70. Republic of the Sudan/Southern Sudan (1956-2011)

 

Crisis Phase (January 1, 1956-September 8, 1963): Government troops suppressed a military rebellion by members of the Equatoria Corps in southern Sudan on August 18-27, 1955, resulting in the deaths of some 350 individuals.  The Republic of the Sudan formally attained its independence from Britain and Egypt on January 1, 1956.  Some members of the former Equatoria Corps formed secessionist movement that eventually became known as Anya Nya (“snake poison”) headed by Colonel Joseph Lagu. The political wing of the movement was known as the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM).

Conflict Phase (September 9, 1963-March 12, 1972): Anya Nya rebels initiated military hostilities against the government on September 9, 1963. The Sudan African National Union (SANU) was established in opposition to the government in 1963. SANU established its headquarters in Kinshasa, Zaire. In 1963, President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and President Milton Obote of Uganda offered to facilitate negotiations between the parties, but the good offices offers were rejected by the government. Anya Nya rebels attacks government troops in Wau in Bahr el-Ghazal province on January 11, 1964.  Some 50,000 southern Sudanese fled as refugees to Uganda, and 25,000 southern Sudanese fled as refugees to Ethiopia in 1964.  Government troops attacked Anya Nya camps in Zaire on May 8, 1964.  The governments of the Soviet Union and Syria expressed support for the government on August 7, 1965.  Government and SANU representatives began negotiations in Khartoum on March 16, 1965. Government troops clashed with Anya Nya rebels on November 15-16, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 81 rebels.  William Deng, leader of SANU, was assassinated in the Rumbek district on May 5, 1968.  The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) provided humanitarian assistance to some 20,000 Sudanese refugees in Gambella Province, Ethiopia beginning on March 26, 1969.  The Israeli government provided military assistance to the Anya Nya rebels beginning in 1969, while the governments of Libya and Algeria provided military assistance to the Sudanese government. The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (3,000 Soviet military advisers) to the Sudanese government beginning in 1969. Egypt deployed 10,000 troops in support of the government.  The World Council of Churches (WCC) and the All African Conference of Churches (AACC) appointed a three-member delegation to jointly mediate negotiations between the government and SANU representatives in April 1971.  Preliminary negotiations mediated by the WCC/AACC delegation were held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on November 9, 1971.  Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie facilitated the preliminary negotiations, which continued through mid-February 1972.  Government and SANU representatives began official negotiations in Addis Ababa on February 15, 1972.  The parties signed a peace agreement on February 28, 1972, which provided for a cessation of military hostilities on March 12, 1972.  Some 500,000 individuals died, and some one million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 13, 1972-May 14, 1983): The government lifted the state-of-emergency in southern Sudan on March 20, 1972. The parties formally ratified the agreement on March 27, 1972. The UNHCR assisted in the repatriation of some 150,000 Sudanese refugees from April 1972 to April 1974. The Anya-Nya II group led by Major Gordon Kong began a secessionist movement against the government in southern Sudan in 1983. Colonel John Garang de Mabior, a member of the Dinka ethnic group, established the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) in 1983. The SPLM received military assistance (transport planes, helicopters, trucks, long-range artillery) from the Ethiopian government.

Conflict Phase (May 15, 1983-October 15, 2002): Government troops and rebels clashed near Bor on May 15, 1983, resulting in the deaths of some 30 government soldiers and some 30 rebels. The Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) – the military wing of the SPLM – joined the Anya-Nya II secessionist movement against the government in November 1983. Libya provided military assistance to the SPLM beginning in April 1984. SPLA rebels attacked government troops near Bentiu on October 4, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 64 government soldiers and one rebel. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission consisting of some 135 personnel to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict in 1985.  The Libyan government ended its military assistance to the SPLM in April 1985, and agreed to provide military assistance (including military aircraft and pilots) in support of the Sudanese government in July 1985.  SPLA rebels shot down a civilian aircraft near Malakal on August 16, 1986, resulting in the deaths of 60 individuals. The government suspended negotiations with the SPLM on August 19, 1986. Colonel Muammar Qaddafi of Libya attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on September 9, 1986. Government troops and SPLA rebels clashed near Nasir on April 17, 1988, resulting in the deaths of some 500 rebels and 55 government soldiers. SPLA rebels captured the town of Jekaw on May 31-June 1, 1987, resulting in the deaths of 142 government soldiers. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, representing the U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), mediated negotiations beginning on December 1, 1989. Some 35 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), including CARE, Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Oxfam International (OI), Lutheran World Federation (LWF), American Refugee Committee (ARC), Save the Children (STC), International Rescue Committee (IRC), and World Vision International (WVI) established Operation Lifeline Sudan (OLS) in 1989.  OLS consisted of several hundred personnel, including 50 WVI personnel and 191 ARC personnel.  The U.S. government provided humanitarian assistance (mostly through the OLS) to displaced individuals in southern Sudan beginning in 1989.  The Ethiopian government ended military assistance to the SPLM in May 1991. Ibrahim Babangida, chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), mediated negotiations between the government and SPLM in Abuja, Nigeria from May 1992 to May 1993.  The Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) established the Standing Committee on Peace in Sudan consisting of the foreign ministers of Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Eritrea on September 7, 1993.  In 1993, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for genocide against tribes in southern Sudan.  The World Food Programme (WFP) established a mission to provide food assistance to individuals adversely affected by the conflict beginning on January 28, 1994.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appealed for a ceasefire on February 11, 1994.  The IGAD mediated the signing of the Declaration of Principles (DOP) in Nairobi, Kenya on July 20, 1994.  The government suspended IGAD-mediated negotiations in September 1994. The parties signed a ceasefire agreement mediated by Jimmy Carter, representing the U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), on March 27, 1995.  Government troops attacked SPLA rebels in Kaya in southern Sudan on August 11, 1995. Jimmy Carter, representing TCC appealed for a ceasefire on August 15, 1995.  The South Sudan Independence Movement (SSIM) headed by Riek Machar of the Nuer ethnic group, which had previously split off from the SPLM, signed a peace agreement with the government on April 21, 1997.  Government and SPLM representatives resumed IGAD-mediated negotiations in Nairobi, Kenya on October 28, 1997.  The European Union (EU) appealed for a ceasefire on April 29, 1998.  Government military aircraft bombed a hospital in southern Sudan on November 14, 1998, resulting in the deaths of two civilians.  The U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR) condemned the government for the bombing on November 16, 1998.  Some 352,000 Sudanese were refugees in neighboring countries in December 1998, including Central African Republic (35,000), Chad (10,000), Congo-Kinshasa (30,000), Egypt (2,000), Ethiopia (60,000), Kenya (45,000), and Uganda (170,000). Some 4 million Sudanese were internally-displaced in December 1998. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provided humanitarian assistance to Sudanese refugees. The Sudanese government declared a unilateral ceasefire on April 15, 1999.  Government planes bombed SPLA targets in Akak and Nyamlel in the Bahr el Ghazal province on May 16, 1999, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  The U.S. government condemned the bombings on May 18, 1999.  On June 19, 1999, Colonel Muammar Qaddafi of Libya appealed to the government and SPLA rebels for peaceful negotiations.  SPLA rebels attacked government troops in the Um al-Kheir area near Khartoum on July 8, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 30 revels and seven soldiers.  The government declared a unilateral ceasefire on August 5, 1999.  SPLA rebels attacked a police station in Khor Adar on August 21-22, 1999, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen.  SPLA rebels rejected an Egyptian-Libyan peace proposal on August 30, 1999.  Some 50,000 Sudanese fled as refugees to neighboring countries in 1999.  The SPLM demanded higher taxes and more control over NGO programs in southern Sudan.  On February 29, 2000, several NGOs suspended their operations in Sudan after refusing to agree to the SPLA conditions. CRS, LWF, and 22 other NGOs agreed to the SPLA conditions. The U.S. government condemned the government for its bombing of civilians in southern Sudan on March 8, 2000.  Government and SPLM representatives resumed negotiations in Nairobi, Kenya on April 3, 2000.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for a ceasefire on June 28, 2000.  The U.S.-based NGO, CARE, announced a resumption of humanitarian operations in southern Sudan on June 21, 2000. On August 10, 2000, the U.S.-based NGO, Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the government for the bombing of civilians in southern Sudan. On August 25, 2000, the U.S. government condemned the government for the bombing of civilians in southern Sudan.  The Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) mediated negotiations between President Omar Hassan al-Bashir and John Garang in Nairobi, Kenya on June 2, 2001.  U.S. President George W. Bush appointed John Danforth as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on September 6, 2001.  Government troops and SPLA rebels clashed along the Nile river in southern Sudan on September 10-12, 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 150 government soldiers.  Lt. General Lazaro Sumbeiywo of Kenya was appointed as Special Envoy for the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD) in October 2001.  Government troops and SPLA rebels clashed in the Farink-Higlieg region in November 2001, resulting in the deaths of 100 government soldiers.  The SPLM/SPLA and the Sudan People’s Defense Force (SPDF) headed by Rick Machar merged on January 7, 2002.  The governments of Switzerland and the U.S. mediated negotiations between government and SPLM representatives in Buergenstock, Switzerland on January 15-19, 2002.  Government and SPLM representatives signed a ceasefire agreement for the region of Southern Kordofan (Nuba Mountains) on January 19, 2002.  On January 20, 2002, the nine-member Joint Military Commission (JMC) and the International Monitoring Unit (IMU) were established to monitor the ceasefire and the disengagement of government and SPLA military forces from the Nuba Mountains region.  The JMC/IMU, which consisted of a maximum of approximately 25 monitors from Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland, and the U.S. headed by Brig. General Jan Erik Wilhelmsen of Norway, arrived in the Nuba Mountains regions on April 4, 2002.   Government and SPLM representatives signed a civilian protection accord mediated by the U.S. government in March 2002.  The U.S. government provided mine-clearing assistance (20 personnel) to the Sudanese government in the Nuba mountains beginning on May 1, 2002. Government and SPLM representatives began a round of IGAD-mediated negotiations in Machakos, Kenya on June 17, 2002.  The Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT), which consisted of some 50 personnel from the U.S., Canada, and Ireland headed by Brig. General (ret.) Herbert Lloyd of the U.S., was deployed in Sudan on July 13, 2002.  Government and SPLM representatives signed the Machakos Protocol in Machakos, Kenya on July 20, 2002.  SPLA rebels captured the town on Torit from government troops on September 1, 2002.  Government representatives suspended peace negotiations with SPLM representatives in Machakos, Kenya on September 2, 2002.  Government planes bombed civilian targets in southern Sudan on September 21, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 13 individuals.  The U.S. government condemned the government for the bombings on October 1, 2002.  Government troops recaptured the town of Torit from rebels on October 8, 2002.  Government and SPLM representatives signed a ceasefire agreement in Machakos, Kenya on October 15, 2002.  Some two million individuals died, and some four million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 16, 2002-July 9, 2011): On November 19, 2002, the parties agreed to extend the cessation of military hostilities until March 31, 2003.  The parties agreed to the establishment of the IGAD Verification and Monitoring Team (VMT) on February 4, 2003.  The IGAD VMT consisted of some 28 personnel from Sudan (8 personnel), Kenya (8 personnel), Uganda (3 personnel), Ethiopia (3 personnel), Eritrea (2 personnel), and Britain (four personnel).  On February 11, 2003, the U.S. government condemned the government for “unconscionable attacks” by government troops against civilians.  On March 20, 2003, Brig. General (ret.) Herbert Lloyd of the U.S. was replaced as Head of the Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT) by Brig. General (ret.) Charles Baumann of the U.S.  The IGAD mediated the signing of the Protocol on Power Sharing between the government and SPLM in Naivasha, Kenya on May 26, 2004.  On June 11, 2004, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Advance Mission in Sudan (UNAMIS), which was mandated to facilitate contacts with the parties and to prepare for the deployment of a UN peacekeeping mission.   John Danforth resigned as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on June 30, 2004.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Jan Pronk of the Netherlands as UN Special Representative for Sudan and head of UNAMIS beginning on August 1, 2004.  Representatives of the government and SPLM signed an IGAD-mediated Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Nairobi, Kenya on January 9, 2005.  UNAMIS was disbanded on March 23, 2005.  On March 24, 2005, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS-military component) to monitor and verify ceasefire agreements; to observe and monitor movement of armed groups and redeployment of forces; to assist in the establishment of the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration program; to protect UN personnel, facilities, installations, and equipment; and to ensure the security of UN personnel and humanitarian workers.  The military component of UNMIS consisted of a maximum of 9,817 military personnel (9,304 troops and 513 military observers) from 59 countries commanded by Lt. General Jasbir Singh Lidder of India.  The civilian police component of UNMIS consisted of a maximum of 702 civilian police personnel from 41 countries headed by Police Commissioner Glen Gilbertson of Britain.  The operations of the Joint Military Commission (JMC) and International Monitoring Unit (IMU) were handed over to UNMIS on June 20, 2005.  The operations of the CMPT were handed over to UNMIS on June 30, 2005.  President Omar al-Bashir signed a power-sharing constitution in Khartoum, and John Garang was sworn in as vice-president on July 10, 2005.  Vice-President Garang was killed in a helicopter accident on July 30, 2005.  Salva Kiir, a leader of the SPLM, was sworn in as vice-president on August 11, 2005.  The operations of the IGAD VMT were officially handed over to UNMIS on August 28, 2005.  Andrew Natsios was appointed as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on September 19, 2006. Ashraf Jehangir Qazi of Pakistan was appointed as UN Special Representative to Sudan on September 4, 2007.  Richard Williamson replaced Andrew Natsios as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on December 21, 2007.  South Sudan established a regional, autonomous government on October 23, 2005.  On May 28, 2008, Major-General Paban Jung Thapa of Nepal was appointed as UNMIS Force Commander.  Mikhail Margelov was appointed as Russian Special Envoy to Sudan on December 9, 2008.  Scott Gration replaced Richard Williamson as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on March 18, 2009.  Salva Kiir of the SPLM was elected president with 93 percent of the vote of South Sudan on April 11-15, 2010, and he was sworn in as president of South Sudan on May 21, 2010.  The SPLM won 160 out of 170 seats in the Legislative Assembly of South Sudan.  On June 10, 2010, Major General Moses Bisong Obi of Nigeria took over as UNMIS Force Commander.  Some 99 percent of Sudanese voted in favor of independence for South Sudan in a referendum held on January 9-15, 2011.  Japan sent 15 observers headed by Ambassador Yuichi Ishii to monitor the referendum from December 23, 2010 to January 18, 2011.  The European Union (EU) Commission and the European Parliament (EP) sent a total of 110 observers from 30 countries headed by Veronique de Keyser of Belgium to monitor the referendum from December 12, 2010 to January 30, 2011.  The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sent 40 observers headed by Ambassador Yusuf Nzibo of Kenya to monitor the referendum from December 27, 2010 to January 16, 2011.  The League of Arab States (LAS) sent 80 observers to monitor the referendum.  The African Union (AU) sent 110 observers headed by Victor Tonchi of Namibia to monitor the referendum.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 16 long-term observers, 56 medium-term observers, and 56 long-term observers from 34 countries to monitor the referendum from September  2010 to January 17, 2011.  Twenty-three individuals were killed in election-related violence in the Abyei region on January 7-9, 2011.  Mikhail Margelov was relieved of his position as Russian Special Envoy to Sudan on March 21, 2011.  Princeton Lyman replaced Scott Gration as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on March 31, 2011.  UNMIS was disbanded on July 9, 2011.  UNMIS fatalities included 23 troops, three policemen, three military observers, and eight international civilian personnel.  South Sudan formally achieved its independence from Sudan on July 9, 2011.

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