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14. Guinea (1958-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (October 2, 1958-November 20, 1970):  The Republic of Guinea formally achieved its independence from France on October 2, 1958, following a referendum on the Constitution of the Fifth Republic in France held on September 28, 1958.  Ahmed Sékou Touré, a leftist and member of the Malinké or Mandinka tribe, was named the president by the Constituent Assembly.  The governments of Ghana, Liberia, Soviet Union, United Arab Republic, and China provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Guinea.  The U.S. government recognized the government of Guinea on November 1, 1958.  The Constituent Assembly approved a constitution on November 12, 1958.  Guinea became the 82nd member of the United Nations (UN) on December 12, 1958.  The French government recognized the independence of the Republic of Guinea on January 16, 1959.  The government of the Soviet Union agreed to provide economic assistance ($35 million loan) to the government of Guinea on August 26, 1959.  The governments of the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia provided military assistance (three armored vehicles, weapons, ammunition, military training, and 25 Soviet military advisors) to the government of Guinea beginning on March 20, 1959.  The government of West Germany provided economic assistance and military assistance (military advisors) to the government of Guinea from 1959 to January 29, 1971.

President Ahmed Sékou Touré was re-elected without opposition on January 15, 1961.  Soviet Ambassador Daniel Semyonovich Solod was expelled by the government of Guinea following the suppression of a “teachers plot” in November 1961.  Legislative elections were held on January 1, 1963, and the Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally (Parti Démocratique de Guinée-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – PDG-RDA) won 75 out of 75 seats in the National Assembly.  The government of Guinea announced that it had suppressed the “traders plot” led by Mamadou (Mohamed) Touré on November 9, 1965.  Major Keita Mamoudou was executed for his involvement in the “traders plot.”  The government of Guinea severed diplomatic relations with France and Ivory Coast in November 1965.  The Cuban government provided military assistance (military advisors) in support of the government of Guinea beginning in August 1966.  Legislative elections were held on January 1, 1968, and the PDG-RDA won 75 out of 75 seats in the National Assembly.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré was re-elected without opposition on January 1, 1968.  In February 1969, government security forces suppressed a anti-government plot by some 1,000 military paratroopers based in Labé.  On May 14, 1969, twelve individuals including former Minister of Defense Fodéba Keïta and Deputy Army Chief of Staff Colonel Kaman Diaby were sentenced to death for complicity in the Labé plot to overthrow the government.  The twelve individuals were executed on May 27, 1969.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré escaped an assassination attempt by Tidiane Keita during a visit by President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia in Conakry on June 24, 1969.

Crisis Phase (November 21, 1970-January 25, 1971):  Some 400 Guinean exiles and Portuguese-African mercenaries commanded by Portuguese military officers launched an amphibious attack against several targets in Conakry, including the summer house of President Ahmed Sékou Touré, military bases, government buildings, a power plant, and the headquarters of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), on November 21-22, 1970.  The attempts by the attackers to capture or kill President Ahmed Sékou Touré and Amilcar Cabral, leader of the PAIGC, were unsuccessful.  After rescuing some 26 Portuguese prisoners of war being held at Camp Boiro, the Guinea exiles and Portuguese troops withdrew from the country.  More than 300 individuals, including seven Guinean exiles and one Portuguese soldier, were killed during the attack.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré appealed to the United Nations secretary-general for assistance, and the UN Security Council held an emergency meeting on November 22, 1970.  The UN Security Council called for the immediate end of all armed attacks against Guinea, as well as the establishment of a UN fact-finding mission to investigate the attack.  President Nyerere of Tanzania expressed support for the government on November 23, 1970.  The governments of Mali, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone offered military assistance to the government of Guinea on November 23, 1970.  On November 23, 1970, the government of the Soviet Union condemned the Portuguese government for “a criminal act of aggression” against Guinea.  The Chinese government expressed support for the government of Guinea on November 23, 1970.   The Kenyan government offered military assistance to the government of Guinea on November 24, 1970.  The Egyptian government condemned the exile invasions on November 23, 1970.  The Egyptian government provided military assistance (arms and ammunition) to the government of Guinea on November 26, 1970.  The governments of Algeria, Libya, and Nigeria provided military assistance (arms and ammunition) to the government of Guinea on November 26-27, 1970.  The UN Security Council established a five-member fact-finding mission (Colombia, Finland, Nepal, Poland, Zambia) chaired by Major-General Padma Rahadur Khatri of Nepal on November 24, 1970.  The UN fact-finding mission issued a report on December 4, 1970.  The U.S. government agreed to provide humanitarian assistance on December 4, 1970.  On December 8, 1970, the UN Security Council approved a resolution condemning the Portuguese government for the attack against Guinea.  On December 11, 1970, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) approved a resolution condemning the Portuguese government for the attack against Guinea.  Several individuals, including Ousmane Balde (who at the time was serving as President of the Central Bank and Finance Minister) and Ibrahima Barry (leader of the Socialist Democracy Party of Guinea – DSG), were arrested and detained at Camp Boiro following the attack.  Sixty-eight individuals were sentenced to life imprisonment (many of whom would died, often by starvation, in prison).  Ninety-one individuals, including 33 individuals in absentia, were sentence to death on January 23, 1971.  More than 70 individuals, including Ousmane Balde, Kara Soufiana, and Ibrahima Barry, were executed by hanging in Conakry and other towns throughout the country on January 25, 1971.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 26, 1971-April 2, 1984):  The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (naval patrols and 100 technical assistance personnel) to the government of Guinea from 1971 to 1978.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré appointed Louis Lansana Beavoqui as prime minister on April 26, 1972.  Legislative elections were held on December 27, 1974, and the Democratic Party of Guinea-African Democratic Rally (Parti Démocratique de Guinée-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – PDG-RDA) won 150 out of 150 seats in the National Assembly.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré was re-elected without opposition on December 27, 1974.  The governments of Guinea and France announced the re-establishment of diplomatic relations in July 1975.  Diallo Telli, a former Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and Minister of Justice, was arrested at his home and imprisoned at Camp Boiro on July 18, 1976.  Accused of plotting against the government, Diallo Telli and four other imprisoned political prisoners were starved to death at Camp Boiro in February 1977.  Government security forces suppressed anti-government demonstrations in Conakry and other towns beginning on August 25, 1977.  Legislative elections were held on January 27, 1980, and the PDG-RDA won 210 out of 210 seats in the National Assembly.  One individual was killed in political violence in Conakry on May 14, 1980.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré was re-elected without opposition on May 9, 1982, and he was inaugurated for a fifth term as president on May 14, 1982.  President Ahmed Sékou Touré died during surgery in the U.S. on March 26, 1984, and Prime Minister Louis Lansana Beavoqui was named as interim president.

Crisis Phase (April 3, 1984-August 31, 2000):  President Louis Lansana Beuvogui was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Lansana Conté on April 3, 1984, and the 25-member Military Committee for National Recovery (MCNR) headed by Colonel Lansana Conté took control of the government on April 4, 1984.  The MCNR banned political parties and dissolved the parliament on April 4, 1984.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Lt. Colonel Diarra Traore on July 4-5, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 18 individuals.  Some 100 military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. In May 1987, some 60 individuals were sentenced to death for plotting to overthrow the government.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on December 23, 1990.  Government police clashed with demonstrators in Conakry on September 28-29, 1993, resulting in the deaths of as many as 63 individuals.  A member of the Soussou ethnic group, Lansana Conté of the Unity and Progress Party (Parti de l’Unité et du Progrès – PUP) was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on December 19, 1993.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  Some twelve individuals were killed in political violence on December 19, 1993.  Legislative elections were held on June 11, 1995, and the PUP won 71 out of 114 seats in the National Assembly.  The Rally of the Guinean People (Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen – RPG) won 19 seats in the National Assembly,  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The Party for Renewal and Progress (PRP) and several other opposition political parties formed the Coordination of the Democratic Opposition (CODEM) on July 5, 1995.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on February 2-9, 1996, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals.  Prime Minister Saturnino da Castro of Guinea Bissau expressed support for the government of President Lansana Conté on February 4, 1996.  President Lansana Conté appointed Sidya Toure as prime minister on July 9, 1996.  Six individuals were killed in political violence in Conakry on December 12-13, 1998.  President Lansana Conté was re-elected with 54 percent of the vote on December 14, 1998.  Opposition political parties claimed that the election results were fraudulent.  Alpha Conde, leader of the Rally of the Guinean People (RGP), was arrested by government police on December 20, 1998.  Two individuals were killed in political violence on December 21, 1998.  Municipal and local elections were held on June 25, 2000.  Opposition political parties claim election fraud.  Government troops killed three demonstrators in Conakry on June 27, 2000.

Conflict Phase (September 1, 2000-March 31, 2001):  Guinean dissidents, supported by the Liberian government and Sierra Leone’s Revolutionary United Front (RUF), attacked the village of Massadou on September 1-2, 2001, resulting in the deaths of more than 40 individuals.  The town of Madina Woula was attacked by armed insurgents on September 4, 2000, resulting in the deaths of at least 40 individuals.  The village of Pamelap was attacked by armed insurgents on September 6, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 27 individuals.  Government troops launched a military offensive against armed insurgents in southern Guinea beginning on September 12, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 125 individuals.  The French government appealed for peaceful negotiations on September 13, 2000.  One employee of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was killed during an attack by armed insurgents against the town of Macenta on September 17, 2000.  Government troops clashed with armed insurgents near the villages of Macenta and Farmoreya on September 29-30, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 75 individuals.  The towns of Bayaro and Sokolalu Tekoulo were attacked by armed insurgents on November 28-29, 2000, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  The villages of Kotizu and Gbayaro were attacked by armed insurgents on December 4, 2000, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier, two civilians, and seven insurgents.  Government troops clashed with armed insurgents near Guékédou on December 7-8, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  The town of Kissidougou was attacked by armed insurgents on December 10, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 30 insurgents.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the armed insurgents on December 12, 2000.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provided humanitarian assistance to the refugees beginning on December 18, 2000.  On December 21, 2000, the UN Security Council condemned the “incursions into Guinea by rebels groups coming from Liberia and Sierra Leone.”  Some 25 personnel of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided emergency humanitarian assistance to some 83,000 displaced persons from January 1 to April 15, 2001. Government troops launched a military offensive against armed insurgents near Guékédou in January 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 350 individuals.  Government troops captured the town of Guékédou on February 6, 2001.  On February 14, 2001, the European Parliament (EP) condemned the “violent cross-border incursions” and urged “all parties to refrain from all forms of violence” in Guinea.  Government troops largely suppressed the insurgency by Guinean dissidents by the end of March 2001.  Some  1,500 individuals were killed during the conflict.  Some 250,000 individuals, including 80,000 Guineans and 170,000 refugees from neighboring countries, were displaced in southwestern Guinea during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 1, 2001-February 28, 2007):  The World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to some 25,000 displaced individuals near Mamou beginning in August 2001.  Some 98 percent of voters approved a constitutional amendment allowing President Lansana Conté to run for a third term in a referendum held on November 11, 2001.  Opposition political parties boycotted the referendum.  On December 1, 2001, the government announced the postponement of presidential elections, which were schedule for December 27, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on June 30, 2002, and the PUP won 85 out of 114 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for Progress and Renewal (Union pour le Progres et le Renouveau – UPR) won 20 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition leader, Mamadou Ba, called for the military to take temporary control of the government on March 4, 2003.  Government police killed two individuals in Koya district on June 11, 2003.  President Lansana Conté was re-elected with 96 percent of the vote on December 21, 2003.  Opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  Prime Minister Lounseny Fall resigned on April 30, 2004.  Cellou Dalein Diallo was appointed as prime minister on December 9, 2004.  President Lansana Conté survived an assassination attempt in Conakry on January 19, 2005.  President Lansana Conté dismissed Prime Minister Cellou Dalein Diallo on April 5, 2006.  Teachers launched a nationwide general strike beginning on June 8, 2006.  Government soldiers killed some ten student protesters in Conakry and other towns on June 12, 2006.  Labor unions conducted a nationwide general strike from January 10 to January 26, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals.  President Lansana Conté agreed to cede some powers to a prime minister on January 26, 2007.  President Lansana Conté appointed Eugene Camara as prime minister on February 9, 2007, but the appointment was rejected by the labor  unions.  Government security forces clashed with demonstrators in Conakry and other towns on February 10, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least eight individuals. On February 12, 2007, labor unions called for the resumption of the general strike.  The same day, some 15 individuals were killed in clashes between government security forces and protesters in Conakry.  President Lansana Conté declared a state of emergency on February 12, 2007.  Two individuals were killed when government soldiers fired on protesters in the town of Labé on February 13, 2007.  On February 13, 2007, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for peaceful negotiations between the government and opposition groups.  On February 23, 2007, the National Assembly voted unanimously to terminate the state of emergency.  Former Nigerian President Ibrahim Babangida, representing the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), mediated an agreement between the government and opposition groups on February 26, 2007.  President Lansana Conté appointed Lansana Kouyate as prime minister on February 26, 2007.  Strikers returned to work on February 27, 2007.  At least 130 individuals were killed in political violence from January 10 to February 28, 2007.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 1, 2007-December 21, 2008):  Government soldiers rioted over wages in Conakry and other town on May 2-12, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least six individuals.  President Lansana Conté dismissed Prime Minister Lansana Kouyate, and appointed Ahmed Tidiane Souare as prime minister on May 21, 2008.  Government soldiers mutinied over unpaid wages in Conakry and other towns on May 26-28, 2008, resulting in the death of one individual. Government soldiers clashed with striking government policemen in Conakry on June 16-17, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers and four government policemen.  Government security forces clashed with protesters against a Russian bauxite mining company in Mambia on October 10, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.

Crisis Phase (December 22, 2008-present):  President Lansana Conté died of an illness in Conakry on December 22, 2008, and Captain Moïse Dadis Camara seized power in a military coup and suspended the constitution on December 23, 2008.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the military junta.  The Canadian government condemned the military coup on December 24, 2008.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the 32-member military junta, known as the National Council for Democracy and Development (CNDD), on December 29, 2008.  The military junta appointed Kabine Komara as prime minister on December 30, 2008.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the military junta on January 10, 2009.  Prime Minister Ahmed Tidiane Souaré was arrested by government soldiers on March 22, 2009.  Government soldiers killed more than 155 protesters in a stadium in Conakry on September 28, 2009.  The French government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military cooperation) against the military junta on September 29, 2009.  On September 29, 2009, the U.S. government, EU, and AU condemned the killing of pro-democracy demonstrators in Conakry.  President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso, representing the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), mediated negotiations between the Guinean government and opposition groups  from October 5, 2009 to March 25, 2011.  On October 16, 2009, the Heads of State of the ECOWAS condemned the military junta the massacre of civilians in Conakry on September 28th and imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the military junta. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (travel restrictions) against members of the military junta on October 23, 2009.  The Council of the EU imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel restrictions and assets freeze) against the military junta on October 27, 2009.  On October 28, 2009, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced the establishment of a three-member commission of inquiry (Algeria, Burundi, and Mauritius) chaired by Mohamed Bedjaoui of Algeria to investigate the September 28th massacre in Conakry.  The AU imposed economic sanctions (travel restrictions and assets freeze) against members of the military junta on October 29, 2009.  President Moussa Dadis Camara, head of the military junta, was seriously injured in an assassination attempt by government soldiers on December 3, 2009.  Vice-President Sékouba Konaté was appointed as Acting President on December 3, 2009.  On December 18, 2009, the UN commission of inquiry issued a report concerning the September 28th massacre.  The commission concluded that the military junta violated several provisions of the international human rights conventions and that the massacre could be described as “crimes against humanity.”  The EU imposed economic sanctions (export ban on certain equipment and assets freeze) against the military junta on December 22, 2009.  The military junta appointed Jean-Marie Doré as interim prime minister on January 26, 2010.  On February 16, 2010, the French government lifted military sanctions (suspension of military cooperation) against the military junta.  Presidential elections were held on June 27, 2010 and November 7, 2010.  A member of the Malinké tribe, Alpha Condé of the Rally of the Guinean People (Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen – RPG) was elected president with 53 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on November 7, 2010.  Former Prime Minister Cellou Dalein Diallo, an ethnic Peul or Fulani, won 47 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections.  The EU sent eight election experts, 23 long-term observers, and 40 short-term observers to monitor the presidential elections beginning on June 1, 2010.  The AU sent 44 observers led by former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo of Togo to monitor the first round of presidential elections from June 22 to June 29, 2010.  The ECOWAS sent some 200 observers to monitor the presidential elections.  The Organisation International de la Francophonie  (OIF) sent more than 20 observers to monitor the first round of presidential elections from June 22 to June 28, 2010.  The Carter Center (CC) sent eight long-term observers and 22 short-term observers led by Yakuba Gowon of Nigeria to monitor the first and second rounds of presidential elections from May 23 to December 2, 2010. One individual was killed in election-related violence in Conakry on September 12, 2010, and two individuals were killed in election-related violence in Conakry on October 19, 2010.  At least ten individuals were killed in post-election violence following the announcement of the provisional presidential election results on November 15, 2010.  The government declared a state of emergency on November 17, 2010.  The U.S. government condemned the post-election violence in Guinea on November 17, 2010, and the UN Security Council condemned the post-election violence in Guinea on November 18, 2010.  The AU lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) and economic sanctions (travel restrictions and assets freeze) against the Guinean government on December 9, 2010.  The government lifted the state of emergency on December 10, 2010.  Alpha Condé was inaugurated as president on December 21, 2010.  The ECOWAS Heads of State lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) and diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Guinean government on March 25, 2011.  Government soldiers attacked the home of President Alpha Condé in Conakry on July 20, 2011, resulting in the death of one presidential guard.  President Alpha Condé pardoned 17 opposition activists on August 16, 2011.  Government security forces clashed with protesters in Conakry on September 27, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least three protesters.  Government security forces clashed with opposition supporters in Conakry on September 21, 2012, resulting in the death of one individual.  At least three individuals were killed in clashes between government supporters and opposition supporters in southern Guinea on December 10-11, 2012.  Opponents of the government started a nationwide strike on February 19, 2013.  Opposition groups withdrew from the legislative elections process on February 24, 2013.  Opposition groups protested against the government in Conakry from February 27 to March 6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of nine individuals.  On March 1, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urged the parties to “pursue the path of dialogue in order to address outstanding issues related to the electoral process and create the conditions for the holding of peaceful and democratic elections.”  On March 5 2013, the EU appealed to the parties to “show restraint and resolve differences through a national dialogue”.  On March 15, 2013, the main opposition parties agreed to participate in preliminary talks with the government.  On April 7, 2013, the opposition to the government agreed to resume negotiations regarding the upcoming legislative elections.  UN Envoy Said Djinnit of Algeria mediated negotiations between the government and opposition beginning on April 15, 2013.  Government security personnel clashed with opposition protesters in Conakry on April 18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one individual.  Government security personnel clashed with opposition protesters in Conakry on April 25, 2013, resulting in the death of one individual.  At least three individuals were killed in election protests in Conakry on May 2-3, 2013.  Opposition groups resumed protests against the government in Conakry on May 21, 2013.  Government security forces clashes with opposition protesters in Conakry on May 23-27, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals. Cellou Dalein Diallo, the main opposition leader, withdrew from UN-mediated negotiations with the government on June 20, 2013.  Opposition parties resumed UN-mediated negotiations with the government on July 2, 2013, and the parties agreed to the date of the upcoming legislative elections on July 3, 2013.  More than 50 individuals were killed in political violence during the past three months.  Some 100 individuals were killed in ethnic clashes between members of the Guerze tribe (mostly Christian and animist) and the Konianke tribe (mostly Muslim) in southeastern Guinea on July 14-24, 2013.  At least one individual was killed in election-related violence in Conakry on September 23, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on September 28, 2013, and the Rally of the Guinean People (Rassemblement du Peuple Guinéen – RPG) won 53 out of 114 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union of Democratic Forces of Guinea (Union des Forces Démocratiques de Guinée – UFDG) won 37 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud and demanded the annulment of the election results on October 4, 2013.  The AU sent 40 long-term observers and short-term observers led by former Prime Minister Mahamadou Danda of Niger to monitor the legislative elections from August 24 to October 1, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent eight election experts, 24 long-term observers, and 52 short-term observers to monitor the legislative elections beginning on August 22, 2013.  The ECOWAS sent 100 observers led by former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo of Togo to monitor the legislative elections from September 16 to September 29, 2013.  The Organisation International de la Francophonie  (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Opposition political parties withdrew from UN-mediated negotiations on October 8, 2013.  On November 15, 2013, the Supreme Court of Guinea upheld the results of the legislative elections.  One individual was  killed in political violence in Conakry on November 17, 2013.  At least one individual was killed during post-election protests in Conakry on November 25, 2013.  On December 12, 2013, opposition political parties announced that they would not boycott the National Assembly.  On January 20, 2014, the EU election observation mission issued its report of the September 28th legislative elections.  At least two individuals were killed during protests over frequent electricity cuts in Conakry on February 18, 2014.  The Council of the EU lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government of Guinea on April 14, 2014.  Government security forces killed one protester during anti-government demonstrations in Conakry on April 23, 2015.  President Alpha Condé was re-elected with 58 percent of the vote in the first round of presidential elections held on October 11, 2015.  At least 13 individuals were killed in election-related violence throughout the country.  The EU sent 73 observers from 24 countries to monitor the presidential election from September 2 to November 18, 2015.  The AU sent 30 observers from 18 countries led by former Prime Minister Dileita Mohamed Dileita of Djibouti to monitor the presidential election from October 7 to October 13, 2015.  The ECOWAS sent long-term observers and 67 short-term observers led by Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the presidential election from September 21 to October 20, 2015.  Opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo called the results of the presidential election fraudulent.  President Alpha Condé was inaugurated for a second term on December 14, 2015.  President Alpha Condé appointed Mamady Youla as prime minister on December 26, 2015.  The Chinese government offered military assistance (tents, helmets, bullet-proof jackets, etc.) to the Guinean government on March 17, 2016.  Guinea’s main teachers’ unions launched a strike beginning on February 1, 2017.  At least individuals were killed during demonstrations in Conakry on February 19, 2017.  Anti-government protesters rioted in the mining town of Boke on September 13-15, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least two individuals.  Local elections were held on February 4, 2018.  Opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo accused the government of “massive fraud” in the local elections.  One individual was killed by security forces in post-election violence in Kindia on February 5, 2018.  Anti-government protesters rioted in Conakry on March 12-14, 2018, resulting in the deaths of two protesters.  At least eleven individuals were killed in political violence between February 4, 2018 and March 14, 2018.  Prime Minister Mamady Youla and his entire government resigned on May 17, 2018.  President Alpha Condé appointed Ibrahima Kassory Fofana as prime minister on May 22, 2018.  President Alpha Condé replaced 13 out of 33 government ministers, including the ministers of finance, budget, and security, on May 27, 2018.  Opposition political parties and civil society groups organized protests against President Alpha Condé’s plan to change the constitution in Conakry and other cities beginning on October 14, 2019.  On November 8, 2019, UN Special Representative for West Africa, Mohamed Ibn Chambas, called for a “national dialogue” in Guinea to end the political crisis. On December 20, 2019, President Alpha Condé announced a new draft constitution that would be considered in a referendum the following year.  The draft constitution that extended the term of the president to six years and reset the two-term limit was approved in a referendum held on March 22, 2020.  Legislative elections were held on March 22, 2020, and the RPG won 79 out of 114 seats in the National Assembly. The main opposition political parties boycotted the referendum and legislative elections.  At least ten individuals were killed in election-related violence.  On August 30, 2020, the RPG announced that President Alpha Condé would run for a third term in the upcoming presidential election.  Gunmen attacked and killed Colonel Mamady Condé at a military base in Kindia on October 16, 2020.  More than 50 individuals were killed in several months of protests against President Alpha Condé’s decision to run for a third term.  President Alpha Condé was re-elected with nearly 60 percent of the vote on October 18, 2020.  The National Front for the Defence of the Constitution (FNDC) called for a boycott of the presidential election.  Opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo claimed victory in the presidential election on October 19, 2020.  Guinea’s electoral commission announced the re-election of President Alpha Condé on October 24, 2020.  Twenty-one individuals died in post-election violence.  The AU sent observers led by former Prime Minister Dileita Mohamed Dileita of Djibouti to monitor the presidential election.  The ECOWAS sent 16 long-term observers and 100 short-term observers led by former Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves of Cape Verde to monitor the presidential election from October 16 to October 22, 2020.  Opposition leader Cellou Dalein Diallo formally contested the results of the presidential election on November 2, 2020.  The Constitutional Court of Guinea confirmed President Alpha Condé’s victory on November 7, 2020.  Government police arrested several members of the UFDG, including the political party’s vice president, on November 12, 2020.  President Alpha Condé was sworn in for a third term on December 15, 2020.  On January 13, 2021, a Guinean court sentenced Souleymane Conde and Youssouf Dioubate, members of the FNDC, to one year in prison for inciting an insurrection.

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Selected Bibliography

Arieff, Alexis and Nicholas Cook. “Guinea’s 2008 Military Coup and Relations with the United States,” Congressional Research Service (CRS), Library of Congress, November 5, 2009.

“Guinea After Five Years,” The World Today, vol. 20 (March 1964), pp. 113-121.

Harshe, Rajen. 1984. “Guinea Under Sékou Touré,” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 19 (15), pp. 624-626.

Kaba, Lansine. 1977. “Guinean Politics: A Critical Historical Overview,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 15 (1), pp, 25-45.

Marcum, John. 1959. “Sékou Touré & Guinea,” Africa Today, vol. 6 (5), pp. 5-8.

“Soviet Military Policy in the Third World,” National Intelligence Estimate, NIE 11-10-76, October 21, 1976 (declassified by the U.S. Department of State on May 4, 2006).

Whiteman, Kaye. 1971. “Guinea in West African Politics,” The World Today, vol. 27 (8), pp. 350-358.