53. Guinea-Bissau (1974-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (September 9, 1974-November 13, 1980):  Guinea-Bissau formerly achieved its independence from Portugal on September 9, 1974.  Elections for regional councillors were held on December 19-29, 1976.  Luis de Almeida Cabral was elected president by the National People’s Assembly (which was elected by the regional councillors) on March 13, 1977.

Crisis Phase (November 14, 1980-June 6, 1998): President Luis de Almeida Cabral was deposed in a military coup led by Major João Bernardo Vieira on November 14, 1980, and the nine-member Revolutionary Council headed by Major João Bernardo Vieira took control of the government on November 19, 1980.  Major João Bernardo Vieira dismissed Prime Minister Victor Saude Maria on March 11, 1984.  Elections for regional councillors were held on March 31, 1984.  Major João Bernardo Vieira was elected president by the National People’s Assembly (which was elected by the regional councillors) on May 16, 1984.  A new constitution also went into effect on May 16, 1984.  Government police suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Paulo Alexandre Nunes Correia on November 7, 1985, resulting in the arrests of 63 individuals (mostly members of the Balante tribe). Colonel Nunes Correia and five other individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on July 21, 1986. European Community (EC) foreign ministers condemned the government on July 21, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on June 15, 1989, and the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) won 150 out of 150 seats in the National Assembly. The National Assembly re-elected João Bernardo Vieira as president of the Council of State on June 19, 1989. In 1991, the Supreme Court allowed the Democratic Front and two other political parties to compete for power in the country. Legislative elections were held between July 3 and August 7, 1994, and the PAIGC won 62 out of 100 contested seats in the National Assembly. The Guinea-Bissau Resistance Party-Bafata Movement (PRGB-MB) 19 seats in the National Assembly, and the Party for Social Renovation (PRS) won 12 seats in the National Assembly. Opposition political parties claimed voting fraud. President João Bernardo Vieira was re-elected with 52 percent of the vote on August 7, 1994. The United Nations (UN) secretariat provided electoral assistance and coordinated some 100 election observers.  President João Bernardo Vieira dismissed Prime Minister Manual Saturnino da Costa on May 27, 1997, and appointed Carlos Correia as prime minister on June 5, 1997. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (June 7, 1998-February 9, 1999):  General Ansumane Mane and some 4,500 members of the military rebelled against the government beginning on June 7, 1998.  Government troops attacked the rebel soldiers on June 8, 1998.  The U.S. government and the European Union (EU) condemned the military rebellion on June 8, 1998.  The Brazilian government condemned the military rebellion on June 9, 1998.  Some 2,500 Senegalese and 700 Guinean troops intervened in support of the government beginning on June 10, 1998. The UN Security Council condemned the rebellion on June 11, 1998.  President Yahya Jammeh of Gambia offered to mediate in the dispute on June 12, 1998, and Foreign Minister Mohamed Lamin Sedat Jobe began a mediation effort on June 17, 1998.  The Vatican appealed for a ceasefire on June 17, 1998.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) established a fact-finding mission headed by Alexandre Zandamela of Mozambique on June 24, 1998.  The governments of Portugal and Angola jointly attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on June 28, 1998.  Some 100 civilians were killed in military hostilities between Senegalese troops and rebels near Mansoa on July 2, 1998.  Government troops captured Mansoa from rebel troops on July 3, 1998.  The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) appealed for a ceasefire in the dispute on July 3, 1998, and mediated a ceasefire agreement between the parties on July 26, 1998.  Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) foreign ministers condemned the military rebellion on July 3, 1998, and appealed for a ceasefire in the dispute on July 24, 1998.  An ECOWAS mission began mediation efforts on August 9, 1998.  The CPLP and ECOWAS mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement on Sal Island, Cape Verde on August 25, 1998.  President João Bernardo Vieira declared a unilateral ceasefire on October 21, 1998.  The EU appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on October 22, 1998.  Jaime Gama, foreign minister of Portugal, attempted to facilitate negotiations between the parties beginning on October 24, 1998.  The parties signed an ECOWAS-mediated peace accord in Abuja, Nigeria on November 1, 1998.  The ICRC resumed humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced by the conflict on November 2, 1998.  On December 26, 1998, ECOWAS deployed a peacekeeping force (ECOMOG – Guinea-Bissau) to provide security at the seaport and international airport, to provide security for the president and prime minister, to facilitate humanitarian assistance, and to monitor the disarmament of military forces.  ECOMOG – Guinea-Bissau consisted of a maximum of 712 military personnel from Gambia, Benin, Niger, and Togo commanded by Colonel Gnakoude Berna of Togo.  Some 10,000 individuals were refugees in Gambia, Guinea, and Senegal, and some 200,000 individuals were internally displaced in December 1998.  Some 100 individuals were killed in military hostilities between government troops and rebel soldiers on January 31-February 3, 1999.  ECOWAS condemned the military hostilities on February 3, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for a ceasefire on February 4, 1999.  The foreign minister of Togo mediated a ceasefire agreement between the parties on February 9, 1999.  Some 5,000 individuals were killed, and some 350,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (February 10, 1999-February 17, 2000): The World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance beginning on February 13, 1999.  A sixteen-member transitional government headed by Prime Minister Francisco Fadul took office on February 20, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan established the United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS) on March 3, 1999.  UNOGBIS consisted of 18 personnel headed by Samuel Nana-Sinkam of Cameroon.  Senegalese troops withdrew from Guinea-Bissau on March 16 1999, and Guinean troops completed their withdrawal from the country on March 23, 1999.  President João Bernardo Vieira was deposed in a military coup led by General Ansumane Mane on May 7, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 80 individuals. The OAU condemned the military coup on May 7, 1999. Benin withdrew its contingent of 145 ECOWAS peacekeeping troops from the country on May 10, 1999. The military junta named Malan Bacai Sanha, president of the National Assembly, as interim president on May 11, 1999. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the military coup on May 11, 1999. The European Union (EU) condemned the military coup on May 18, 1999. ECOWAS foreign ministers condemned the military coup on May 25, 1999, and announced its decision to withdraw its peacekeeping force from the country. ECOWAS withdrew its peacekeeping force from the country on June 7, 1999.  Legislative elections were held on November 28, 1999, and the Party for Social Renewal (Partido para a Renovacao Social – PRS) headed by Kumba Yala won 38 out of 102 seats in the National Assembly.  PAIGC won 24 seats in the National Assembly.  UNOGBIS coordinated 88 short-term election observers from Belgium, Canada, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, U.S., OAU (Ethiopia, Gambia, Nigeria, Togo), CPLP (Angola, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Portugal), and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) (Benin, Guinea, Niger, Senegal, Ivory Coast).  Kumba Yala was elected president with 72 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential elections on January 16, 2000, and he was inaugurated as president on February 17, 2000.  President Yala appointed Caetano N’Tchama as prime minister on January 24, 2000. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between February 1999 and February 2000.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 18, 2000-November 21, 2000):  The Socialist Alliance of Guinea-Bissau (SAGB) was established by Fernando Gomes on May 5, 2000.

Crisis Phase (November 22, 2000-September 28, 2003):  General Ansumane Mane led a military rebellion against the government on November 22-30, 2000.  President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal condemned the rebellion, and expressed support for President Yala on November 23, 2000.  President Alpha Oumar Konare of Mali, chairman of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), expressed support for President Yala on November 27, 2000. General Ansumane Mane and three rebel soldiers were killed by government troops near Blom on November 30, 2000.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for negotiations between government and opposition groups on March 21, 2001. The government suppressed a rebellion led by Almani Camara on December 2, 2001.  President Yala dismissed Prime Minister Faustino Imbali on December 7, 2001, and President Yala appointed Alamara Nhasse as prime minister on December 8, 2001.  President Yala dissolved the parliament on November 22, 2002.  President Yala was deposed in a military coup on September 14, 2003.  ECOWAS chair, President John Kufuor of Ghana, condemned the military coup on September 14, 2003, and ECOWAS decided to send a fact-finding mission to Guinea-Bissau to investigate the military coup.  Portugal, Mozambique, and the chairman of the African Union (AU) condemned the military coup on September 14, 2003.  Kumba Yala officially relinquished the presidency on September 18, 2003.  Henrique Rosa was sworn in as interim president, and Antonio Artur Sanha was sworn in as prime minister on September 28, 2003.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 29, 2003-February 28, 2009):  Legislative elections were held on March 28, 2004, and the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) won 45 out of 100 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Party for Social Renewal (Partido para a Renovação Social – PRS) won 35 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Joaquim Alberto Chissano of Mozambique as UN Special Envoy for Guinea-Bissau on April 29, 2005.  João Bernardo Vieira, who previously served as president from 1980 to 1999, was elected president in the second round of presidential elections held on June 24, 2005.  The EU sent eight election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers to monitor headed by Johan Van Hecke of Belgium to monitor the presidential elections from May 25 to September 1, 2005.  ECOWAS sent a fact-finding mission consisting of General Seth Obeng of Ghana and Ambassador Leopold Andre Joseph Ouedraogo of Burkina Faso to investigate the security, social, humanitarian, and political situation in Guinea-Bissau on May 1-10, 2006.  Shola Omoregie of Nigeria was appointed as head of UNOGBIS on October 6, 2006. On February 12, 2008, the Council of the EU established a mission in support of Security Sector Reform-SSR in Guinea-Bissau (EU SSR Guinea-Bissau). The EU mission, which consisted of eight international staff personnel headed by Colonel Fernando Afonso from Portugal, was officially launched on June 1, 2008. On August 18, 2008, the African Union (AU) sent a pre-election mission headed by Anil Gayan of Mauritius to evaluate the political conditions in the country.  The European Union (EU) also sent a pre-election evaluation mission to the country.  Legislative elections were held on November 16, 2008, and the PAIGC won 67 out of 100 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Party for Social Renewal (Partido para a Renovação Social – PRS) won 28 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) sent observers headed by Norberto dos Santos of Angola to monitor the legislative elections.  The European Union (EU) sent 51 observers from 15 countries headed by Johan Van Hecke of Belgium to monitor the legislative elections from October 4 to November 18, 2008.  One presidential guard was killed during an attack on the presidential residence in Bissau on November 24, 2008.  Carlos Gomes of the PAIGC was appointed as prime minister on December 25, 2008.

Crisis Phase (March 1, 2009-June 23, 2014):  General Batista Tagme Na Waie, chief of staff of the military forces of Guinea-Bissau, was killed in a bombing at military headquarters on March 1, 2009.  Possibly in retaliation, President João Bernardo Vieira was assassinated on March 2, 2009.  The African Union (AU), European Union (EU), and the U.S. government condemned the assassination of President Vieira.  Raimundo Pereira, speaker of the National Assembly, was sworn in as interim president on March 3, 2009.  Government soldiers killed Baciro Dabo, an independent presidential candidate, Helder Proenca, a former Minister of Defense, and two security guards, on June 6, 2009.  Malam Bacai Sanhá of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was elected president with 63 percent of the vote in the second round on July 26, 2009.  The EU sent four election experts, six long-term observers, and ten short-term observers from 14 countries headed by Johan Van Hecke of Belgium to monitor the presidential elections from June 6 to August 6, 2009. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential elections from June 23 to July 27, 2009.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the presidential elections.  The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) sent observers headed by Albertino Braganca of Sao Tome to monitor the presidential elections.  On January 1, 2010, the UN established the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS), including 61 international civilian personnel headed by UN Special Representative Joseph Mutaboba of Rwanda.  Government soldiers detained Prime Minister Carlos Gomes and Army Chief of Staff Zamora Induta on April 1, 2010.  Prime Minister Carlos Gomes was released from detention on April 2, 2010.  The European Union Security Sector Reform Mission (EU SSR – Guinea-Bissau) was disbanded on September 30, 2010.  On March 21, 2011, the Angolan government established the Angolan Military Mission in Guinea-Bissau (MISSANG), which consisted of some 250 military and police personnel, to reform and modernize the security sector in Guinea-Bissau.  The government suppressed an attempted military coup on December 26, 2011.  President Malam Bacai Sanhá died of natural causes on January 9, 2012.  Raimundo Pereira, President of the National People’s Assembly, was sworn in as interim president on January 9, 2012.  On February 10, 2012, Prime Minister Carlos Gomes resigned to run for president in the upcoming presidential elections.  The ECOWAS sent a pre-election fact-finding mission to the country on March 9-14, 2012.  The first round of presidential elections was held on March 18, 2012.  The ECOWAS sent 80 observers headed by General Salou Djibo of Niger to monitor the first round of the presidential election.  Col. Samba Djalo, former head of military intelligence, was assassinated on March 18, 2012.  On March 23, 2012, presidential candidate (and former president) Kumba Yala announced a boycott of the second round of the presidential election, alleging that the first round was unfair.  A second round of presidential elections was scheduled for April 22, 2012, but was not held.  On April 2, 2012, the ECOWAS appointed President Alpha Condé of Guinea to mediate the election dispute.  President Raimundo Pereira was overthrown in a military coup led by General Antonio Indjai on April 12, 2012, and the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of the government on April 15, 2012.  The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP), African Union (AU) Commission (Jean Ping-Chairperson), the Canadian government, and ECOWAS condemned the military coup on April 12, 2012.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon and the UN Security Council condemned the military coup on April 14, 2012.  The U.S. government condemned the military coup on April 13, 2012.  The AU imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the military government on April 17, 2012.  The South African government condemned the military coup on April 17, 2012.  On April 29, 2012, the ECOWAS imposed diplomatic and economic sanctions against the leaders of the military coup.  On May 3, 2012, the EU imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against the leaders of the military coup.  Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo, Speaker of the National Assembly, took over as interim president on May 11, 2012.  The ECOWAS Mission in Bissau (ECOMIB), which consisted of 677 peacekeeping personnel from Burkina Faso, Senegal, Togo, and Nigeria commanded by Colonel Gnibanga Barro from Burkina Faso, was deployed in the country to provide protection for the port, airport, government buildings, and humanitarian NGOs in the capital Bissau beginning on May 16, 2012.  On May 18, 2012, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel bans) against the leaders of the military coup.  On May 23, 2012, ECOWAS mediated an agreement, providing for the establishment of a transitional government headed by Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo as president and Rui Duarte de Barros as prime minister.  The Angolan military mission, MISSANG, was withdrawn from the country on June 9, 2012.  On July 30, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the military for continuing to interfere in politics in Guinea-Bissau.  Six rebel soldiers were killed during an attack led by Captain Pansau N’Tchama against a government military barracks near the capital city, Bissau, on October 21, 2012.  Jose Ramos-Horta of East Timor was appointed as UN Special Representative in Guinea-Bissau beginning on January 21, 2013.  Interim President Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo re-appointed Interim Prime Minister Rui Duarte de Barros as head of a 34-member transitional government on June 6, 2013.  On September 10, 2013, the National People’s Assembly blocked a bill that would have granted amnesty to leaders of the recent military coup.  On November 15, 2013, the transitional government postponed the planned presidential and legislative elections until March 16, 2014 (and later to April 13, 2014).  Legislative elections were held on April 13, 2014, and the PAIGC won 57 out of 102 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Party for Social Renewal (Partido para a Renovação Social – PRS) won 41 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  José Mário Vaz of the PAIGC was elected president with 62 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on May 18, 2014.  The European Union (EU) sent five election experts, 16 long-term observers, and 24 short-term observers from 17 countries to monitor the elections from March 19 to April 14, 2014.  The African Union (AU) sent nine long-term observers and 47 short-term observers led by former President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique to monitor the elections from February 9 to May 19, 2014.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 220 observers led by Professor Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the elections from April 8 to May 19, 2014.  The AU lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government on June 17, 2014.  José Mário Vaz was inaugurated as president on June 23, 2014.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 24, 2014-August 12, 2015):    President José Mário Vaz appointed Domingos Simões Pereira of the PAIGC as prime minister on July 3, 2014. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Miguel Trovoada of São Tomé and Príncipe as UN Special Representative to Guinea-Bissau on July 16, 2014.  President José Mário Vaz dismissed the head of the military, General Antonio Indjai, on September 15, 2014.  President José Mário Vaz appointed General Biague Na Ntan as head of the military on September 17, 2014.

Crisis Phase (August 13, 2015-present):  President José Mário Vaz dismissed Prime Minister Domingos Simões Pereira and cabinet on August 13, 2015, and Baciro Djá was sworn in as prime minister on August 20, 2015.  The Nigerian government appointed appointed former President Olusegun Obasanjo as Special Envoy to mediate an end to the political crisis in Guinea-Bissau.  On September 9, 2015, Prime Minister Baciro Djá submitted his resignation after the Supreme Court of Guinea-Bissau ruled that his appointment was unconstitutional.  Carlos Correia was sworn in as prime minister on September 17, 2015, and Prime Minister Carlos Correia formed a new government on October 13, 2015.  President José Mário Vaz dismissed Prime Minister Carlos Correia on May 12, 2016.  Baciro Djá was appointed as prime minister on May 27, 2016.  ECOWAS mediators, including President Alpha Condé of Guinea and President Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone, announced the six-point “Agreement on the Resolution of the Political Crisis in Guinea-Bissau” signed by Guinea-Bissau’s rival political factions on September 10, 2016.  The rival political factions signed the ECOWAS-mediated “Conakry Agreement on the Implementation of the Roadmap for the Resolution of the Political Crisis in Guinea-Bissau” on October 14, 2016.  Prime Minister Baciro Djá resigned on November 18, 2016, and he was expelled from the PAIGC on November 20, 2016.  President José Mário Vaz named Umaro Sissoco Embalo as prime minister on November 18, 2016.  On December 12, 2016, Prime Minister Umaro Sissoco Embalo named a 37-member cabinet, but the PAIGC announced a boycott of the government.  Hundreds of anti-government protesters marched in the capital Bissau on March 11, 2017.  On February 5, 2018, the Heads of State and Government of the ECOWAS imposed economic sanctions (assets freezes and travel bans) against 19 individuals for impeding the process for ending the crisis in Guinea-Bissau.  On April 14, 2018, the Heads of State and Government of the ECOWAS commended ECOWAS mediator, President Alpha Condé of Guinea, for his sustained mediation efforts in Guinea-Bissau.  President José Mário Vaz appointed Aristides Gomes as prime minister on April 16, 2018.

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