NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATES

Masks are required as the campus is at red status.

38. Cote d’Ivoire (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (August 7, 1960-February 13, 1994):  Ivory Coast (Cote d’Ivoire) achieved independence from France on August 7, 1960, and Felix Houphouet-Boigny of the Democratic Party of Ivory Coast (Parti Democratique de la Cote d’Ivoire – PDCI) was appointed as prime minister.  Legislative elections were held on November 27, 1960, and the PDCI won 70 out of 70 seats in the National Assembly.  Prime Minister Houphouet-Boigny was elected president without opposition on November 27, 1960.  The French government provided military assistance (including the stationing of French troops at military bases in Cote d’Ivoire) beginning in 1960.  Legislative elections were held on November 7, 1965, and the PDCI won 85 out of 85 seats in the National Assembly.  President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a second term without opposition on November 7, 1965.  Legislative elections were held on November 29, 1970, and the PDCI won 100 out of 100 seats in the National Assembly.  President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a third term without opposition on November 29, 1970.

Legislative elections were held on November 16, 1975, and the PDCI won 120 out of 120 seats in the National Assembly.  President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a fourth term without opposition on November 16, 1975.  President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a fifth term without opposition on October 12, 1980. Legislative elections were held on November 9-23, 1980, and the Democratic Party of Ivory Coast (Parti Democratique de la Cote d’Ivoire – PDCI) won 147 out of 147 seats in the National Assembly. Students demonstrated against the government from April 18 to May 3, 1983.  President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a sixth term without opposition on October 27, 1985.  Legislative elections were held on November 10, 1985, and the PDCI won 175 out of 175 seats in the National Assembly. The government declared a general amnesty of prisoners on December 6, 1985. Students and laborers demonstrated against the government of President Houphouet-Boigny beginning in February 1990. The government legalized opposition political parties on May 30, 1990. President Houphouet-Boigny was re-elected for a seventh term with 82 percent of the vote on October 28, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on November 25, 1990, and the PDCI won 163 out of 175 seats in the National Assembly. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Abidjan on May 17-18, 1991. President Houphouet-Boigny died on December 7, 1993. Henri Konan-Bedie, president of the National Assembly, assumed the presidency on December 8, 1993. Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara resigned on December 10, 1993, and Daniel Kablan Duncan formed a government as prime minister on December 15, 1993.

Crisis Phase (February 14, 1994-September 18, 2002):  On February 15, 1994, Laurent Gbagbo, an opposition leader, suggested that Henri Konan-Bedie had illegitimately assumed the presidency. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) sent a four-member electoral assessment mission to the country on October 19-November 4, 1994. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Abidjan on October 2, 1995, resulting in the deaths of five individuals. Henri Konan-Bedie of the PDCI was elected president with 95 percent of the vote on October 22, 1995. Opposition political parties, including the Ivorian People’s Front (Front Populaire Ivorienne – FPI), boycotted the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on November 26, 1995, and the PDCI won 148 out of 175 seats in the National Assembly. The Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Republicains – RDR) won 13 seats, and the Ivorian People’s Front (Front Populaire Ivorienne – FPI) won 11 seats in the National Assembly.  Assane Sanogo, a taxi driver, was killed by government police in Abidjan on September 10, 1998.  Taxi and bus drivers staged a general strike on September 14-18, 1998.  President Konan-Bedie was deposed in a military coup led by General Robert Guei on December 24, 1999, and the nine-member National Public Salvation Committee (NPSC) headed by General Guei took control of the government on December 25, 1999.  Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), appealed for peaceful negotiations on December 24, 1999.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the military coup on December 24, 1999.  The French government condemned the military coup on December 24, 1999, and deployed 40 troops in Abidjan on December 25, 1999.  The governments of Britain, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa condemned the military coup on December 25, 1999.  President Bedie fled to Togo on December 26, 1999.  The U.S. government condemned the military coup on December 26, 1999.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the military government of Cote d’Ivoire on December 28, 1999.  The French government withdrew its troops from the country on December 28, 1999.  The OAU condemned the military coup on December 28, 1999.  Malian President Alpha Omar Konare, Chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), condemned the military coup on December 29, 1999.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Daloa on March 28, 2000, resulting in the death of one government soldier.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on July 23, 2000.  The European Union (EU) sent 30 observers to monitor the referendum. General Guei survived an attempted assassination at his home in Abidjan on September 18, 2000, but two security guards were killed by the assassins.  Fourteen government soldiers were arrested for their involvement in the attempted assassination.  The OAU established a conciliation commission (Algeria, Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Gabon, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Togo), and the OAU conciliation commission attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on September 24, 2000.  The military junta proclaimed a state-of-emergency on October 5, 2000, and the state-of-emergency was lifted on October 13, 2000.  On October 12, 2000, the PDCI decided the boycott the upcoming presidential election. On October 23, 2000, Laurent Gbagbo of the Ivorian People’s Front (Front Populaire Ivorienne – FPI) declared himself the winner of the presidential election held on October 22, 2000.  On October 24, 2000, General Guei declared himself the winner of the presidential election.  The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 30 long-term observers, and 70 short-term observers headed by Gwyn Morgan of Britain to monitor the presidential election from August to mid-December 2000.  The Libyan government sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The military junta proclaimed a state-of-emergency on October 24, 2000.  On October 25, 2000, the ECOWAS condemned the military junta for dissolving the National Electoral Commission (NEC) prior to the completion of the vote counting.  The Association of African Jurists (AAJ) condemned the military junta on October 25, 2000.  The EU condemned the military junta on October 25, 2000, and imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic sanctions) against the government of Cote d’Ivoire.  Some 170 individuals were killed in political violence on October 24-26, 2000.  Laurent Gbagbo was sworn in as president on October 26, 2000.  The Canadian government condemned the political violence in the country on October 26, 2000.  On October 26, 2000, ECOWAS called on all political leaders and their supporters in Cote d’Ivoire “to stop all acts of violence immediately.”  The Namibian government condemned the political violence in the country on November 1, 2000.  ECOWAS provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Gbagbo on November 6, 2000.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan decided to send Special Envoy Lakhdar Brahimi to the country on November 27, 2000, and appointed Colin Terrence Granderson of Trinidad and Tobago as chairman of a commission of inquiry on December 5, 2000.  Government police and demonstrators clashed in Abidjan on December 4, 2000, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  President Gbagbo declared a state-of-emergency on December 4, 2000.  President Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo, chairman of the OAU, appealed for peaceful negotiations on December 4, 2000.  Legislative elections were held on December 10, 2000 and January 14, 2001, and the FPI won 96 out of 225 seats in the National Assembly.  The PDCI won 94 seats in the National Assembly.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency on December 13, 2000.  Some 300 individuals were killed in election-related violence. The government suppressed a rebellion on January 7, 2001.  The French government condemned the rebellion on January 8, 2001. President Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo, chairman of the OAU, condemned the rebellion on January 8, 2001.  The Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA) established a six-member commission (Canada, Ghana, Italy, Mali, Netherlands, Senegal) headed by Theresa Ameley Tagoe of Ghana, which attempted to facilitate negotiations between the parties on February 24-March 1, 2001.  Municipal elections were held on March 25, 2001, and the RDR won 67 out of 197 mayoral seats. The PDCI won 56 mayoral seats.  The PGA sent observers to monitor the municipal elections from March 24 to March 27, 2001.  One individual was killed in political violence in Abobo district in Abidjan on March 29, 2001.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Daloa on June 25, 2002.  Local elections were held on July 7, 2002. The FPI and PDCI each won 18 councils throughout the country.  Several individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Cote d’Ivoire in 2002.  The EU lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Cote d’Ivoire in 2002.

Conflict Phase (September 19, 2002-May 3, 2003):  Government troops clashed with rebel soldiers led by General Robert Guei and Guillaume Soro beginning on September 19, 2002.  General Guei was killed during the clashes on September 19, 2002.  Mohammed Ibn Chambas, executive secretary of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), condemned the rebels on September 20, 2002.  The French government deployed 5,300 peacekeeping troops (Operation Licorne) to provide security for civilians beginning on September 22, 2002.  The governments of Ghana, Nigeria, and Togo jointly condemned the rebellion on September 24, 2002.  The Nigerian government provided military assistance (military aircraft) in support of the government of Cote d’Ivoire beginning on September 26, 2002.  ECOWAS established a mediation commission (Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Togo) to mediate negotiations between the parties on September 29, 2002.  Rebel soldiers captured Daloa on October 13, 2002, but government troops recaptured the town on October 15, 2002.  Representatives of the government and Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast (Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d‟Ivoire-MPCI) signed a ceasefire agreement mediated by Foreign Minister Cheikh Tidiane Gadio of Senegal, representing the ECOWAS, in Lomé, Togo on October 17, 2002.  Representatives of the government and rebel soldiers signed a partial peace agreement in Lome, Togo on November 6, 2002.  Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin of France attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on November 27, 2002 (and sponsored negotiations in Linas-Marcoussis, France from January 15 to January 26, 2003).  Government troops killed some 120 individuals in the village of Monoko-Zohi beginning on November 27, 2002.  Government troops and rebels resumed military hostilities on November 28, 2002.  Ivorian Popular Movement of the Great West (MPIGO) and Movement for Peace and Justice (MPJ) rebels captured the towns of Man and Danane on November 28, 2002.  French troops clashed with rebels near the town of Man on November 30, 2002, resulting in the deaths of ten rebels.  Some 50,000 individuals fled as refugees to Liberia and Guinea.  The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict.  The UN Security Council condemned the rebels, and appealed for negotiations on December 20, 2002.  Some 1,500 ECOWAS Mission in Cote d’Ivoire (ECOMICI) peacekeeping troops and 70 civilian police personnel from five countries commanded by Major-General Abdoulaye Khalil Fall of Senegal were deployed in Cote d’Ivoire beginning on January 3, 2003.  President Gbagbo appointed Seydou Diarra as prime minister on January 25, 2003. Representatives of the government and rebels signed a French-mediated power sharing agreement (Linas-Marcoussis Agreement) in Paris, France on January 26, 2003.  On February 4, 2003, the UN Security Council authorized the recent deployments of peacekeeping troops by ECOWAS (ECOMICI) and France (Operation Licorne). The Democratic Party of Ivory Coast (Parti Democratique de la Cote d’Ivoire – PDCI) suspended participation in the government of national reconciliation on March 4, 2003.  Government troops killed some 120 protesters in Abidjan on March 25, 2003.  The parties signed a ceasefire agreement on May 3, 2003.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 4, 2003-November 3, 2004):  On May 13, 2003, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission in Cote d’Ivoire (MINUCI) to monitor the military situation, including the security of refugees, in Cote d’Ivoire.  At its maximum strength, MINUCI consisted of 75 military observers and 54 international civilian staff personnel from 23 countries commanded by Brig.-General Abdul Hafiz of Bangladesh.  One French peacekeeping soldier was killed by a government soldier near Yamoussoukro on June 25, 2003.  French peacekeeping soldiers and rebels clashed near Sakassou on August 26, 2003, resulting in the deaths of two French soldiers.  Some 19 individuals were killed in political violence in Abidjan on December 11-12, 2003.  On February 27, 2004, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) to monitor the ceasefire agreement, assist in the disarmament and demobilization of combatants, protect humanitarian assistance, and provide security for elections.  Government troops and protestors clashed in Abidjan on March 25, 2004, resulting in the deaths of some 120 individuals.  The Executive Secretariat of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) called for the “resumption of political dialogue” in the Cote d’Ivoire on March 26, 2004.  UNOCI troops and military observers commanded by Major-General Abdoulaye Khalil Fall of Senegal were deployed in the country on April 1, 2004.  ECOMICI and MINUCI were disbanded on April 4, 2004.  On July 30, 2004, the parties signed an agreement in Accra, Ghana related to the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement.

Conflict Phase (November 4, 2004-April 6, 2005):  Government military aircraft attacked rebel-held territory beginning on November 4, 2004.  On November 5, 2004, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the government for attacking rebel-held territory.  Government military aircraft bombed a French military base in Bouake on November 6, 2004, resulting in the deaths of nine French peacekeeping soldiers and one American civilian.  On November 6-7, 2004, the UN Security Council, European Union (EU), and the African Union (AU) condemned the government for the killing of French peacekeeping soldiers.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and rebels beginning on November 15, 2004.  President Thebo Mbeki of South Africa, representing the AU, mediated negotiations between the parties beginning on November 9, 2004.  On December 13, 2004, the Council of the EU imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel ban) against the government and rebels in Cote d’Ivoire.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against targeted individuals in Cote d’Ivoire beginning on December 15, 2004.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Pierre Schori of Sweden as UN Special Representative for Cote d’Ivoire beginning on April 1, 2005.  Representatives of the government and rebels signed an AU-mediated ceasefire agreement in Pretoria, South Africa on April 6, 2005.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 7, 2005-February 22, 2011):  Some eight individuals were killed in ethnic violence in western Cote d’Ivoire on May 1, 2005.  Some 70 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in western Cote d’Ivoire on June 1-6, 2005.  The UN Security Council condemned the ethnic violence in western Cote d’Ivoire on June 7, 2005.  The parties signed the African Union (AU)-mediated Declaration on the Implementation of the Pretoria Agreement in Pretoria, South Africa on June 29, 2005.  Charles Konan Banny was appointed as prime minister on December 4, 2005.  The UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (ban on diamond exports) against Cote d’Ivoire on December 15, 2005.  Eleven individuals were killed during anti-UN riots in Abidjan on January 16-19, 2006.  The UN Security Council condemned the riots on January 19, 2006.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against targeted individuals in Cote d’Ivoire on February 7, 2006.  On October 17, 2006, President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa was replaced by President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso as AU mediator.  Representatives of the government and rebels signed an AU-mediated peace agreement in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on March 4, 2007.  Guillaume Soro, leader of the Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast (Mouvement Patriotique de Côte d‟Ivoire-MPCI), was appointed as prime minister beginning on April 4, 2007.  Choi Young-jin of South Korea was appointed as UN Special Representatives to Cote d’Ivoire on October 18, 2007.  On November 11, 2008, President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso mediated an agreement among political leaders, including President Laurent Gbagbo and Prime Minister Guillaume Soro, to postpone presidential elections due to delays in voter registration and security concerns.  President Gbagbo dissolved the government and electoral commission on February 12, 2010.  Government security forces killed five demonstrators in the town of Gagnoa on February 19, 2010.  Prime Minister Guillaume Soro formed a new 27-member government on February 23, 2010.  After several postponements, presidential elections were held on October 31 and November 28, 2010.  The AU sent 200 observers led by former Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh of Togo to monitor the presidential elections.  The European Union (EU) sent 120 observers from 25 countries to monitor the presidential elections from October 7 to November 30, 2010.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 200 observers led by Professor Theodore Holo of Benin to monitor the presidential elections beginning on October 25, 2010.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter  Center (TCC), sent 50 observers to monitor the presidential elections. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent twelve observers to monitor the president elections.  On December 2, 2010, the Independent Electoral Commission-IEC of Cote d’Ivoire declared Alassane Ouattara of the Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Republicains-RDR) as the winner of the second round with 54 percent of the vote.  On December 3, 2010, the Constitutional Court declared the presidential election results as invalid and incumbent President Laurent Gbagbo as the winner of the second round with 51 percent of the vote.  On December 4, 2010, President Gbagbo and Alassane Ouattara both claimed to have won the presidency.  Former President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa and Prime Minister Raila Odinga of Kenya, representing the AU, attempted to mediate a resolution of the political crisis beginning on December 5, 2010.  The ECOWAS imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of President Gbagbo on December 7, 2010.  On December 9, 2010, the UN Security Council issued a statement recognizing Alassane Ouattara as the winner of the disputed presidential election.  On December 9, 2010, the AU imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of President Gbagbo.  On December 12, 2010, the EU imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against President Gbagbo.  Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence on December 16, 2010.  The U.S. government condemned the recent violence in Cote d’Ivoire on December 17, 2010.  The AU appointed Prime Minister Raila Odinga of Kenya as AU Special Envoy to Cote d’Ivoire on December 27, 2010.  The presidents of Benin, Cape Verde, and Sierra Leone, representing the ECOWAS, attempted to mediate a resolution of the political crisis beginning on December 28, 2010.  Several individuals were killed in clashes between rival political factions on January 11-12, 2011.  On January 15, 2011, the EU imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against several individuals and companies linked to President Gbagbo in Cote d’Ivoire.  More than 600 individuals were killed in political violence since April 2005.

Conflict Phase (February 23, 2011-May 4, 2011):  Military hostilities broke out between government troops loyal to President Gbagbo and Forces Nouvelles de Cote d’Ivoire (FNCI) rebels – later renamed the Republican Forces of Cote d’Ivoire (RFCI) – led by Alassane Ouattara in Abidjan and other locations on February 23, 2011.  Government security forces killed seven demonstrators in the Abobo District of Abidjan on March 3, 2011.  On March 3, 2011, the UN Security Council condemned “acts of violence” against UN personnel and civilians in Cote d’Ivoire.  FNCI/RFCI rebels captured the towns of Zouan Hounien and Binhouye on March 7, 2011.  More than 25 civilians were killed by mortars attacks in the Abobo District of Abidjan on March 17, 2011.  FNCI/RFCI rebels captured the town of Blolequin on March 21, 2011.  FNCI/RFCI rebels launched a military offensive against government troops on March 28, 2011, and Yamoussoukro fell to the rebels on March 30, 2011.  Some 800 supporters of President Gbagbo were massacred by a militia led by Amade Oueremi in the town of Duékoué on March 29, 2011.  On March 30, 2011, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1975, recognizing Alassane Ouattara as president of Cote d’Ivoire and authorizing UN and French peacekeeping troops to use “all necessary measures” to protect civilians in Cote d’Ivoire.  The UN Security Council also imposed economic sanctions against President Gbagbo and four associates on March 30, 2011.  French troops took control of the airport in Abidjan on April 4, 2011.  On April 4, 2011, the Commission of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) condemned the reported massacre of civilians the town of Duékoué.  FNCI/RFCI rebels and French troops attacked the president’s residence in Abidjan and arrested President Gbagbo on April 11, 2011.  On April 21, 2011, the African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against Cote d’Ivoire.  The last remaining supporters of ousted President Gbagbo were defeated in the Yopougon District of Abidjan on May 4, 2011.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed during the conflict, and some 1.2 million individuals were displaced during the conflict (including 300,000 individuals who fled as refugees to neighboring countries).

Post-Conflict Phase (May 5, 2011-April 28, 2016):  Alassane Ouattara was sworn in as president by the Constitutional Court in Abidjan on May 6, 2011.  On May 19, 2011, the government of President Ouattara asked the International Criminal Court (ICC) to launch a formal investigation of allegations of crimes committed during the recent conflict.  Alassane Ouattara was formally inaugurated as president in a ceremony held in Yamoussoukro on May 21, 2011.  On June 27, 2011, the European Union (EU) lifted the last remaining economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) imposed against individuals and companies in Cote d’Ivoire during the recent conflict.  On July 28, 2011, Bert Koenders of the Netherlands was appointed as UN Special Representative in Cote d’Ivoire.  On September 27, 2011, the President of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) appointed Ambassador Oluwole Coker of Nigeria as Special Representative to Cote d’Ivoire.  On October 3, 2011, the International Criminal Court (ICC) approved the opening of an investigation of the post-election violence in Cote d’Ivoire.  Former President Gbagbo was turned over to the ICC in The Hague, Netherlands on November 29-30, 2011.  Legislative elections were  held on December 11, 2011, and the Rally of the Republicans (Rassemblement des Republicains-RDR) won 127 out of 255 seats in the National Assembly.  The Democratic Party of Ivory Coast – African Democratic Rally (Democratique de la Cote d’Ivoire – Rassemblement Demoratique Africain – DCI-RDA) won 76 seats in the National Assembly.  The Ivorian Popular Front (Front Populaire Ivorienne – FPI) boycotted the legislative elections.  The African Union (AU) sent observers head by former Foreign Minister Roland Kpotsra Yao of Togo to monitor the legislative elections from December 8 to December 12, 2011.  The ECOWAS sent 60 observers led by Professor Theodore Holo of Benin to monitor the legislative elections from December 8 to December 11, 2011.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 30 observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Jeannot Kouadio Ahoussou of the Democratic Party of Ivory Coast (Parti Democratique de la Cote d’Ivoire – PDCI) was appointed as prime minister on March 13, 2012.  Eighteen individuals, including seven UNOCI peacekeeping soldiers from Niger, were killed in an ambush near the border with Liberia on June 8, 2012.  On June 8, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of the 18 individuals.  Seven individuals were killed at a UN-protected camp for displaced persons near Nahibly on July 20, 2012.  Ten government soldiers were killed in attacks in Abidjan on August 5-6, 2012.  Three individuals, including one government soldier, were killed in violence in Abidjan and elsewhere on September 20, 2012.  Government troops killed five armed men who had attacked the Noe border post on September 21, 2012.  President Ouattara dissolved the government of Prime Minister Jeannot Kouadio Ahoussou on November 14, 2012, and President Ouattara appointed Daniel Kablan Duncan of the PDCI as prime minister on November 21, 2012.  Seven individuals, including four civilians and two government soldiers, were killed in an attack on the village of Zilebly in western Cote d’Ivoire on March 13, 2013.  Three individuals were killed in an attack on the village of Petit Guiglo in western Cote d’Ivoire on March 23, 2013.  Local and regional elections were held on April 21, 2013.  The opposition Ivorian Popular Front (IPF) boycotted the local and regional elections.  At least ten individuals were injured in post-election violence Yamoussoukro and Abidjan on April 22, 2013.  On May 17, 2013, Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane of Niger was appointed as UN Special Representative in Cote d’Ivoire.  Government police arrested Amade Oueremi, leader of a militia accused of being responsible for the March 2011 massacre in the town of Duékoué, on May 18, 2013.  On August 30, 2013, a court in Ghana rejected a request from the government of Cote d’Ivoire to extradite former budget minister, Justin Kone Katinan, who was accused of organizing the looting of banks in Cote d’Ivoire.  On September 20, 2013, the government of Cote d’Ivoire announced that former first lady, Simone Gbagbo, would not be turned over to the ICC but would be tried in a court in Cote d’Ivoire.  The ICC issued a warrant for the arrest of Charles Ble Goude, former head of the youth wing of former President Laurent Gbagbo’s political movement, on October 1, 2013.  On March 20, 2014, the government of Cote d’Ivoire agreed to send Charles Ble Goude to the ICC in The Hague, Netherlands.  On April 29, 2014, the UN Security Council lifted economic sanctions (ban on diamond exports) and partially lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government of Cote d’Ivoire.  UNOCI consisted of 6,086 troops, 180 military observers, 1,367 civilian police personnel, and 337 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  UNOCI fatalities included 84 military personnel (83 troops and two military observers), 17 civilian police personnel, and six international civilian staff personnel as of December 31, 2014.  Government security forces clashed with members of the opposition Ivorian Popular Front (IPF) on September 10-11, 2015, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  President Alassane Ouattara of the Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace (RHDP) was re-elected with 84 percent of the vote in presidential elections held on October 25, 2015.  Pascal Affi N’Guessan of the Alliance for Democratic Forces (ADF) won nine percent of the vote.  A hard-line faction of the opposition Ivorian Popular Front (IPF) boycotted the presidential election.  The African Union (AU) sent 37 observers from 22 countries headed by former Prime Minister Aminata Touré of Senegal to monitor the presidential elections from October 19 to October 27, 2015.  The ECOWAS send 15 long-term observers and 120 short-term observers led by former Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo to monitor the presidential election from October 10 to October 27, 2015.  Members of the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) attacked the Étoile du Sud Hotel in Grand Bassam on March 13, 2016, resulting in the deaths of 16 civilians and three government soldiers.  At least three of the attackers were killed by government soldiers.  President Francois Hollande of France, the Canadian foreign ministry, Prime Minister David Cameron of Britain, the U.S. government, and Prime Minister Narendra Damodardas Modi of India condemned the terrorist attack in Grand Bassam on March 13, 2016.  The UN Security Council strongly condemned the terrorist attack in Grand Bassam on April 28, 2016.  On April 28, 2016, the UN Security Council lifted all remaining military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) imposed on targets in Cote d’Ivoire beginning in 2004.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 29, 2016-present):  The European Union (EU) lifted all remaining military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) imposed on targets in Cote d’Ivoire beginning in 2004.  On September 14, 2016, the U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) imposed on targets in Cote d’Ivoire in 2006.  A new constitution was approved by 93 percent of the voters in a referendum held on October 30, 2016.  The new constitution removed the nationality clause from the requirements for president, created a Senate, and established the position of Vice-President.  Legislative elections were held on December 18, 2016, and the Rally of Houphouëtists for Democracy and Peace (RHDP) won 167 out of 255 seats in the National Assembly.  Most of the remaining seats in the National Assembly were won by independent candidates.  The African Union (AU) sent 40 short-term observers from 20 countries headed by former President Catherine Samba Panza of the Central African Republic to monitor the legislative elections from December 9 to December 23, 2016.  Government soldiers, mostly former members of the Forces Nouvelles de Côte d’Ivoire (FNCI), mutinied against the government in Bouake, Abidjan, and other cities on January 6-8, 2017.  UNOCI was officially withdrawn from Cote d’Ivoire on June 30, 2017.  On January 15, 2019, the International Criminal Court (ICC) acquitted former President Laurent Gbagbo and Charles Blé Goudé of all charges of crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Côte d’Ivoire in 2010 and 2011.

[Sources: Accra Mail (Accra), September 22, 2002, September 30, 2002; Agence France-Presse (AFP), September 21, 2002, January 9, 2003, June 27, 2011, June 9, 2012, October 27, 2015; Associated Press (AP), December 24, 1999, December 25, 1999, December 28, 1999, October 28, 2000, January 25, 2003, January 27, 2003, February 14, 2003, April 7, 2003, June 17, 2003, April 4, 2007, April 21, 2013, June 30, 2017; Banks and Muller, 1998, 227-232; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), September 18, 1998, December 29, 1999, March 29, 2000, July 5, 2000, July 23, 2000, July 26, 2000, August 30, 2000, September 18, 2000, October 6, 2000, October 8, 2000, October 13, 2000, October 14, 2000, October 26, 2000, October 27, 2000, January 15, 2001, March 25, 2001, March 29, 2001, March 30, 2001, November 13, 2001, January 30, 2002, June 26, 2002, June 28, 2002, September 22, 2002, September 26, 2002, September 30, 2002, October 4, 2002, October 21, 2002, December 21, 2002, February 5, 2003, July 5, 2003, August 26, 2003, December 13, 2003, March 25, 2004, April 1, 2004, June 22, 2004, August 9, 2004, November 5, 2004, November 6, 2004, November 7, 2004, November 16, 2004, December 5, 2004, December 16, 2004, April 6, 2005, May 1, 2005, May 14, 2005, June 2, 2005, January 19, 2006, October 6, 2006, March 4, 2007, March 27, 2007, April 5, 2007, April 26, 2007, January 16, 2008, November 11, 2008, April 14, 2009, December 4, 2009, February 13, 2010, February 19, 2010, February 23, 2010, October 31, 2010, November 27, 2010, December 2, 2010, December 3, 2010, December 4, 2010, December 5, 2010, December 9, 2010, January 4, 2011, January 17, 2011, January 19, 2011, February 21, 2011, February 23, 2011, February 24, 2011, April 3, 2011, April 11, 2011, May 4, 2011, May 6, 2011, May 19, 2011, May 21, 2011, October 3, 2011, November 30, 2011, December 16, 2011, June 8, 2012, June 13, 2012, August 6, 2012, August 7, 2012, September 21, 2012, May 18, 2013, September 20, 2013, October 1, 2013, June 12, 2014, October 28, 2015, March 14, 2016, January 8, 2017; Business Day (Johannesburg), November 28, 2002; Cable News Network (CNN), August 7, 2012; Daily Trust (Abuja), July 10, 2002, October 7, 2002; Degenhardt, 1988, 66-67; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) press release, October 25, 2000, October 26, 2000, November 18, 2002, March 5, 2003, April 7, 2003, April 25, 2003, March 26, 2004, November 26, 2010, September 27, 2011, December 2, 2011; Facts on File, April 5, 2001; Ghanaian Chronicle (Accra), November 6, 2002; International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) press release, December 24, 1999; Jessup, 1998, 350-351; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 16, 1981, September 1986, October 1990, November 1990, June 1991, July 1991, December 1993, October 1995, December 1999; New York Times (NYT), September 22, 2002, November 14, 2002, December 7, 2002, November 5, 2004, November 7, 2004, November 8, 2004, June 10, 2007, October 28, 2015; Panafrican News Agency (PANA), December 29, 1999, July 19, 2000, September 19, 2000, September 24, 2000, September 25, 2000, September 26, 2000, October 5, 2000, October 10, 2000, October 20, 2000, October 22, 2000, October 24, 2000, October 25, 2000, November 1, 2000, November 2, 2000, November 6, 2000, November 8, 2000, December 4, 2000, December 5, 2000, December 13, 2000, January 8, 2001, January 9, 2001, September 20, 2002, December 8, 2011; Post Express (Lagos), September 23, 2000; Reuters, December 24, 1999, December 25, 1999, December 26, 1999, December 28, 1999, March 29, 2000, October 26, 2000, October 27, 2000, October 28, 2000, October 30, 2000, July 21, 2002, September 20, 2002, September 28, 2002, September 30, 2002, October 3, 2002, October 4, 2002, October 5, 2002, October 8, 2002, October 10, 2002, October 12, 2002, October 13, 2002, October 14, 2002, October 15, 2002, October 17, 2002, October 20, 2002, October 30, 2002, November 6, 2002, November 28, 2002, December 1, 2002, December 4, 2002, December 12, 2002, December 14, 2002, December 17, 2002, January 12, 2003, January 8, 2003, January 10, 2003, January 13, 2003, January 24, 2003, January 28, 2003, February 20, 2003, February 24, 2003, May 4, 2003, September 26, 2003, December 12, 2003, March 25, 2004, June 21, 2004, June 6, 2005, June 8, 2005, February 20, 2010, January 15, 2011, April 21, 2011, October 3, 2011, November 30, 2011, December 11, 2011, March 13, 2012, June 8, 2012, June 12, 2012, June 20, 2012, July 24, 2012, August 13, 2012, September 21, 2012, November 14, 2012, November 21, 2012, December 21, 2012, March 14, 2013, March 23, 2013, April 22, 2013, August 30, 2013, September 20, 2013, October 1, 2013, March 20, 2014, April 29, 2014, August 5, 2015, August 8, 2015, October 25, 2015, October 26, 2015, March 13, 2016, January 6, 2017; Standard Times (Freetown), September 20, 2002; Sunday Times (Johannesburg), December 1, 2002; The Independent (Banjul), December 19, 2002; The News (Monrovia), October 1, 2002, December 2, 2002; The Times of India, March 14, 2016; United Nations (UN) press release, November 17, 2000, December 5, 2000, December 20, 2002, July 28, 2011, May 17, 2013; Vanguard (Lagos), September 24, 2002, January 7, 2003; Voice of America (VOA), October 26, 2010, December 12, 2010, September 10, 2015, January 7, 2017; Washington Post (WP), November 7, 2004.]

 

Bibliography

Rim, Yejoon. 2012. “Two Governments and One Legitimacy: International Responses to the Post-Election Crisis in Cote d’Ivoire,” Leiden Journal of International Law vol. 25, pp. 683-705.