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72. Republic of South Sudan (2011-present)

Crisis Phase (July 9, 2011-December 14, 2013):  The Republic of South Sudan formally achieved its independence from the Republic of the Sudan on July 9, 2011.  Salva Kiir was selected as President and Riek Machar was selected as Vice-President following independence.  The South Sudan Democratic Movement (SSDM) and the South Sudan Army (SSA), which were previously established by Lt. General George Athor Deng in opposition to the autonomous government in southern Sudan, continued its rebellion against the government of the Republic of South Sudan.  The United Nations Security Council established the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) on July 9, 2011.  The mandate of UNMISS included assisting the government of South Sudan in providing security, maintaining law and order, protecting civilians, and protecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance.  UNMISS was initially authorized to consist of 7,000 military personnel commanded by Major General Moses Bisong Obi of Nigeria, as well as 900 civilian police officers.  On July 8, 2011, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon appointed Hilde F. Johnson of Norway as UN Special Representative to South Sudan and Head of UNMISS on July 8, 2011.

The Council of the European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against South Sudan on July 19, 2011.  The South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) commanded by General Peter Yak Gadet declared a ceasefire with the government on August 3, 2011.  Lou Nuer and Murle tribesmen clashed in Uror county in Jonglei state on August 18, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 640 individuals.  Some 60 individuals were killed in violence between Lou Nuer and Murle tribesmen in Upper Nile state on August 20, 2011.  SSLA rebels attacked the town of Mayom in Unity state on October 29, 2011, resulting in the deaths of some 75 individuals.  SSDM leader Lt. General George Athor Deng was killed by government forces in Morobo county in Central Equatorial state on December 19, 2011.  Some 350,000 individuals were displaced as a result of tribal violence in 2011.  Lou Nuer tribesmen attacked Pibor and surrounding ethnic Murle villages in Jonglei state from December 31, 2011 to January 3, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 900 individuals and the displacement of some 50,000 individuals.  Lt. General Peter Kuol Chol Awan was selected as Chairman and Commander-in-Chief of the SSDM on January 8, 2012.  Some 51 individuals were killed during a Murle tribal attack against the Dinkas tribal village of Duk Padiet in Jonglei state on January 16, 2012.  Some 74 individuals were killed in tribal violence in Warap state on January 28, 2012.  Government and SSDM representatives signed a peace agreement, including amnesty for rebel soldiers, on February 27, 2012.  The Cobra faction of the South Sudan Democratic Movement (SSDM) led by David Yau Yau (a member of the Murle tribe) rebelled against the government in Jonglei state in April 2012.  The EU established the European Union Aviation Security Mission (EUAVSEC) in South Sudan on June 18, 2012.  EUAVSEC, which was responsible for assisting the South Sudanese government in strengthening aviation security at Juba International Airport, consisted of 34 international civilian staff members and 15 local staff members.  SSDM/Cobra faction rebels ambushed government troops in Jonglei state on August 22, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least 24 government soldiers.  Government troops killed 13 individuals near the town of Gumuruk in Jonglei state on December 4, 2012.  Government police killed ten protesters in the town of Wau in Western Bahr el Ghazai state on December 8-9, 2012.  On December 11, 2012, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Major General Delali Johnson Sakyi of Ghana as the Force Commander of UNMISS, replacing Major General Moses Bisong Obi of Nigeria whose assignment ended on November 18, 2012.  Government troops clashed with members of a militia led by Dak Kueth in Jonglei state on December 17, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 19 members of the militia and five government soldiers.  Government military forces mistakenly shot down a UNMISS helicopter in Jonglei state on December 21, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four Russian crew members.  On December 21, 2012, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council strongly condemned the shooting down of the UNMISS helicopter.  SSDM/Cobra faction rebels, including members of the Murle tribe, attacked members of the Lou Nuer tribe in Jonglei state on February 8, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 103 members of the Lou Nuer tribe and 14 government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with SSDM/Cobra faction rebels near the town of Pibor in Jonglei state on March 26, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 143 rebels and 20 government soldiers.   UNMISS consisted of 6,560 troops and 143 military liaison officers from 57 countries commanded by Major General Moses Bisong Obi of Nigeria, 556 civilian police personnel from 37 countries, and 852 international civilian staff personnel on March 31, 2013.  Five UNMISS peacekeeping personnel and seven UNMISS civilian staff personnel were ambushed and killed near the town of Gumuruk in Jonglei state on April 9, 2013.  On April 9, 2013, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of UN peacekeeping soldiers in Jonglei state.  President Salva Kiir dismissed Vice-President Riek Machar and the entire cabinet on July 23, 2013.

Conflict Phase (December 15, 2013-February 22, 2020):  Military forces loyal to former Vice-President Riek Machar clashed with government troops loyal to President Salva Kiir in Juba beginning on December 15, 2013.  Former Vice-President Riek Machar’s military forces were known as the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO).  On December 16, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for a ceasefire.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on December 17, 2013.  The British government appealed for a ceasefire on December 17, 2013.  Two UNMISS peacekeeping soldiers from India were killed in an attack in Akobo on December 19, 2013.  The UN Security Council condemned the violence in South Sudan on December 20, 2013.  Ugandan troops intervened in support of the government of South Sudan on December 20, 2013.  On December 20, 2013, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack on the UNMISS peacekeeping base, and appealed to the parties for a cessation of military hostilities.  The African Union (AU) appealed for “inclusive dialogue” on December 21, 2013.  On December 22, 2013, the AU appealed for an immediate ceasefire, and the British government urged all parties to engage in political dialogue.  On December 24, 2013, the U.S. government appealed for “immediate mediated political talks” in South Sudan.  The Chinese government appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on December 25, 2013 and January 6, 2014.  The UN Security Council condemned the fighting and appealed for a cessation of hostilities in South Sudan on December 20, 23, and 30, 2013.  The parties to the dispute began Inter-Government Authority for Development (IGAD)-mediated negotiations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on January 7, 2014.  The AU appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on January 12, 2014 and January 18, 2014.  On January 14, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for a ceasefire.  The EU disbanded EUAVSEC on January 17, 2014.  On January 20, 2014, the Council of the European Union (EU) expressed its condemnation of military hostilities in South Sudan.  The parties to the dispute signed the IGAD-mediated Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (CoHA) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on January 23, 2014.  On January 31, 2014, the AU condemned continued attacks against civilians in South Sudan.  On February 3, 2014, the IGAD urged the parties to adhere to the ceasefire agreement.  On February 27, 2014, the U.S.-based NGO, Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned human rights abuses committed by both sides of the conflict.  On March 7, 2014, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Chairperson of the AU Commission, announced the establishment of a commission of inquiry to investigate human rights violations in South Sudan.  The IGAD deployed the IGAD Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (IGAD MVM) in South South beginning on April 1, 2014.  The IGAD MVM, which consisted of monitoring & verification teams (MVTs) deployed in the states of Jonglei, Upper Nile, Unity, and Central Equatoria, included some 80 personnel from ten countries (Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Djibouti, Egypt, Somalia, U.S., China, and Norway) led by Major General Gebre Egziabher Mabrahtu of Ethiopia.  Some 400 individuals, mostly members of the Dinka tribe, were reportedly killed by rebels in the town of Bentiu in Unity state on April 15-16, 2014.  Nearly 60 individuals, mostly internally-displaced persons, were killed during an attack on a UN compound in Bor in Jonglei state on April 17, 2014.  On April 17, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack on the UN compound  in Bor.  On April 17, 2014, the governments of France and the U.S. condemned the attacked on the UN compound in Bor.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on April 18, 2014.  On April 18, 2014, the government of Norway condemned attacks on civilians and UN personnel in South Sudan.  On April 22, 2014, Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Chairperson of the AU Commission, strongly condemned the attack on civilians in the town of Bentiu in Unity state.  On April 23, 2014, the French government condemned the attacks on civilians in the town of Bentiu.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on April 24, 2014.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freezes and travel bans on two individuals) against the government and rebels on May 6, 2014.  One of the individuals was Major-General Marial Chanuong, commander of the government’s presidential guard.  The other individual was Peter Gadet, who commanded rebels that attacked the town of Bentiu.  Representatives of the government and the Cobra faction of the South Sudan Democratic Movement (SSDM) led by David Yau Yau (a member of the Murle tribe) signed a peace agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on May 9, 2014.  President Salva Kiir and former Vice-President Riek Machar signed an IGAD-mediated ceasefire agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on May 9, 2014.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the continued violence in South Sudan on June 4, 2014.  On June 17, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Lt. General Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam of Ethiopia as the Force Commander of UNMISS, replacing Major General Delali Johnson Sakyi of Ghana whose assignment ended on June 9, 2014.  UN Special Representative to South Sudan, Hilde F. Johnson, completed her assignment on July 7, 2014.  The EU imposed economic sanctions (assets freezes and travel bans) against two individuals, Peter Gadet and Major-General Santino Deng Wol, in South Sudan on July 10, 2014.  On July 23, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Ellen Margrethe Løj of Denmark as UN Special Representative and Head of UNMISS in South Sudan, replacing Hilde Johnson of Norway whose assignment ended on July 7, 2014.  On August 6, 2014, the UN Security Council condemned the recent deaths of at least six humanitarian workers in Upper Nile state.  On August 11, 2014, the U.S. government condemned the South Sudanese government and rebels for failing to form a transitional government.  One member of the IGAD MVM died of a heart attack while being detained by rebels in Unity state on August 23-24, 2014.  A UNMISS helicopter  was shot down near Bentiu in Unity state on August 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of three Russian crew members.  On August 27, 2014, the UN Security Council condemned the shooting down of the UNMISS helicopter near Bentiu.  On September 18, 2014, the U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freezes and travel bans) against two individuals, rebel commander James Koang Chuol and Major-General Santino Deng Wol.  Two Ugandan soldiers were killed in clashes with rebels in Upper Nile state on October 10, 2014.  Government troops clashed with SPLA-IO rebels in Bentiu and Rubkhona in Unity state on October 26-30, 2014.  On November 5, 2014, the UN Security Council strongly condemned recent clashes between government and SPLA-IO rebel forces in Unity state.  IGAD-mediated negotiations between the parties to the conflict in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ended without an agreement on March 6, 2015.  Supported by SPLM-IO troops, members of a militia led by Johnson Olony, a member of the Shilluk ethnic group, captured the city of Malakal on May 16, 2015.  On May 17, 2015, the UN Security Council condemned renewed violence in Unity state.  President Salva Kiir signed the IGAD-mediated Compromise Peace Agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on August 26, 2015.  The peace agreement established the IGAD Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC) headed by former President Festus Mogae of Botswana.  The agreement also established the IGAD Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM) to monitor the ceasefire agreement and the disarmament process beginning in September 2015.  Replacing the IGAD MVM, the CTSAMM consisted of some 200 personnel from 16 countries led by Major General Molla Hailemariam of Ethiopia.  The CTSAMM was divided into 16 Monitoring & Verification Teams (MVTs) throughout the country.  Ugandan troops completed their withdrawal from South Sudan on October 30, 2015.  Ethnic violence occurred in the Protection of Civilians (PoC) site in Malakal, South Sudan on February 17-18, 2016, resulting in the deaths of at least 25 individuals.  On February 19, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned violence in the PoC site in Malakal, South Sudan.  Riek Machar was sworn in as vice-president in Juba on April 26, 2016.  On May 13, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Lt. General Johnson Mogoa Kimani Ondieki of Kenya as Force Commander of UNMISS, replacing Lt. General Yohannes Gebremeskel Tesfamariam of Ethiopia whose assignment ended on June 17, 2016.  One SPLM-IO soldier loyal to Vice-President Machar was killed by government troops in Juba on July 3, 2016.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-IO soldiers loyal to Vice-President Machar in Juba on July 7, 2016, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-IO soldiers loyal to Vice-President Riek Machar in Juba on July 7-8, 2016, resulting in the deaths of more than 200 soldiers and 33 civilians.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from China and eight individuals in a UN refugee camp were killed during clashes in Juba on July 10, 2016.  On July 9, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned the clashes in Juba, and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council called for an immediate cessation of military hostilities in Juba on July 10, 2016.  The U.S. government demanded a cessation of military hostilities, and the Sudanese government condemned the conflict on July 10, 2016.  President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar agreed to a cessation of hostilities on July 11, 2016.  Vice-President Machar fled to the Democratic Republic of Congo.  More than 300 individuals were killed and more than 100,000 individuals were displaced during the week-long clashes in Juba.  On July 11, 2016, the Chinese government condemned violence in Juba that resulted in the deaths of two UN peacekeeping soldiers from China.  President Salva Kiir dismissed Vice-President Riek Machar on July 23, 2016.  Taban Deng Gai of the SPLA-IO was appointed as acting Vice-President.  On August 12, 2016, the UN Security Council approved a resolution authorizing the expansion of UNMISS up to 17,000 personnel, including the creation of a 4,000-member Regional Protection Force (RPF) to provide security for the transitional government in Juba.  On December 13, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed David Shearer of New Zealand as UN Special Representative for South Sudan and head of UNMISS.  UNMISS consisted of 12,099 troops, 188 military observers, 1,454 civilian police personnel, and 787 international civilian personnel on December 31, 2016.  There were 45 UNMISS fatalities as of December 31, 2016.  On February 10, 2017, the UN Security Council condemned the violence in South Sudan.  On March 23, 2017, the UN Security Council condemned the fighting in South Sudan and called for an immediate cessation of hostilities.  Six humanitarian aid workers were killed in an ambush between Juba and Pibor on March 25, 2017.  On April 6, 2017, UN Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Lt. General Frank Mushyo Kamanzi of Rwanda as Force Commander of UNMISS.  On May 5, 2017, the UN Security Council strongly condemned an attack that occurred against a UN peacekeeping base in the town of Leer in South Sudan on May 3, 2017.  On June 12, 2017, the IGAD Assembly of Heads of State and Government appointed Ismail Wais as IGAD Special Envoy for the South Sudan civil war.  UNMISS consisted of 11,281 troops, 186 military observers, 1,590 civilian police personnel, and 823 international civilian staff personnel on June 30, 2017.  UNMISS fatalities included 28 troops, one military observer, three civilian police personnel, and five international civilian staff personnel as of June 30, 2017.  Government and allied troops launched a military offensive against SPLA-IO rebels in northeastern South Sudan on July 1, 2017.  The military offensive ended after government and allied troops captured the towns of Maiwut and Pagak.  Government troops captured the SPLA-IO’s southern headquarters in Lasu December 18, 2017.  The IGAD convened the first phase of the High-Level Revitalization Forum (HLRF) of the parties to the Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on December 18-22, 2020,  Government and SPLA-IO representatives signed an IGAD-mediated ceasefire agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on December 21, 2017.  SPLA-IO rebels attacked the village of Koch on December 24, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 15 civilians. On December 29, 2017, the Chairperson of the IGAD Council of Ministers, Workneh Gebeyehu of Ethiopia, condemned the violations of the cessation of hostilities in South Sudan.  On January 2, 2018, the governments of the U.S., United Kingdom, and Norway condemned violations of the ceasefire agreement in South Sudan.  On January 13, 2018, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat, and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, jointly condemned the recent violations of the ceasefire agreement in South Sudan.  On January 13, 2018, the governments of the U.S., United Kingdom, and Norway again condemned violations of the ceasefire agreement in South Sudan.  On January 25, 2018, the IGAD Council of Ministers condemned the SPLA-IO’s attack against the village of Koch.  On February 2, 2018, the U.S. government imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and rebel forces in South Sudan.   Some 200 government troops attacked the village of Nyatot in Upper Nile state on February 12, 2018, resulting in the deaths of 22 civilians.  Government troops attacked the town of Modit in Jonglei on February 26, 2018, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  On June 20, 2018, President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar met for talks in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on June 20, 2018.  On June 27, 2018, President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar signed a “permanent” ceasefire agreement in Khartoum, Sudan.  On July 7, 2018, representatives of the government and opposition signed a power-sharing agreement in Kampala, Uganda.  On July 13, 2018, the UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and opposition groups in South Sudan.  On August 5, 2018, President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar signed a power-sharing agreement mediated by IGAD in Khartoum, Sudan.  On August 9, 2018, President Salva Kiir granted amnesty and pardons to all rebels involved in the civil war, including opposition leader Riek Machar.  President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar signed a peace agreement mediated by the Republic of the Sudan in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on September 12, 2018.  The Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (CTSAMVM), which replaced the former CTSAMM, held its first meeting in Khartoum, Sudan on September 26, 2018.  The CTSAMVM, which included representatives of the UN, EU, AU, IGAD, China, U.S., UK, Norway, and several NGOs, consisted of more than 150 personnel from more than 15 different countries chaired by Major General Desta Abiche Ageno of Ethiopia.  President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar attended a peace ceremony in the capital city of Juba on October 31, 2018.  On December 7, 2018, the UN Security Council condemned the “the heinous incidents of sexual and gender-based violence against women near Bentiu in northern South Sudan.”  On December 21, 2018, the UN Security Council strongly condemned the detention and abuse of CTSAMVM monitors three days earlier in Luri, South Sudan.  Representatives of the government and opposition held talks mediated by IGAD Special Envoy Ismael Wais in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on May 2-3, 2019, resulting in an agreement to postpone the creation of a unity government by six months.  President Salva Kiir lifted the state of emergency in the states of Tonj, Wau, Aweil East, Gogrial and Western Lakes on May 3, 2019.  On May 24, 2019, UN Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Lt. General Shailesh Tinaikar of India as Force Commander of UNMISS, replacing Lt. General Frank Mushyo Kamanzi of Rwanda who completed his assignment as force commander on May 26. 2019.  On December 16, 2019, the U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against two South Sudan government officials, Minister of Cabinet Affairs Martin Elia Lomuro and Minister of Defence and Veteran Affairs Kuol Manyang Juuk.  On December 17, 2019, President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar agreed to form a unity government within two months.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against South Sudan’s First Vice President Taban Teng Gai on January 8, 2020.  President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar formed a coalition government on February 22, 2020, officially ending the six-year old conflict.  That same day, Riek Machar was sworn in as First Vice President of South Sudan in the capital city of Juba.  Some 380,000 individuals were killed, and more than four million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (February 23, 2020-present):  Some 300 individuals were killed in inter-communal violence in the eastern state of Jongle on May 16-20, 2020.  On May 30, 2020, the UN Security Council extended military and economic sanctions against Sudan for one-year.  Government security forces and civilians clashed in the town of Tonj on August 9-12, 2020, resulting in the deaths of 125 individuals.  On August 19, 2020, six bodyguards for Vice President for Economic Affairs, James Wani Igga, were killed during an ambush by National Salvation Front (NSF) rebels on their vehicle convoy near the village of Lobonok. On November 5, 2020, the UN suspended humanitarian assistance programs in eastern South Sudan following the deaths of two local aid workers over the previous week.  As of December 31, 2020, UNMISS consisted of 14,228 troops, 417 military staff officers, 224 military experts, 1,653 police personnel, and 1,402 international civilian staff.  More than 1,000 individuals have been killed in political violence since February 2020.

[Sources:  Africa Times, July 9, 2017; Al Jazeera, January 16, 2014, March 6, 2015, July 9, 2016, July 10, 2016, July 11, 2016, July 23, 2016, December 14, 2017, June 20, 2018, June 27, 2018, July 7, 2018, July 13, 2018, August 5, 2018, August 9, 2018, September 12, 2018,  October 31, 2018, May 2, 2019, May 3, 2019, December 13, 2019, December 16, 2019, December 17, 2019, January 8, 2020, February 20, 2020, February 22, 2020, May 20, 2020, May 30, 2020, August 11, 2020, August 12, 2020, November 17, 2020; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), July 8, 2011, August 3, 2011, August 22, 2011, October 29, 2011, December 7, 2011, December 20, 2011, December 30, 2011, January 1, 2012, January 3, 2012, January 5, 2012, January 7, 2012, January 12, 2012, January 17, 2012, January 30, 2012, February 3, 2012, August 27, 2012, December 9, 2012, January 18, 2014, April 15, 2014, April 17, 2014, April 24, 2014, May 9, 2014, May 11, 2014, August 26, 2015, July 11, 2016, July 12, 2016, August 18, 2016, March 26, 2017, August 20, 2020, November 5, 2020; Cable News Network (CNN), January 24, 2014; European Union (EU) press release, July 10, 2014; Inter-Government Authority for Development (IGAD) press release, April 11, 2014, August 24, 2014; New York Times (NYT), January 5, 2012, May 6, 2014, July 10, 2016, February 2, 2018, February 6, 2018; Reuters, February 28, 2012, August 27, 2012, December 11, 2012, December 19, 2012, December 22, 2012, February 10, 2013, February 20, 2013, March 28, 2013, April 9, 2013, December 25, 2013, January 1, 2014, January 6, 2014, January 7, 2014, January 11, 2014, January 23, 2014, February 2, 2014, March 7, 2014, March 13, 2014, April 28, 2014, May 6, 2014, May 6, 2014, May 9, 2014, May 11, 2014, June 4, 2014, July 11, 2014, July 20, 2014, August 11, 2014, August 24, 2014, August 26, 2014, September 18, 2014, October 29, 2014, November 6, 2014, November 7, 2014, November 8, 2014, December 4, 2014, December 26, 2014, March 6, 2015, October 12, 2015, July 9, 2016, July 7, 2017, December 19, 2017, May 23, 2018, May 30, 2018, February 20, 2020, February 21, 2020, February 22, 2020, May 21, 2020, August 11, 2020, August 14, 2020; Sudan Tribune, February 28, 2012, December 9, 2012, December 22, 2012, December 20, 2013, January 31, 2014, April 18, 2014, May 9, 2014, October 11, 2014; The Citizen (Juba), January 8, 2012; United Nations (UN) press release, July 8, 2011, December 11, 2012, June 17, 2014, July 23, 2014, May 13, 2016, July 10, 2016, April 6, 2017, May 24, 2019; Voice of America (VOA), December 22, 2013, March 20, 2014, April 17, 2014, April 18, 2014, June 24, 2014, August 25, 2014, October 21, 2014, October 22, 2015, July 13, 2016, August 7, 2017, August 12, 2017, August 15, 2017, December 21, 2017, January 16, 2018, January 18, 2018; Washington Post, July 13, 2016.]