as a result of recent changes to electoral laws approved by the NTC.  On June 5, 2015, the NTC approved a law requiring military personnel to resign from the military before they would be allowed to hold political office.  On July 16, 2015, former president Blaise Compaoré was criminally charged with treason for his efforts to amend the constitution to eliminate presidential term limits.  On September 14 2015, the NCRR recommended that the presidential guard, officially known as the Regiment of Presidential Security (Regiment de Sécurité Présidentielle – RSP), be disbanded.  On September 16, 2015, RSP soldiers detained interim President Michel Kafando and Prime Minister Isaac Yacouba Zida in the presidential palace in Ouagadougou.  Members of the presidential guard clashed with protesters gathered outside the presidential palace in Ouagadougou, resulting in the deaths of more than ten individuals.  The UN, AU, and ECOWAS issued a joint statement calling for the immediate release of the president, prime minister, and other government officials.  On September 17, 2015, the RSP announced that the transitional government had been dissolved and had been replaced by the National Council for Democracy (Conseil National pour la Démocratie – CND) headed by General Gilbert Diendéré.  President Francois Hollande of France strongly condemned the military coup and called for the “immediate liberation of all those arrested, for the interim authorities to be put back in place and for the continuation of the electoral process.”  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the military coup and stated that “all Burkinabé officials under detention must be released immediately and demands the resumption of the country’s political transition, in accordance with Burkina Faso’s Constitution and Transitional Charter.”  On September 18, 2015, the Peace and Security Council of the African Union (PSC) strongly condemned the “kidnapping and unlawful detention of the President of the Transition, Mr. Michel Kafando, the Transitional Prime Minister, Mr. Yacouba Isaac Zida, and of some members of the Government, and stresses that these actions constitute a terrorist act which should be dealt with as such by the entire international community.”  The PSC also imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against Burkina Faso and imposed economic sanctions (travel restrictions and assets freeze) against the leaders of the military coup.  President Muhammadu Buhari of Nigeria condemned the detention of interim President Michel Kafando, Prime Minister Isaac Yacouba Zida, and other ministers of the transitional government of Burkina Faso.  President Macky Sall of Senegal and President Yayi Boni of Benin, representing the ECOWAS, attempted to mediate a resolution of the political crisis beginning on September 18, 2015.  On September 22, 2015, the RSP agreed to an ECOWAS-mediated agreement in which the presidential guard would withdraw from their positions in Ouagadougou and Michel Kafando would be re-instated as interim president the following day.  On September 25, 2015, the transitional government formally disbanded the RSP.  On September 29, 2015, government troops seized control of the RSP base in Ouagadougou.  On October 1, 2015, General Gilbert Diendéré surrendered to government security forces after fleeing to the Vatican embassy in Ouagadougou.  On October 6, 2015, General Gilbert Diendéré was charged by the government with several crimes, including threatening state security and murder.  On October 9, 2015, suspected Islamic militants attacked government troops near the town of Samorogouan in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and one militant.  Roch Marc Christian Kaboré of the MPP was elected president with 53 percent of the vote on November 29, 2015.  Legislative elections were held on November 29, 2015, and the MPP won 55 out of 127 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for Progress and Reform (Union pour le Progrès et le Changement – UPC) led by Zéphirin Diabré won 33 seats in the National Assembly.  The AU sent 55 short-term observers led by former prime minister Jean Omer Beriziky of Madagascar to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from November 27 to December 1, 2015.  The ECOWAS sent 13 long-term observers and 120 short-term observers led by Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo of Guinea-Bissau to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The EU sent a six-person core team, 24 short-term observers, and 100 long-term observers led by Cécile Kashetu Kyenge from Italy to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 5 to December 29, 2015.  The Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The OIF sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Roch Marc Christian Kaboré was inaugurated as president on December 29, 2015.  On January 15-16, 2016, Islamic militants affiliated with Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Al-Mourabitoun attacked a restaurant and hotel in Ouagadougou, resulting in the deaths of four militants and 30 other individuals.  Among the victims were two former members of the parliament of Switzerland, six Canadian citizens, and four Ukrainian citizens.  The French government deployed additional military personnel in Burkina Faso in January 2016.  On January 16, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the “heinous terrorist attacks” in Ouagadougou.  Nkosazana Dlamini-Zumam Chairperson of the AU Commission, condemned the “despicable and cowardly terrorist attacks” in Ouagadougou.  President François Hollande of France condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou and expressed “total support for President Kaboré and for the people of Burkina Faso in the face of this odious and cowardly attack.”  The ECOWAS condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  The U.S. Department of State strongly condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou, where an American missionary was killed.  The governments of Algeria, Canada, Ghana, Egypt, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, United Arab Emirates, and United Kingdom also strongly condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  On October 12, 2016, members of the Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) attacked government troops in the town of Intangom in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers.  On December 16, 2016, Islamic militants attacked a government military post in the village of Nassoumbou in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of 12 government soldiers.  The next day, the ECOWAS Commission strongly condemned the attack in the village of Nassoumbou.  On December 31, 2016, Islamic militants linked to an al-Qaeda-affiliated group led by Malam Ibrahim Dicko killed a religious leader (imam) in the village of Sibé.  On February 27, 2017, Islamic militants affiliated with the group Ansar ul Islam attacked the government police station in Soum, resulting in the deaths of three government police officers.  On March 3, 2017, Islamic militants with killed two individuals in the town of Kourfayl in northern Burkina Faso.  On August 13, 2017, Islamic militants attacked a Turkish restaurant and a hotel in Ouagadougou, resulting in the deaths of 22 individuals, including three militants and one government police officer.  The governments of Canada and France condemned the terrorist attack in Ouagadougou, where the victims include two Canadian citizens and one French citizen.  UN Secretary-General António Guterres strongly condemned the terrorist attack in Ouagadougou.  Approximately 100 individuals were killed as a result of extremist violence in Burkina Faso in 2017.  On March 2, 2018, Islamic militants belonging to the group, Jama’a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin’ (JNIM), attacked several targets in Ouagadougou, including the French embassy and the headquarters of Burkina Faso’s military.  Sixteen individuals, including eight government soldiers and eight militants, were killed in the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  On March 2, 2018, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  On March 3, 2018, Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the AU Commission, strongly condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  UN Secretary-General António Guterres and the UN Security Council condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  Qatari Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  On March 6, 2018, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the United Arab Emirates condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  The governments of Canada, Egypt, Japan, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, and the U.S. also condemned the terrorist attacks in Ouagadougou.  On August 11, 2018, militants attacked a convoy of vehicles near Boungou in eastern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of five government police officers and one civilian.  On August 28, 2018, seven government security personnel were killed in a roadside bombing near the town of Pama in Kompienga province.  On September 5, 2018, two government soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit an improvised explosive device (IED) in the town of Kabonga in eastern Burkina Faso.  On September 14, 2018, militants attacked a mosque in the town of Diabiga in Kompienga province, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  On September 26, 2018, eight government soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit an IED between the towns of Barboule and Djibo in Soum province.  On October 3, 2018, one government security personnel was killed during an attack against the Inata gold mine in northern Burkina Faso.  On October 4, 2018, five government soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb in Bartibougou in Komondjari province.  On October 5, 2018, six government police officers were killed by an IED between the towns of Solle and Titao in Lourum province.  On October 6, 2018, one government soldier was killed in a roadside bombing near the town of Pama in Kompienga province.  On November 30, 2018, five government police officers and a civilian driver were killed when their vehicle hit a roadside bomb near the town of Boungou in eastern Burkina Faso.  On December 22, 2018, three government soldiers were killed when their vehicle hit an IED between the towns of Fada and Pama in Kompienga province.  On December 27, 2018, ten government police officers were ambushed and killed by Islamic militants affiliated with JNIM near the village of Loroni in northwestern Burkina Faso.  Approximately 300 individuals were killed as a result of extremist violence in Burkina Faso in 2018.  The government declared a state of emergency in fourteen northern Burkina Faso provinces starting on January 1, 2019.  On January 1, 2019, Islamic militants attacked the village of Yirgou in the district of Barsalogo in northern Burkina Faso.  The next day, Yirgou villagers belonging to the Mossi ethnic group attacked a nearby camp of Fulani nomadic herders.  More than 40 individuals were reportedly killed as a result of the militant attack and inter-communal violence.  On January 5, 2019, UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the inter-communal violence in northern Burkina Faso.  On January 10, 2019, Islamic militants attacked the village of Gasseliki in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of 12 individuals.  The same day, the National Assembly approved a six-month state of emergency in several provinces in northern Burkina Faso.  On January 19, 2019, Prime Minister Paul Kaba Thieba submitted his resignation, which was accepted by President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré.  On January 21, 2019, President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré appointed former health minister Christophe Joseph Marie Dabiré as the new prime minister.  On January 28, 2019, gunmen attacked a government military base in Nassoumbou in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of at least four government soldiers.  On February 4, 2019, government security forces conducted operations that killed more than 145 militants in the provinces of Loroum and Kossi.  On February 5, 2019, government security forces clashed with Islamic militants near Oursi in Oudalan province, resulting in the deaths of five government security personnel and more than 20 militants.  On March 16, 2019, a government soldier and a government police officer were killed when their vehicle hit an IED in Kabonga in Kompienga province.  The next day, three government soldiers were killed in the same area when their vehicle hit an IED.  On March 28, 2019, four government police officers were killed by militants in the town of Barani in the Kossi province.  On April 3, 2019, gunmen killed seven individuals near the town of Arbinda, resulting in inter-communal violence that left another 62 individuals killed.  On April 28, 2019, gunmen attacked a Protestant church in the town of Silgadji in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of at least six individuals.  On May 9, 2019, French government troops rescued four foreigners being held by Islamic militants in northern Burkina Faso.  Two French governments soldiers and four militants were killed during the rescue mission.  On May 12, 2019, Islamic militants attacked a Roman Catholic Church and killed six individuals in the town of Dablo.  The Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the attack in the town of Dablo.  On May 13, 2019, Islamic militants killed four individuals in the town of Zimtenga in northern Burkina Faso.  On May 26, 2019, Islamic militants attacked a Roman Catholic church in the town of Toulfé in Loroum province, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  On July 25-26, 2019, gunmen attacked the village of Diblou in Sanmatenga province, resulting in the deaths of 15 individuals.  On August 19, 2019, militants attacked a government military base in Koutougou in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of 24 government soldiers.  The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned the attack against the military base in Koutougou.  On August 21, 2019, Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the AU Commission, condemned the attack in Koutougou in Soum province.  On August 22, 2019, the ECOWAS Commission strongly condemned the attack in Koutougou in Soum province.  On September 2, 2019, General Gilbert Diendéré was sentenced to 20 years in prison for his role in the attempted 2015 military coup.  On September 8, 2019, suspected Islamic militants killed 14 civilians on the road between Dablo and Delbo in Sanmatenga province.  Another 15 individuals were killed when their vehicle hit an IED on the road between Barsalogho and Guendbila in Sanmatenga province.  On September 9, 2019, Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the AU Commission, strongly condemned the attacks the previous day in Sanmatenga province.  On October 11, 2019, gunmen killed 16 individuals in a mosque in the village of Salmossi in Oudalan province.  On October 12, 2019, UN Secretary-General António Guterres strongly condemned the attack on the mosque in the village of Salmossi.  On October 19, 2019, militants attacked government security forces in the village of Bahn in Loroum province and Yense in Yatenga province, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and one government police officer.  On October 20-21, 2019, gunmen attacked the village of Zoura in Bam province, resulting in the deaths of nine civilians.  On October 28, 2019, suspected Islamic militants attacked the town of Pobe-Mengao in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of 16 individuals.  On November 6, 2019, gunmen attacked a convoy of vehicles carrying employees of a Canadian mining company in eastern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of at least 37 individuals.  On November 15-16, 2019, government troops clashed with Islamic militants near the village of Yorsala in Loroum province and the town of Bourzanga in Bam province, resulting in the deaths of 32 militants and one government soldier.  On November 29, 2019, government troops killed a leader of the Ansar ul Islam group, Abdoul Hadi, and five supporters in Nahouri province.  On December 1, 2019, gunmen attacked a Protestant church in the village of Hantoukoura in eastern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  On December 2, 2019, UN Secretary‑General António Guterres condemned the attack against the Protestant church in the village of Hantoukoura.  The Rev. Dr. Olav Fykse Tveit, Secretary General of the World Council of Churches (WCC), condemned the attack against the Protestant church in the village of Hantoukoura.  On December 24, 2019, Islamic militants attacked a government military post near the town of Arbinda in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of 80 militants, seven government soldiers, and 35 civilians.  On December 25, 2019, UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack against the military post near the town of Arbinda.  The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey condemned the attack against the military post near the town of Arbinda.  On December 27, 2019, the Egyptian government strongly condemned attack against the military post near the town of Arbinda.  Approximately 2,200 individuals were killed as a result of extremist violence in Burkina Faso in 2019.  On January 4, 2020, fourteen individuals were killed when their bus hit a roadside bomb in Sourou province.  On January 5, 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar condemned the attack against the passenger bus.  On January 25, 2020, gunmen attacked a market in the village of Silgadji in Soum province, resulting in the deaths of 39 individuals.  On February 1, 2020, gunmen attacked the village of Lamdamol in Seno province, resulting in the deaths of some 20 civilians.  On February 14, 2020, gunmen killed 22 individuals, including 14 children, in the village of Ntumbo in northwestern Burkina Faso.  On February 16, 2020, gunmen attacked the town of Pansi in Yagha province.  Twenty-four civilians, including the pastor of a Protestant church, were killed in the attack.  On February 17, 2020, the Rev. Dr. Olav Fykse Tveit, Secretary-General of the WCC, condemned the attack against the town of Pansi.  On March 8, 2020, members of the Koglweogo armed group, which has operated with government troops, attacked the villages of  Dinguila and Barga in Yatenga province, resulting in the deaths of 43 individuals.  On May 29, 2020, Islamic militants killed at least 15 individuals traveling in Loroum province in northern Burkina Faso.  On May 30, 2020, gunmen attacked a cattle market in Kompienga province in eastern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of 25 individuals.  Later that day, militants attacked a convoy near the town of Barsalogho in Sanmatenga province, resulting in the deaths of at least ten individuals.  On October 4, 2020, gunmen attacked a convoy of vehicles transporting internally-displaced persons (IDPs) near the village of Ouintokoulga in Sanmatenga province, resulting in the deaths of 25 individuals.  On October 7, 2020, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) condemned the attack against the convoy near the village of Ouintokoulga.  On October 14, 2020, gunmen attacked the villages of Bombofa, Peteguerse, and Demniol in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals.  President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré of the MPP was re-elected with 58 percent of the vote on November 22, 2020.  Legislative elections were held on November 22, 2020, and the MPP won 56 out of 127 seats in the National Assembly.  The CDP won 20 seats in the National Assembly.  The AU sent observers led by former prime minister Bernard Makuza of Rwanda to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The ECOWAS sent 80 short-term observers led by former prime minister Kabiné Komara of Guinea to monitor the presidential and legislative elections on November 19-23, 2020.  The OIF sent short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The CEN-SAD sent short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The Conseil de l’Entente, a West African regional cooperation forum based in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivore, sent short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré was sworn in for a second term on December 28, 2020.  President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré dismissed Prime Minister Christophe Dabiré and dissolved the government on December 30, 2020.  Approximately 2,300 individuals were killed as a result of extremist violence in Burkina Faso in 2020.  Christophe Dabiré was re-appointed as prime minister on January 7, 2021, and Prime Minister Dabiré announced a 33-member cabinet on January 11, 2021.  On January 16-17, 2021, French government troops killed some 30 Islamic militants in northern Burkina Faso.  On January 18, 2021, Islamic militants ambushed government policemen in the town of Yirgou, resulting in the deaths of 15 government police officers.  On February 18, 2021, gunmen ambushed and killed nine individuals between the towns of Markoye and Tokabangou in northern Burkina Faso.  On March 2, 2021, six individuals were killed when the ambulance carrying then hit a roadside bomb between the towns of Gaskindé and Namissiguia in northern Burkina Faso.  On April 5, 2021, militants killed three government police officers and four members of a government-backed civilian militia in the town of Tanwalbougou in Gourma province.  On April 26, 2021, gunmen attacked the village of Yattakou in Seno province, resulting in the deaths of at least 18 individuals.  On May 3, 2021, suspected Islamic militants attacked the village of Hantoukoura in Komandjari province, resulting in the deaths of at least 30 individuals.  On May 5, 2021, AU Commission President Moussa Faki Mahamat and the General Secretariat of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) strongly condemned the attack against the village of Hantoukoura.  On May 18, 2021, suspected Islamic militants attacked a group of civilians near the town of Tin-Akoff in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of at least 15 individuals.  On May 20, 2021, Dr Yousef Al-Othaimeen, Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), condemned the attack near the town of Tin-Akoff.  On June 4-5, 2021, militants attacked the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat in Yagha province, resulting in the deaths of 174 individuals.  According to the Burkina Faso government, most of the militants in the attack were children between the ages of 12 and 14.  On June 5, 2021, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State of Qatar condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  Josep Borrell Fontelles, the EU High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  On June 6, 2021, UN Secretary-General António Guterres strongly condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the AU Commission, condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  The General Secretariat of the OIC strongly condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  On June 7, 2021, Amnesty International strongly condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.   On June 8, 2021, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  The governments of Algeria, Iran, Morocco, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates also condemned the attacks on the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat.  On June 21, 2021, gunmen ambushed government policemen near the town of Barsalogho in northern Burkina Faso, resulting in the deaths of at least eleven government police officers.  On June 24, 2021, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) condemned the “recruitment of children and adolescents by non-state armed groups” in Burkina Faso.  On July 3, 2021, thousands of opposition political party supported demonstrated in Ouagadougou against the government’s handling of the attacks by Islamic militants in northern Burkina Faso.  On August 5, 2021, suspected Islamic militants attacked several villages near the town of Markoye in Oudalan province, resulting in the deaths of 11 civilians, 15 government soldiers, four members of a government-backed civilian militia, and at least ten militants.  On August 7, 2021, the U.S. Department of State condemned the attacks near the town of Markoye.  On August 8, 2021, suspected Islamic militants attacked a government military patrol near the village of Dounkoun in Sourou province, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 government soldiers.  On August 9, 2021, Dr. Yousef Al-Othaimeen, Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), condemned the attack on the military patrol in the village of Dounkoun.  On August 18, 2021, suspected Islamic militants attacked a convoy of vehicles near the village of Boukouma in Soum province.  The attack resulted in the deaths of more than 150 individuals, including 80 militants, 59 civilians, four members of a government-backed civilian militia, and 15 military police officers.  The European Union (EU) condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  On August 19, 2021, UN Secretary-General António Guterres strongly condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  Dr. Yousef Al-Othaimeen, Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  On August 20, 2021, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Qatar condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  On August 21, 2021, the EU condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  On August 23, 2021, the U.S. Department of State condemned the attack near the village of Boukouma.  More than 5,000 individuals have been killed during the crisis.  More than 1.3 million individuals have been internally displaced, and more than 35,000 individuals have fled as refugees to Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Niger.

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Selected Bibliography

Chouli, Lila. 2015. “The popular uprising in Burkina Faso and the Transition,” Review of African Political Economy, vol. 42 (no. 144), pp. 325-333.

Engels, Bettina. 2015. “Political Transition in Burkina Faso: the Fall of Blaise Compaoré,” Governance in Africa, vol. 2 (1), pp. 1–6.

Hagberg, Sten. 2015. “Thousands of New Sankaras: Resistance and Struggle in Burkina Faso,” Africa Spectrum, vol. 50 (3), pp, 109–121.

Sawo, Adoulie. 2017. “The Chronology of Military Coup d’états and Regimes in Burkina Faso: 1980-2015,” The Turkish Yearbook of International Relations, volume 48, pp. 1-18.