71. Chad (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (August 11, 1960-September 15, 1963):  Chad formally achieved its independence from France on August 11, 1960.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 4, 1962, and the Chadian Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Tchadien – PPT) won 85 out 85 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Assembly approved a new constitution on April 14, 1962, which replaced the parliamentary political system with a presidential political system.  Francois Tombalbaye of the PPT was elected president on April 23, 1962.  President Tombalbaye, a member of the Sara tribe (Christians and animists) of southern Chad, suppressed Muslim political parties and leaders, resulting in increasing opposition to the government among the dozens of non-Sara ethnic groups in the country.  President Tombalbaye dissolved the National Assembly on March 26, 1963.

Crisis Phase (September 16, 1963-October 31, 1965):  On September 16, 1963, President Tombalbaye declared a state-of-emergency following demonstrations in N’Djamena and Salamat, resulting in the deaths of 19 civilians and one government soldier.  President Tombalbaye lifted the state-of-emergency on September 21, 1963.  Legislative elections were held on December 22, 1963, and the Chadian Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Tchadien – PPT) won 75 out of 75 seats in the National Assembly.

Conflict Phase (November 1, 1965-March 22, 1979):  Muslims (ethnic Mabas and Toubous) and non-Muslims (Moubi) rebelled against the government in northern and eastern provinces beginning on November 1, 1965.  The Front for the National Liberation of Chad (Front pour la Liberation Nationale du Tchad – FROLINAT) was established by a coalition of Muslim opposition groups in Niala, Sudan on June 22, 1966.  The French government agreed to provide economic assistance to the government on September 9, 1966.  Following the outbreak of rebellion in Aozou province, President Tombalbaye requested French military intervention on August 28, 1968.  The French government agreed to deploy 1,000 troops in support of the government on August 28, 1968.  President Tombalbaye requested additional French military assistance in March 1969.  The French government deployed an additional 2,000 troops commanded by General Michel Arnaud in support of the government of Chad (Operation Bison) beginning on April 15, 1969.  President Tombalbaye was re-elected without opposition on June 15, 1969.  Government and French troops launched a military operation against FROLINAT rebels in northern Chad on September 6-17, 1969, resulting in the deaths or wounding of some 70 rebels.  Legislative elections were held on December 14, 1969, and the PPT won 105 out of 105 seats in the National Assembly.  The Libyan government offered to mediate negotiations between the FROLINAT and government of Chad on December 16, 1969, but the government rejected the mediation offer on December 18, 1969.  French troops and FROLINAT rebels clashed near Largeau in northern Chad on October 11, 1970, resulting in the deaths of eleven French soldiers and 30 rebels.  Government and French troops attacked rebel positions in the Zouar district on October 22-23, 1970, resulting in the deaths of some 60 rebels.  Rebels leaders of the Moubi tribe in central and eastern Chad agreed to end their insurgency against the government on January 6, 1971.  President Tombalbaye agreed to share political power with Muslim politicians on May 24, 1971.  French troops clashed with FROLINAT rebels near Largeau in northern Chad on June 18-20, 1971, resulting in the deaths of 43 rebels, two French soldiers, and one government soldier.  The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the FROLINAT on September 17, 1971.  French troops clashed with FROLINAT rebels near the Sudanese border on February 18, 1972, resulting in the deaths of 45 rebels and three French soldiers.  French troops completed their withdrawal from Chad on August 28, 1972.  Some 50 French soldiers were killed during the military intervention.  The French government provided military assistance (600 military advisors commanded by General J. H. Auffray) in support of the government of Chad from August 1972 to September 1975.  The PPT was replaced as the country’s sole legal political party by the National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution (Mouvement National pour la Revolution Culturelle et Sociale – MNRCS) on August 27, 1973.  President Tombalbaye was killed during a military coup led by General Noel Odingar on April 13, 1975.  General Odingar suspended the constitution, dissolved the parliament, and banned political parties on April 14, 1975.  General Felix Malloum was appointed chairman of the nine-member Supreme Military Council (SMC) on April 15, 1975.  The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the SMC on April 18, 1975.  General Malloum formed a provisional government as head-of-state and prime minister on May 12, 1975.  The government demanded the withdrawal of French military advisors from the country on September 28, 1975, and French military advisors were withdrawn on October 27, 1975.  President Malloum survived an attempted assassination in N’Djamena on April 13, 1976, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion of some 37 rebel soldiers led by Lt. Brahim Abakar Koumba on April 1, 1977, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals.  On April 6, 1977, nine individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion.  One April 14, 1977, four members of FROLINAT were executed for attempting to assassinate the president in April 1976.  President Jafar Muhammad Numayri of Sudan mediated a ceasefire agreement between the government and General Hissene Habre, leader of the Armed Forces of the North (Forces Armees du Nord – FAN), in Khartoum, Sudan on January 22, 1978.  The parties agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on February 5, 1978.  The agreement provided for a government of national unity and the establishment of a constituent assembly.  Libya opposed the agreement and backed a FROLINAT military offensive in northern Chad beginning on January 29, 1978.  Faya-Largeau fell to FROLINAT rebels on February 19, 1978.  Some 2,600 French troops intervened in support of the government beginning on February 20, 1978.  The governments of Libya, Sudan, and Niger jointly mediated negotiations between rival factions in Chad beginning on February 24, 1978, and the rival factions signed the Benghazi Accords on March 27, 1978.  The rival factions agreed to a cessation of military hostilities and the formal recognition of FROLINAT.  Government troops and FROLINAT rebels resumed military hostilities on April 15, 1978.  Two French soldiers were killed by FROLINAT rebels in central Chad on May 19, 1978.  Some 800 Libyan troops intervened in support of the rebels on June 22, 1978.  President Malloum referred the matter to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) on July 20, 1978, and the OAU foreign ministers established an OAU conciliation commission (Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) on July 22, 1978.  The parties agreed to a ceasefire and signed a reconciliation charter on August 29, 1978, which provided for a government of national unity headed by General Habre as prime minister.  President Malloum and Prime Minister Habre disagreed over the interpretation of the reconciliation charter in January 1979.  President Numayri of Sudan offered to mediate negotiations between the parties, and Prime Minister Habre accepted the mediation offer on January 30, 1979.  Government troops loyal to President Malloum and FAN rebels loyal to Prime Minister Habre engaged in military hostilities in N’Djamena on February 12-15, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 500 individuals.  The Sudanese government mediated a ceasefire agreement between the rival factions on February 16-19, 1979.  Some 800 individuals were killed in political violence in Moundou on March 6, 1979.  The OAU conciliation commission (Cameroon, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) facilitated negotiations between the rival factions in Kano, Nigeria on March 11-15, 1979, and the factions signed a ceasefire agreement on March 16, 1979.  The French government announced the withdrawal of its 2,500 troops from the country on March 20, 1979.  The ceasefire agreement went into effect on March 22, 1979.  Some 5,500 individuals were killed, and some 100,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 23, 1979-March 20, 1980):  General Goukouni Oueddei became chairman of the eight-member Provisional State Council (PSC) following the resignations of President Malloum and Prime Minister Habre on March 23, 1979.  Some 850 Nigerian peacekeeping troops were deployed in N’Djamena on March 30, 1979.  The OAU conciliation commission (Cameroon, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) facilitated negotiations between the rival factions in Kano, Nigeria on April 3-11, 1979.  Colonel Mohammed Shawwa formed an “interim national unity government” as prime minister on April 24, 1979.  The OAU conciliation commission (Cameroon, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) facilitated negotiations between the rival factions in Lagos, Nigeria on May 26-27, 1979.  Nigerian peacekeeping troops were withdrawn from N’Djamena on June 4, 1979.  Rival factions clashed in N’Djamena on June 11-12, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals.  Some 2,500 Libyan troops launched a military offensive against FROLINAT rebels in northern Chad beginning on June 25, 1979, but Libyan troops were forced to retreat following a counter-military offensive by government and French troops on July 30, 1979.  The OAU conciliation commission (Cameroon, Central African Empire, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, and Sudan) facilitated negotiations between the rival factions in Lagos, Nigeria beginning on August 14, 1979.  Eleven rival factions signed the Lagos Accord on National Reconciliation in Chad in Lagos, Nigeria on August 21, 1979, which provided for the establishment of a transitional government of national unity and an OAU peacekeeping mission to monitor the ceasefire agreement.  The Transitional Government of National Unity (GUNT) with General Goukouni Oueddei, leader of the Popular Armed Forces (Forces Armees Populaires – FAP), as president, General Habre as Minister of Defense, and Lt. Colonel Widal Kamougue as vice-president was formally established on November 11, 1979.  Congo-Brazzaville deployed 550 troops as a part of an OAU peacekeeping mission on January 18, 1980.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between March 1979 and March 1980.

Conflict Phase (March 21, 1980-September 10, 1987):  General Goukouni Oueddei’s FAP troops and General Habre’s FAN troops engaged in military hostilities in N’Djamena beginning on March 21, 1980.  President Alhaji Shehu Shagari of Nigeria offered to facilitate negotiations between the parties, and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt offered to mediate negotiations between the parties in March 1980.  The government of Congo-Brazzaville withdrew its peacekeeping troops from the country on April 3, 1980.  President Gnassingbe Eyadema of Togo and Edem Kodjo, secretary-general of the OAU, mediated negotiations between the parties on April 6-7, 1980, and the parties agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on April 8, 1980.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the military hostilities.  The Libyan government deployed some 42 military technicians and 200 troops in N’Djamena in support of President Goukouni Oueddei beginning on April 29, 1980.  The parties resumed military hostilities in May 1980.  French troops were withdrawn from Chad on May 17, 1980 (nine French troops were killed during the intervention since 1978).  Libyan troops attacked FAN troops near N’Djamena on June 12, 1980.  The OAU conciliation commission (Benin, Congo-Brazzaville, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Togo) facilitated negotiations between the factions in Lome, Togo beginning on October 18, 1980, and President Goukouni Oueddei signed an OAU-mediated ceasefire agreement in Lome, Togo on November 14, 1980.  On December 2, 1980, some 5,000 Libyan troops intervened after a request by the government of President Goukouni Oueddei.  Government and Libyan troops launched a military offensive against FAN troops in N’Djamena on December 6, 1980, and General Habre fled to Cameroon on December 14, 1980.  Government and Libyan troops captured N’Djamena on December 15, 1980.  General Habre signed the OAU-mediated ceasefire agreement on December 16, 1980.  Government troops captured Abeche from FAN troops in eastern Chad on December 19, 1980.  Some 150,000 individuals fled as refugees to northern Cameroon, Nigeria, and Sudan.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and the World Food Programme (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to refugees and internally-displaced persons beginning in January 1981.  The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (military advisors) to the government of President Goukouni Oueddei beginning in January 1981.  Egypt provided military assistance to General Habre’s FAN troops beginning in January 1981.  OAU foreign ministers agreed to deploy an OAU peacekeeping force to replace Libyan troops in Chad in June 1981.  OAU heads-of-state expressed support for the government of President Goukouni Oueddei in June 1981.  President Goukouni Oueddei requested the withdrawal of Libyan troops from Chad on October 29, 1981, and Libyan troops completed their withdrawal from Chad on November 16, 1981.  Some 300 Libyan troops were killed during the military intervention between June 1978 and November 1981.  General Habre’s FAN rebels launched a military offensive against government troops in eastern Chad in November 1981.  The OAU deployed a peacekeeping force consisting of more than 3,550 military personnel from Zaire (800 soldiers), Senegal (700 soldiers), Nigeria (2,000 soldiers), Kenya (29 military observers), Algeria (19 military observers), Guinea-Bissau (four military observers), and Zambia (four military observers) commanded by Major General Geoffrey Ejiga of Nigeria beginning on November 15, 1981.  The mandate of the OAU peacekeeping mission was to monitor the ceasefire agreement, assist with the demilitarization of N’Djamena, and provide security throughout the country.  Gebre Egziabher Dawit of Ethiopia was appointed as OAU Special Representative in November 1981.  The U.S. and French governments provided peacekeeping support (financial and logistical) to the OAU peacekeeping force.  General Habre’s FAN rebels captured N’Djamena, and President Goukouni Oueddei fled to Cameroon on June 7, 1982.  A 30-member Council of State headed by General Habre took control of the government on June 19, 1982.  The OAU peacekeeping force was withdrawn from Chad on June 30, 1982.  General Habre was inaugurated as president on October 21, 1982.  General Goukouni Oueddei and Lt. Colonel Kamougue established a government-in-exile in Libya in October 1982.  Some 8,000 individuals were killed, and some 185,000 individuals fled as refugees to neighboring countries between 1979 and 1982.  General Goukouni Oueddei’s rebel troops and some 2,000 Libyan troops attacked and seized Faya-Largeau in northern Chad on June 24, 1983.  Egypt expressed support for the government of President Habre on June 25, 1983.  The government of Gabon appealed for peaceful negotiations on June 25, 1983.  President Habre requested French military assistance on July 5, 1983.  Foreign Minister Wu Xuequain of China appealed for peaceful negotiations on July 14, 1983.  The OAU conciliation commission appealed for a ceasefire and troop withdrawal on July 15, 1983.  President Habre’s government troops recaptured Faya-Largeau on July 30, 1983.  Some 2,000 Zairean troops and six military aircraft were deployed in N’Djamena in support of the government beginning on August 2, 1983.  On August 6, 1983, French President Francois Mitterand announced that France would militarily intervene in support of the government.  Some 3,300 French troops commanded by Brigadier General Jean Poli were deployed in Chad (Operation Manta) beginning on August 9, 1983.  The U.S. government provided in military assistance (30 anti-aircraft missiles and three military instructors) to the government in August 1983, and deployed two AWAC aircraft and eight F-15 aircraft to Chad (the AWAC aircraft were withdrawn on August 23, 1983).  Some 3,000 rebels and 2,000 Libyan troops recaptured Faya-Largeau on August 10, 1983.  The foreign ministers of Egypt, Sudan, Zaire, Uganda, and the Central African Republic expressed support for the government of President Habre on November 6, 1983.  President Haile Miriam Mengistu of Ethiopia, chairman of the OAU, attempted to mediate negotiations between the factions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on January 10-13, 1984.  Rebels shot down a French military aircraft on January 25, 1984, resulting in the death of one French military personnel.  President Mohammed Hosni Mubarek of Egypt expressed support for the government on July 17, 1984.  The Rally of Patriotic Forces (RPF) was established in opposition to the government on August 12, 1984.  On September 16, 1984, the governments of France and Libya agreed to withdraw their troops from Chad.  French, Zairean, and Libyan troops were withdrawn from Chad on November 10, 1984.  Nine French soldiers were killed during the military intervention.  President Habre’s government troops controlled southern Chad, while General Goukouni Oueddei’s rebels controlled northern Chad.  General Goukouni Oueddei’s rebels, assisted by Libyan troops, attacked government positions in southern Chad on February 10, 1986.  On February 13-14, 1986, French military aircraft from military air bases in the Central African Republic were deployed in Chad after an appeal by the government of Chad.  Some 2,200 French troops were deployed in support of the government (Operation Epervier) beginning on February 18, 1986.  French military aircraft bombed rebel and Libyan military positions in northern Chad on February 16, 1986.  On March 13, 1986, the U.S. government announced that it would provide $10 million in military assistance to the government of Chad, and the military assistance continued through September 11, 1987.  General Goukouni Oueddei switched the support of the FAP to the government of President Habre in October 1986.  After Libyan troops attacked General Goukouni Oueddei’s troops on December 11, 1986, President Habre appealed for additional US and French military assistance.  The U.S. government approved another $15 million in emergency military assistance to the government, and some 1,400 French troops were deployed in Chad beginning on December 17, 1986.  Government troops, with logistical support from French troops, attacked Fada in northern Chad on January 2, 1987.  Government troops captured Faya-Largeau on March 27, 1987.  The U.S. government agreed to provide another $32 million in military assistance, including Stinger anti-aircraft missiles, to the government in June 1987.  OAU chairman, President Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, mediated a ceasefire agreement that went into effect on September 11, 1987.  Some 33,000 individuals, including some 5,000 government soldiers and 2,000 Libyan soldiers, were killed, and some 250,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 11, 1987-November 30, 1991):  The government of Chad suppressed a rebellion led by Interior Minister Brahim Mahamat Itno, Hassan Djamous, and General Idriss Deby on April 1-2, 1989, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum, and President Habre was approved for another seven-year term on December 10, 1989.  General Idriss Deby, former chief-of-staff of the Chadian military, led a rebellion by the Patriotic Salvation Movement (Mouvement Patriotique de Salut – MPS) against the government beginning on March 25, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on July 8, 1990, and independents won 123 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly.  MPS rebels overthrew the government, and President Habre fled to Cameroon on December 1, 1990.  General Deby of the MPS dissolved the parliament and suspended the constitution on December 3, 1990.  General Deby assumed the presidency of the Council of State on December 4, 1990.  The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic recognition) against the government on December 3, 1990.  The French government agreed to provide economic assistance to the government on December 23, 1990.  President Deby appointed Jean Alingue Bawoyeu as prime minister on March 4, 1991.  President Deby lifted the ban on political parties on October 1, 1991.  The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Interior Minister Maldom Bada Abbas on October 13, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 40 individuals.  The French government expressed support for the government of Chad on October 14, 1991, and announced the deployment of 300 additional troops in the country on October 18, 1991.

Conflict Phase (December 1, 1991-January 25, 1996):  Movement for Development and Democracy (Mouvement pour la Démocratie et le Développement – MDD) rebels invaded Chad from Nigeria in December 1991.  The French government deployed an additional 450 troops in Chad at the request of the government on January 3, 1992, but the troops were withdrawn on January 7, 1992.  Joseph Yodemane was appointed prime minister on May 20, 1992.  Some 2,000 individuals fled as refugees to Niger in 1992.  The UN Secretariat provided electoral assistance from January to April 1993 during the Sovereign National Conference (SNC) held during the same period.  The SNC adopted a transitional constitution that went into effect on April 9, 1993.  The Provisional Council of the Republic was replaced by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council elected by the SNC on April 6, 1993.  Nbailou Miabe, a member of an opposition political party, was assassinated on June 26, 1993, and eight individuals were killed during violent demonstrations following the assassination.  Some 125 individuals were killed during demonstrations in Chakoyan and N’Djamena on August 4-8, 1993.  Some 18,000 Chadians fled as refugees to Central African Republic.  Delwa Kassire Koumakoye was elected prime minister of a transitional government on November 6, 1993.  The government signed a ceasefire agreement with a rebel group led by Lt. Moise Tchiete on February 24, 1994.  Government and National Revival Committee for Peace and Democracy (NRCPD) representatives signed a ceasefire agreement in Bangui, Central African Republic on August 11, 1994.  The government signed a peace agreement with the Chadian National Front (CNF) headed by Alarit Bachar in Abeche, Chad on October 12, 1994.  Government and MDD representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on November 22, 1995, and the ceasefire agreement went into effect on November 30, 1995.  The government signed peace accords with three rebels groups between December 9, 1995 and January 25, 1996.  The presidents of Gabon, Central African Republic, and Niger facilitated negotiations between the government and 14 opposition groups in Gabon from January 5-9, 1996, and a peace agreement was signed by representatives of the government and the Action for Unity and Development (AUD) rebel group in Bangui, Central African Republic on January 25, 1996.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed, and some 2,500 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 26, 1996-September 30, 1998):  The United Naitons High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) provided repatriation assistance to some 10,500 Chadian refugees in Central African Republic and Niger between April 1995 and January 1999.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on March 31, 1996.  Idriss Deby of the Patriotic Salvation Movement (Mouvement Patriotique de Salut – MPS) was elected president with some 47 percent of the vote in the runoff election on July 3, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on August 8, 1996.  The UN provided electoral assistance to Chad from March 1995 to July 1996.  The Organisation Internationale Francophonie (OIF) sent nine observers led by former Prime Minister Joseph Kokou Koffigoh of Togo to monitor the presidential election from May 9 to July 4, 1996.  President Deby appointed Djimasta Koibla as interim prime minister on August 11, 1996.  On October 10, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses.  Legislative elections were held on January 5 and February 23, 1997, and the Patriotic Salvation Movement (Mouvement Patriotique de Salut – MPS) won 65 out of 125 seats in the National Assembly. The Union for Renewal and Democracy (Union pour le Rénouveau et la Démocratie – URD) won 29 seats in the National Assembly.  The Organisation Internationale Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Government and Armed Forces for a Federal Republic (AFFR) representatives signed a peace agreement on April 18, 1997.  President Deby appointed Nassou Ouaidou Guelendouksia as prime minister on May 16, 1997.  Government and FROLINAT-FAP representatives signed a peace agreement on August 14, 1997.

Conflict Phase (October 1, 1998-January 7, 2002):  The Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (Mouvement pour la Democratie et la Justice au Tschad – MDJT) headed by former Defense Minister Youssouf Togoimi rebelled against the government in the Tibesti region of northern Chad beginning in October 1998.  The Libyan government provided military assistance to the MDJT.  Some 3,000 Chadians fled as refugees to Central African Republic in 1998.  Government and MDD representatives signed a peace agreement in Khartoum, Sudan on July 4, 1999.  Moussa Medella, leader of the MDD, returned to Chad on July 5, 1999.  Mbailernal Michel, leader of the Action Committee for Freedom and Democracy (ACFD) rebel group, was arrested by police in Moundou in southern Chad on July 26, 1999.  Government troops clashed with MDJT rebels in the Oumou region on November 2, 1999, resulting in the deaths of eight government soldiers and 37 rebels.  Thirteen opposition political parties formed the Coordination of Armed Movements and Opposition Political Parties (Coordination des Mouvements Armes at Politiques de l’Opposition  – CMAP) in Paris, France in December 1999.  Government troops and MDJT rebels clashed in the Tibesti region on January 23, 2000.  MDJT rebels clashed with government troops near Zouar in northern Chad on February 7, 2000, resulting in the deaths of two rebels and one government soldier.  Government troops and MDJT rebels clashed in Wour district  on April 28-May 2, 2000.  MDJT rebels captured the town of Bardai in northern Chad on July 17, 2000, resulting in the deaths of some 250 government soldiers.  Kette Nodji Moise, a rebel leader, was killed by government troops on September 6, 2000.  Government troops and MDJT rebels clashed near Tanouc on December 20, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 120 rebels and nine government soldiers.  President Deby was re-elected with 67 percent of the vote on May 2, 2001, and he was inaugurated for a second term on August 8, 2001.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the Organisation Internationale Francophonie (OIF) sent 36 personnel to monitor the elections.  Government troops clashed with demonstrators in N’Djamena on May 28, 2001, resulting in the death of one individual.  Government troops suppressed demonstrations in N’Djamena on June 11, 2001.  The French government condemned the government on June 13, 2001.  Government troops clashed with MDJT rebels north of N’Djamena on July 24, 2001, resulting in the deaths of eight rebels and two government soldiers.  On December 25, 2001, the MDJT agreed to Libya-mediated negotiations with government representatives in Tripoli, Libya beginning on January 4, 2002.  Government and MDJT representatives signed a ceasefire agreement in Tripoli on January 7, 2002.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 8, 2002-December 17, 2005):  Legislative elections were held on April 12, 2002, and the MPS won 113 out of 155 seats in the National Assembly.  The Rally for Democracy and Progress (Rassemblement pour la Democratie et le Progress – RDP) won ten seats in the National Assembly.  On September 24, 2002, Youssouf Togoimi, leader of the MDJT, died from wounds suffered in a landmine blast.  MDJT rebels attacked the airport in Faya on October 3, 2002, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers. The government signed a peace agreement with the National Resistance Army (ANR) in Gabon on January 10, 2003.  An amendment to the constitution permitting the president to serve more than two terms was approved in a referendum on June 6, 2005.  The Rally for Democracy and Freedom (Rassemblement pour la Democratie et la Liberte – RDL) was established by former members of the military of Chad in opposition to the government in August 2005.  The Platform for Change, Unity, and Democracy (Socle pour le Changement, l’Unite et la Democratie – SCUD) was established by dissident military officers in opposition to the government in October 2005.  RDL and SCUD were militarily assisted (weapons and ammunition) by the Sudanese government.  SCUD rebels attacked the town of Guéréda on December 7, 2005, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.

Conflict Phase (December 18, 2005-April 28, 2010):  Rally for Democracy and Freedom (Rassemblement pour la Democratie et la Liberte – RDL) and Platform for Change, Unity, and Democracy (Socle pour le Changement, l’Unite et la Democratie – SCUD) rebels attacked the city of Adre from bases in western Sudan on December 18-19, 2005, resulting in the deaths of some 200 rebels, five government soldiers, and three civilians.  The UN Security Council condemned the attack.  President Deby accused Sudan of providing assistance to the rebels.  Several rebel groups, including the RDL, established the United Front for Democratic Change (Front Uni pour le Changement Democratie – FUCD) headed by Mahamat Nour Abdelkarim on December 28, 2005.  Janjaweed militants from the Darfur Region of Sudan attacked several towns in eastern Chad on January 6, 2006, resulting in the deaths of nine civilians.  The Rally of Democratic Forces (Rassemblement des Forces Democratiques – RFD) was established in opposition to the government on April 1, 2006.  FUCD rebels attacked N’Djamena on April 12-13, 2006, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of individuals.  Janjaweed militants and Chadian rebels massacred killed some 120 civilians in the villages of Djawara, Gimeze, Singatao, Korkosanyo on April 12-13, 2006.  The UN Security Council and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the rebel attack on April 13, 2006.  President Deby of the MPS was re-elected with some 75 percent of the vote on May 3, 2006.  Several opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  Some 200 individuals were killed in rebels attacks on villages in eastern Chad on November 4-6, 2006.  Rebels attacked the town on Biltine on December 9, 2006, resulting in the deaths of some 300 government soldiers and 50 rebels.  The government declared a 12-day state of emergency on November 13, 2006, which was extended for an additional six months on November 24, 2006.  The FUCD rebel group signed a peace agreement with the government on December 26, 2006, but other rebels groups continued the conflict. Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) rebels attacked the town of Ounianga Kebir on January 13, 2007.  Government and opposition groups signed a peace agreement mediated by the EU on August 13, 2007,  On September 25, 2007, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) to assist with providing security for refugees (some 240,000 Sudanese from Darfur), displaced persons (173,000 individuals), UN staff, and humanitarian workers in eastern Chad and northeastern Central African Republic.  On September 25, 2007, the UN Security Council authorized the European Union (EU) to establish a peacekeeping force for Chad and Central African Republic.  On October 15, 2007, the government declared a state of emergency in parts of eastern (Ouaddai and Wadi Fira) and northern Chad (Borkou, Ennedi, and Tibesti).  On October 15, 2007, the Council of the European Union approved the deployment of a EU military force in Chad and Central African Republic to provide protection for civilians, refugees, displaced persons, UN staff, and humanitarian workers.  Government troops clashed with United Front for Democratic Change (Front Uni pour le Changement Democratie – FUCD) rebels in the town of Goz Beida on October 19, 2007. Several rebel groups, including the Rally of Forces for Change (RFC) and the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), signed a Libyan-mediated peace agreement in Sirte, Libya on October 26, 2007.  Government troops, RFC rebels, and UFDD rebels resumed military hostilities four weeks later.  The EU military force in Chad (EUFOR-Chad), which included 3,500 military personnel from 14 countries commanded by Brig. General Jean-Philippe Ganascia of France (Force Commander), was deployed in eastern Chad beginning on January 28, 2008.  Some 2,000 rebels, including Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) led by Mahamat Nouri and Rally of Forces for Change (RFC) led by Timane Erdimi, launched a military offensive against the government on January 31, 2008.  Rebels attacked the cities of Massaguet and N’Djamena on February 1-2, 2008.  In support of the government, the French government moved 300 soldiers from a base in Gabon to Chad, where some 1,200 French soldiers were already based.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called for an immediate cessation of military hostilities on February 4, 2008.  On February 5, 2008, the UN Security Council demanded an immediate end to the violence.  Government troops, with the help of French soldiers, defeated the rebel offensive on February 6, 2008.  Several hundred individuals were killed during the attack, and some 30,000 individuals were displaced during the attack.  President Deby declared a 15-day state of emergency on February 14, 2008.  On February 18, 2008, the Council of the European Union (EU) appealed to all Chadian parties to “engage in constructive dialogue.”  One EUFOR soldier was killed by Sudanese troops near the border with Chad on March 3, 2008.  The presidents of Chad and Sudan signed a non-aggression pact on March 14, 2008.  Rebels launched a military offensive against the government in eastern Chad on June 11, 2008.  Rebels captured the towns of Goz Beida, Am Dam, Biltine, and Am Zoer on June 16, 2008.  Former President Hissen Habre was sentenced to death by a Chadian court on August 15, 2008.  The Union of Forces for the Resistance (UFR), which included the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD) led by Mahamat Nouri and Rally of Forces for Change (RFC) led by Timane Erdimi, was established in opposition to the government of President Deby on January 18, 2009.  The UFR received military assistance (weapons, ammunition, vehicles, fuel) from the government of Sudan.  The operations of EUFOR-Chad were handed over to the UN peacekeeping mission MINURCAT on March 15, 2009.  Subsequently, MINURCAT (Chad) consisted of 3,221 troops, 24 military observers, and 259 civilian police personnel from 57 countries commanded by Major-General Elhadji Mouhamedou Kandji of Senegal (Force Commander) and Major-General Gerardo Christian Chaumont of Argentina (Police Commissioner).  Government troops commanded by General Toufa Abdoulaye clashed with UFR rebels near the town of Am Dam on May 7-8, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 225 rebels and 22 government soldiers.  The UN Security Council condemned the UFR headed by Timane Erdimi on May 8, 2009.  The government launched air strikes against UFR rebels in eastern Chad on December 15, 2009.  On January 15, 2010, the governments of Chad and Sudan signed an agreement in N’Djamena to normalize relations and to end support for rebel movements in the two countries.  Government troops clashed with UFR and Popular Front for National Resistance (PFNR) rebels near the town of Tamassi in eastern Chad on April 24-28, 2010, resulting in the deaths of some 200 rebels and ten government soldiers.  More than 1,500 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 29, 2010-present):  MINURCAT (Chad) was disbanded on December 31, 2010.  Legislative elections were held on February 13, 2011, and the Patriotic Salvation Movement (PSM) won 113 out of 188 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Union for Democracy and Renewal (NUDR) won ten seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent 24 short-term observers and 46 short-term observers headed by Louis Michel of Belgium to monitor the legislative elections from January 20 to February 14, 2011.  The African Union (AU) sent observers headed by Mamadou Dagra of Niger to monitor the legislative elections.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections from February 7 to February 26, 2011.  President Deby was re-elected with 89 percent of the vote on April 25, 2011.  Several opposition political boycotted the presidential election.  The African Union (AU) sent observers headed by Ibrahim Boubacar Keita of Mali to monitor the presidential election.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election April 22 to May 6, 2011.  Local elections were held on January 22, 2012.  On August 22, 2012, the African Union (AU) and the Senegalese government agreed to establish a special AU tribunal to try former President Hissene Habre.  Government troops suppressed an attempted coup in N’Djamena on May 1-2, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least four individuals.  Former president Hissene Habre was arrested by police in Dakar, Senegal on June 30, 2013.  Former President Hissene Habre was charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity, and torture by a special AU tribunal in Dakar, Senegal on July 2, 2013.  The French military operation, Operation Epervier, ended on July 31, 2014.

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