55. Cape Verde (1975-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (July 5, 1975-present):  Cape Verde formally achieved its independence from Portugal, and Aristides Pereira of the African Party of Independence of Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde – PAICV) was elected president by the National Assembly on July 5, 1975.  Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires of the PAICV formed a government as prime minister on July 8, 1975.  Legislative elections were held on December 7, 1980, and the PAICV won 60 out of 60 seats in the National Assembly.  President Pereira was re-elected by the National Assembly on February 12, 1981.  Legislative elections were held on December 7, 1985, and the PAICV won 83 out of 83 seats in the National Assembly.  President Pereira was re-elected by the National Assembly on January 13, 1986.  Opposition political groups established the Movement for Democracy (Movimento para a Democracia – MPD) on March 14, 1990.  The government decided to end the one-party system on September 28, 1990.

Legislative elections were held on January 13, 1991, and the Movement for Democracy (Movimento para a Democracia – MPD) won 56 out of 79 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência de Cabo Verde – PAICV) won 23 seats in the National Assembly.  Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro of the MPD was elected president with 73 percent of the vote on February 17, 1991.  Prime Minister Pedro Pires resigned, and Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho Veiga of the MPD formed a government as prime minister on April 4, 1991.  Legislative elections were held on December 17, 1995, and the MPD won 50 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly.  The PAICV won 21 seats in the National Assembly.  President Monteiro was re-elected with 80 percent of the vote on February 18, 1996.  Prime Minister Veiga resigned on July 29, 2000.  António Gualberto do Rosário of the MPD served as prime minister from July 29, 2000 to February 1, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on January 14, 2001, and the PAICV won 40 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly.  The MPD won 30 seats in the National Assembly.  José Maria Pereira Neves of the PAICV formed a government as prime minister on February 1, 2001.  Pedro Pires of the PAICV was elected president in the second round of presidential elections with 50 percent of the vote on February 25, 2001, and he was inaugurated as president on March 22, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on January 22, 2006, and the PAICV won 41 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly.  The MPD won 29 seats in the National Assembly.  President Pires was re-elected with 51 percent of the vote on February 12, 2006.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on February 6, 2011, and the PAICV won 37 out of 72 seats in the National Assembly.  The MPD won 33 seats in the National Assembly.  Jorge Carlos Fonseca of the MPD with 54 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on August 21, 2011.  The ECOWAS sent 80 observers led by David Adenze Kangah of Ghana to monitor the first and second rounds of the presidential election.  The African Union (AU) sent 13 observers led by Pascal Gayama of the Republic of Congo to monitor the presidential elections from August 3 to August 22, 2011.

[Sources:  British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), January 16, 2001, February 12, 2001, March 6, 2001, January 23, 2006, February 14, 2006, August 22, 2011; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) declaration, August 22, 2011; Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) press release, August 4, 2011, August 12, 2011, August 19, 2011; Pan African News Agency (PANA), August 23, 2011.]