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62. Senegal/Casamance (1982-present)

 

Crisis Phase (December 26, 1982-April 19, 1990): The political wing of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de Casamance – MFDC) headed by Augustin Diamacoune Senghor called for the independence of the Casamance region in southern Senegal on December 26, 1982.  Augustin Diamacoune Senghor and 62 other individuals were arrested by government police.  Government police arrested nine members of the MFDC on June 1, 1983.  At least 25 individuals were killed during demonstrations in Ziguinchor, the regional capital of Casamance, on December 18, 1983.  The military wing of the MFDC was established in 1985.

Conflict Phase (April 20, 1990-July 8, 1993): The military wing of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de Casamance – MFDC) began an armed rebellion against the government of Senegal on April 20, 1990.  The Libyan government provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Casamance rebels. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses against individuals in the Casamance region on January 10, 1991. Government and MFDC representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on May 31, 1991.  The government of Guinea-Bissau mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on January 2, 1992.  In August 1992, the MFDC split into two factions – Front Sud (southern front led by Abbe Diamacoune) and the Front Nord (northern front led by Sidy Badji).  Government troops clashed with Casamance rebels in the village of Kaguitt on September 1, 1992, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels and two government soldiers.  Casamance rebels attacked a village south of Dakar on October 26, 1992, resulting in the deaths of 31 individuals.  In December 1992, Casamance rebels ambushed and killed two government soldiers.  Some 12,000 individuals fled as refugees to Guinea-Bissau, and some 5,000 individuals fled as refugees to Gambia.  Casamance rebels killed some 30 individuals on February 20-21, 1993.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed near the village of Badene on March 12-14, 1993, resulting in the deaths of some 80 rebels.  Augustin Diamacoune Senghor, leader of the MFDC, called for a ceasefire with the government on April 8, 1993.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed on April 18-19, 1993, resulting in the deaths of some 100 rebels and three government soldiers.  The government called for a ceasefire with the Casamance rebels on April 27, 1993.  Government troops killed some 20 Casamance rebels near Badem on June 26, 1993.  The parties signed a ceasefire agreement in Ziguinchor on July 8, 1993.  Some 450 individuals were killed and some 20,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 9, 1993-June 15, 1995):  Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de Casamance – MFDC) rebels clashed with government troops on July 11, 1993, resulting in the death of one government soldier.  The government released 256 MFDC prisoners on July 19-20, 1993.  Casamance rebels killed three government policemen on September 15, 1993.  Government police killed one member of MFDC on November 16, 1993.  Some 200 individuals were killed in separatist violence in Casamance in 1993.  Casamance rebels killed 30 individuals near Ziguinchor on February 21, 1994.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops on January 16-24, 1995, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier and several rebels.  Government aircraft bombed Casamance rebel targets in Guinea-Bissau on February 10, 1995.  Casamance rebels killed two civilians on February 16, 1995.  Casamance rebels killed three civilians on March 3, 1995.

Conflict Phase (June 16, 1995-December 30, 2004):  Augustin Diamacoune Senghor, leader of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de Casamance – MFDC), called for an end to the ceasefire on June 16, 1995.  Casamance rebels killed some 28 government soldiers on July 25-28, 1995.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed south of Ziguinchor on November 22, 1995, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels.  Some 150 Casamance rebels were killed from October 27 to November 30, 1995.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided emergency humanitarian assistance to some 15,000 internally-displaced individuals beginning in 1997.  Some 30 government soldiers were killed during military hostilities with Casamance rebels between August 19 and September 19, 1997, and some 150 Casamance rebels were killed in military hostilities with government troops between September 13 and November 26, 1997. Casamance rebels killed nine civilians in the village of Djinabar on September 7-8, 1997.  The government of Guinea-Bissau attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties. The European Union (EU) appealed for peaceful negotiations on September 17, 1997.  Casamance rebels killed at least five individuals in the village of Diogue on September 30, 1997.  In October 1997, government troops launched a military offensive against Casamance rebels, resulting in the deaths of some 100 rebels.  Casamance rebels killed five individuals on December 16, 1997.  Augustin Diamacoune Senghor, leader of the MFDC, called for a ceasefire with government troops on January 22, 1998.  Some 20 Casamance rebels were killed by government troops in May 1998. Casamance rebels killed three individuals in the town of Kolda on June 29, 1998.  Casamance rebels killed 17 government soldiers in Samodie on August 26, 1998.  Government troops clashed with Casamance rebels in the Kolda region on August 30, 1998, resulting in the deaths of some 43 rebels and four government soldiers.  Casamance rebels killed ten civilians in the village of Jisankoh on November 2, 1998. Some 5,000 Senegalese refugees were in Gambia and 5,000 in Guinea-Bissau in December 1998. Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed on March 22, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 22 rebels. Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed on April 29-30, 1999, resulting in the deaths of fifteen rebels, three civilians, and two government soldiers. Government and MFDC representatives participated in Gambian-mediated negotiations in Banjul, Gambia beginning on June 19, 1999.  Casamance rebels killed one individual near Ziguinchor on December 3, 1999. Government and MFDC representatives began negotiations in Banjul, Gambia on December 26, 1999.  The parties signed a ceasefire agreement on December 27, 1999.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed on April 10, 2000, resulting in the deaths of one rebel. Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed near the village of Sara Wali on April 11, 2000, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and 15 rebels. Some 100 Casamance rebels attacked the border post of M’pack on April 24, 2000, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers.  Gambia ended its mediation efforts on September 27, 2000.  Government and MFDC representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on November 30, 2000.  Government and MFDC held peace negotiations beginning on December 16, 2000.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed near the village of Nyassia on February 1, 2001, resulting in the death of one government soldier. Casamance rebels killed 14 individuals in Sedhiou district on February 16, 2001. Casamance rebels killed seven civilians near the town of Bignona on March 2, 2001. Casamance rebels killed two civilians near Ziguinchor on March 12, 2001. Government and Casamance representatives signed a peace agreement in Ziguinchor on March 16, 2001.  Casamance rebels killed one government soldier near Tendouck on April 28, 2001. Casamance rebels launched a military offensive against government troops on May 15, 2001.  Casamance rebels killed one government soldier in Djibidione on May 18, 2001.  Some 3,500 individuals fled as refugees to Gambia.  Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed on October 28, 2001, resulting in the deaths of six rebels and two civilians. Casamance rebels killed one government policeman in Ziguinchor on January 3, 2002. Government troops and Casamance rebels clashed beginning on May 6, 2002. Some 9,000 individuals fled as refugees to Gambia. Casamance rebels killed seven individuals, and government troops launched a military offensive against Casamance rebels on May 14, 2002.  Some 15,000 individuals were displaced as a result of the military offensive.  Representatives of the government and the political wing of the MFDC signed a peace agreement agreement on December 30, 2004.  Some 2,800 individuals were killed and several thousands displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 31, 2004-present):  Representatives of the Senegalese government and the MFDC held negotiations in Foundiougne in central Senegal on February 1-2, 2005.  Casamance rebels killed two government soldiers on August 5, 2005.  Factions of the MFDC clashed in Casamance on March 14-16, 2006.  Twelve individuals were killed by a landmine near Sao Domingos, Guinea-Bissau on March 16, 2006.  The government of Guinea-Bissau blamed Casamance rebels for the landmine.  Guinea-Bissau troops attacked Casamance rebels in southern Senegal on March 18-19, 2006, resulting in the death of one rebel.  The faction of the MFDC led by Salif Sadio clashed with the faction of the Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de Casamance – MFDC) led by Magne Dieme in Casamance from May 15 to June 15, 2006, resulting in the deaths of at least 100 individuals.  Salif Sadio, leader of a faction of the MFDC, continued the rebellion against the Senegalese government beginning on August 15, 2006.  One staff member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was killed in a landmine explosion in Tandine on September 1, 2006.  One government soldier was killed by an anti-tank mine in Boulayor on September 12, 2006.  Some 5,000 individuals fled as refugees to Gambia and some 10,000 individuals were internally-displaced in Casamance between mid-August and mid-September 2006.  Casamance rebels killed two government soldiers near Bignona on December 21, 2006.  Oumar Lamine Badji, president of the Casamance regional council, was assassinated near Ziguinchor on December 30, 2006.  Augustin Diamacoune Senghor, leader of the MFDC, died in Paris, France on January 13, 2007.  Samsedine Dino Nema Aidara, envoy of President Abdoulaye Wade, was assassinated in the village of Mahmouda Cherife on December 27, 2007.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops near Ziguinchor on August 21, 2009, resulting in the displacement of some 600 individuals. Casamance rebels killed two civilians near the village of Djignaky on August 25, 2009.  Six government soldiers were killed in a grenade attack by Casamance rebels on October 3, 2009.  President Yahya Jammeh of Gambia appealed for an immediate ceasefire in the Casamance region on October 20, 2009.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops near the village of Baraf on February 16, 2010, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops on December 27, 2010, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and several rebels.  Casamance rebels attacked a military base in Diegoune District on December 20, 2011, resulting in the deaths of five rebels, five government soldiers, and two civilians.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops in Sindian on February 14-15, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  On June 1, 2012, Salif Sadio, leader of the northern faction of the military wing of the MFDC, appealed for negotiations with the government.  On June 27, 2012, Senegalese President Macky Sall pledged to hold negotiations with Salif Sadio.  Representatives of the government and the northern faction of the military wing of the MFDC held negotiations mediated by the Community of Sant’ Egidio in Rome, Italy on October 13-14, 2012.  Casamance rebels clashed with government troops  near the town of Kafoutine on February 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  Two civilians were killed by a landmine in Casamance on February 9, 2013.  Salif Sadio, the leader of the northern faction of the military wing of the MFDC, announced a unilateral ceasefire on April 30, 2014.

[Sources: Africa Diary, April 22-28, 1984; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), January 1-31, 1983, June 1-30, 1983, December 1-31, 1983, March 1-31, 1984; Agence France Presse (AFP), October 20, 2009, April 30, 2010, February 12, 2012; Amnesty International (AI) press release, September 25, 1997; Associated Press (AP), October 10, 1997, November 26, 1997, December 26, 1999, April 12, 2000, March 3, 2001, March 16, 2001; Arnold et al., 1991, 287-288; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 249; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), August 28, 1998, November 3, 1998, March 24, 1999, April 30, 1999, December 25, 2000, March 13, 2001, August 10, 2001, March 27, 2002, January 8, 2003, December 16, 2004, December 30, 2004, May 20, 2005, March 17, 2006, August 24, 2006, December 21, 2006, October 3, 2009, December 27, 2010, December 21, 2011, February 2, 2013, February 9, 2013, April 30, 2014; Community of Sant’ Egidio press release, April 30, 2014; Degenhardt, 1988, 318-319; European Union (EU) press release, September 17, 1997; International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) press release, December 4, 1997, April 23, 1998, July 23, 1998, February 10, 1999, May 20, 1999, December 17, 1999; Jessup, 1998, 656-658; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 1991, September 1992, February 1993, March 1993, July 1993, February 1995, November 1995, September 1997; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), February 16, 2001; Reuters, September 13, 1997, September 19, 1997, April 29, 1999, April 30, 1999, June 9, 1999, June 19, 1999, December 3, 1999, December 26, 1999, December 27, 1999, April 11, 2000, April 12, 2000, April 14, 2000, April 25, 2000, September 27, 2000, November 30, 2000, December 16, 2000, February 2, 2001, March 2, 2001, March 17, 2001, April 29, 2001, June 6, 2001, December 27, 2007, August 26, 2009, February 16, 2010, February 25, 2012, February 2, 2013, April 30, 2014; The Daily Observer (Banjul), October 31, 2001, January 8, 2002, May 14, 2002; Voice of America (VOA), December 31, 2006, January 2, 2007.]