69. Republic of the Sudan (1956-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (January 1, 1956-November 16, 1958):  The Republic of the Sudan formally attained its independence from Britain and Egypt on January 1, 1956.  Ismail al-Azhari, leader of the National Unionist Party (NUP), formed a government as prime minister on January 1, 1956.  Prime Minister al-Azhari’s government was defeated in a vote of censure in the Constituent Assembly, and Abdallah Khalil, the secretary of the Umma Party (UP), formed a government as prime minister on July 7, 1956.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 27 and March 8, 1958, and the UP won 63 out of 173 seats in the House of Representatives.  The NUP won 45 seats in the House of Representatives.

Crisis Phase (November 17, 1958-November 7, 1964):  Prime Minister Abdallah Khalil of the National Unionist Party (NUP) was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. General Ibrahim Ibboud on November 17, 1958.  Lt. General Ibrahim Ibboud declared a state-of-emergency, suspended the constitution, dissolved the parliament, and banned political parties on November 17, 1958.  The five-member Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) headed by Lt. General Ibrahim Ibboud took control of the government and proclaimed Sudan a “democratic republic” on November 18, 1958.  The Egyptian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on November 18, 1958.  Lt. General Ibrahim Ibboud became prime minister on November 19, 1958.  The governments of Britain and Jordan provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on November 19, 1958.  The governments of Ethiopia, France, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on November 20, 1958.  Lt. General Ibrahim Ibboud dismissed the Supreme Council on March 4, 1959, and appointed an eleven-member Supreme Council on March 5, 1959.  The military government suppressed a military rebellion on November 9-10, 1959, and five military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on December 21, 1959.  Ethnic Nubians, along with students and workers, demonstrated against the military government in Khartoum and other towns on December 24, 1960.  Twelve individuals were killed by government police during demonstrations in Omdurman on August 21, 1961.  Imam al-Sayyid al-Saddiq al-Mahdi, leader of the opposition Ansar Movement, died on October 2, 1961.  Thirty-six individuals were killed during demonstrations against the military government in Khartoum on October 21-28, 1964.  President Ibrahim Ibboud dissolved the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) on October 26, 1964, and declared martial law on October 28, 1964.  Ser Khatim Khalifah formed a coalition government as prime minister on October 30, 1964.  The government lifted the six-year state-of-emergency on November 7, 1964.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 8, 1964-May 24, 1969):  General Ibrahim Abboud resigned as president on November 15, 1964, and a five-member Committee of Sovereignty was established on December 3, 1964.  Thirty-eight individuals were killed in political violence in Khartoum on December 6-8, 1964.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 21-May 8, 1965, and the Umma Party (UP) won 90 out of 207 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The National Unionist Party (NUP) won 59 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  Fourteen individuals were killed during election-related violence in Khasm al-Jirbah on April 21, 1965.  Ibrahim Yusuf Sulayman resigned as president of the Committee of Sovereignty on May 31, 1965.  Prime Minister Khalifah resigned on June 2, 1965, and the Constituent Assembly elected Mohammed Ahmed Mahgoub as prime minister on June 10, 1965.  Ismail al-Azhari was elected president on a five-member Supreme Council on June 10, 1965.  Some 70,000 individuals demonstrated against a proposed amendment to the constitution to ban the Communist Party of Sudan (CPS) on November 21, 1965.  The Constituent Assembly approved the constitutional amendment banning the CPS on December 9, 1965.  Sayyid el-Sadiq of the UP was elected prime minister by the Constituent Assembly on July 27, 1966. The UP divided into factions headed by Prime Minister el-Sadiq and Imam el-Hadi in 1966.  Parliamentary elections were held from April 12 to May 2, 1968, and the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) won 101 out of 218 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  Prime Minister Sayyid el-Sadiq’s faction of the UP won 36 seats in the Constituent Assembly, and Imam el-Hadi’s faction of the UP won 30 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The Constituent Assembly convened on May 27, 1968, and Mohammed Ahmed Mahgoub formed a coalition government as prime minister in June 1968.  The Soviet Union provided military assistance (200 technical advisers) to the government from 1968 to 1971.  The two factions of the UP unified on April 11, 1969.

Crisis Phase (May 25, 1969-May 15, 1986):  Prime Minister Mohammed Ahmed Mahgoub was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Gaafar Muhammad al-Numaryi on May 25, 1969, and the ten-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Colonel al-Numaryi took control of the government on May 26, 1969.  Abu Bakr Awadullah was named as prime minister on May 26, 1969.  The Sudanese National Front (SNF) was established by former Prime Minister Sadiq Mahdi in opposition to the government in 1969.  The RCC suppressed a rebellion on December 12, 1969.  The RCC banned political party activity on December 19, 1969.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Omdurman and Khartoum led by Iman al-Hadi el-Mahdi, leader of the Ansar sect, on March 29-April 1, 1970.  The governments of Egypt and Iraq offered military assistance to the government on March 30, 1970, and the Libyan government deployed troops and military aircraft in support of the Sudanese government beginning on March 30, 1970.  Iman el-Mahdi and some 20,000 members of the Ansar sect were killed during the rebellion.  General Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry formally banned the Communist Party of Sudan (CPS) on May 11, 1971, and announced the establishment of the Sudanese Socialist Union (SSU) as the country’s sole political party on May 25, 1971.  General Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry was overthrown in a military rebellion on July 19, 1971, and the seven-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Major Hashem el Atta took control of the government on July 20, 1971.  The Iraqi government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on July 19, 1971, and the Algerian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on July 20, 1971.  The RCC was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Lt. Mohammed Ali Kerbassi on July 22, 1971, resulting in the deaths of 38 individuals.  The governments of Egypt and Libya provided military assistance in support of the rebellion.  General Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry resumed control of the government, and four military officers were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on July 23, 1971.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the trials and executions of political opponents on July 23, 1971.  Four military officers were executed on July 26, 1971.  Abdel Khaliq Mahgoub, secretary-general of the CPS, was executed on July 28, 1971.  The Chinese government expressed support for the Sudanese government on August 15, 1971, and the Chinese government agreed to provide economic assistance on August 24, 1971.  General Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry dissolved the Revolutionary Council.  General Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry was elected president with 99 percent of the vote on September 15, 1971, and he was inaugurated as president on October 12, 1971.  A new constitution went into effect on May 8, 1973.  The government of the Soviet Union resumed military assistance (90 military advisers) in support of the Sudanese government in 1972.  Government police suppressed demonstrations in Khartoum beginning on August 28, 1973, resulting in the deaths of one government policeman and one civilian.  The government proclaimed a state-of-emergency on September 5, 1973.  Government police and student demonstrators clashed in Omdurman on December 20, 1973, resulting in the death of one individual.  Parliamentary elections were held in May 1974.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in March 1975.  On July 29, 1975, eight individuals were executed for their involvement in the March 1975 military rebellion.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion by some 150 rebels soldiers led by Lt. Colonel Hassan Husayn Uthman in Omdurman on September 5-6, 1975, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and three rebel soldiers.  Nineteen individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion between January 23 and February 22, 1976.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion by some 2,000 rebel soldiers led by Brig. Muhammed Nur Saeed in Khartoum on July 2-3, 1976, resulting in the deaths of 700 rebels and 82 government soldiers.  The Libyan government had provided military assistance (vehicles and ammunition) to the rebels.  The Egyptian government provided military assistance in support of the Sudanese government from 1976 to 1990.  The Sudanese government severed diplomatic relations with Libya on July 6, 1976, and signed a 25-year joint defense agreement with Egypt on July 15, 1976.  President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and King Khaled of Saudi Arabia expressed support for the Sudanese government on July 19, 1976.  On August 4-5, 1976, the Sudanese government executed 98 individuals for their involvement in the military rebellion.  The U.S. government provided military assistance (weapons and equipment) in support of the Sudanese government from 1976 to 1987.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Juba on February 2, 1977, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry was re-elected with 99 percent of the vote on April 10-20, 1977.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry expelled military advisors from the Soviet Union on May 18, 1977.  Former Prime Minister Sadiq Mahdi returned to Sudan from exile on September 27, 1977.  Parliamentary elections were held from February 2 to February 11, 1978, and the Sudanese Socialist Union (SSU) won 274 out of 174 seats in the National Assembly.  Parliamentary elections were held from April 28 to May 10, 1980, and the SSU won 368 out of 368 seats in the National Assembly.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry dissolved the National Assembly in Khartoum and the People’s Assembly of southern Sudan on October 5, 1981.  Parliamentary elections were held between December 13, 1981 and January 15, 1982, and the SSU won 151 out of 151 seats in the National Assembly.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry was re-elected with 99 percent of the vote on April 14-25, 1983.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry declared a state-of-emergency on April 29, 1984, and he lifted the state-of-emergency on September 29, 1984.  President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry was deposed in a military coup led by General Muhammad Hasan Siwar Dhahab on April 6, 1985.  The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on April 7, 1985, and the government of Saudi Arabia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on April 8, 1985.  General Siwar Dhahab declared a state-of-emergency and suspended the 1973 constitution on April 7, 1985.  The 14-member Transitional Military Council (TMC) took control of the government on April 9, 1985.  The Libyan government agreed to provide military assistance (logistical and training support) to the government on April 24, 1985, and the two countries signed a military protocol on July 9, 1985.  European Community (EC) foreign ministers appealed for negotiations between the government and opposition groups on April 29, 1985. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion near Khartoum on September 25-26, 1985, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  An interim constitution went into effect on October 10, 1985.  Parliamentary elections were held on April 1-12, 1986, and the Umma Party (UP) won 99 out of 301 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) won 63 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  Mohammed Osman al-Mirghani of the DUP was elected Chairman of the five-member Supreme Council (head of state) by the National Assembly on May 6, 1986.  Sadiq al-Mahdi of the UP was elected prime minister by the Constituent Assembly on May 6, 1986, and Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi formed a coalition government on May 15, 1986. Some 22,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 16, 1986-June 29, 1989):  On July 25, 1987, Mohammed Osman al-Mirghani, Chairman of the Supreme Council, declared a nationwide state of emergency  in order to “confront the enemies of democracy.”  Government police arrested 70 supporters of former President Gaafar Muhammad al-Nimeiry on July 27, 1987.  The Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) led by Mohammed Osman al-Mirghani withdrew from the coalition government on August 22, 1987, resulting in the collapse of the government.  Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi formed a new coalition government on May 15, 1988.  Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi dissolved the government on March 11, 1989.

Crisis Phase (June 30, 1989-February 25, 2003):  Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi was deposed in a military coup on June 30, 1989.  The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir took control of the government, declared a state of emergency, and suspended the 1985 constitution on June 30, 1989.  Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir banned political parties on July 1, 1989, and formed a government as prime minister on July 9, 1989.  The Egyptian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on July 2, 1989.  The Sudanese government suppressed a rebellion on April 23, 1990, and 31 individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion on April 24, 1990.  The RCC imposed Islamic law in northern Sudan on January 20, 1991.  The RCC named Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir as president on October 16, 1993, and the RCC was dissolved on October 17, 1993.  The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on March 15, 1994.  Government police and demonstrators clashed in Khartoum on September 12-14, 1995, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Legislative elections were held between March 2 and March 17, 1996, and independents won 400 out of 400 seats in the National Assembly.  Lt. General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir was elected president with 76 percent of the vote on March 2-17, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on April 1, 1996.  Human Rights Watch (HRW) and Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses against opponents of the government on May 29, 1996.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the government on November 4, 1997.  HRW condemned the government for human rights abuses against opponents of the government on February 10, 1998.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on May 27, 1998.  The new constitution was signed into law on June 30, 1998.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir and Parliament Speaker Hassan al-Turabi competed for political influence beginning in September 1999.  Foreign Minister Mustafa Osman Ismail and Mubarek Fadel of the opposition Umma Party (UP) signed an agreement (“Call of the Homeland Accord”) mediated by President Ismael Omar Guelleh of Djibouti on November 26, 1999, which provided for a four-year transition to democratic government.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir dissolved the parliament and declared a three-month state-of-emergency on December 11, 1999.  The governments of Egypt and Libya expressed support for the government of President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir on December 14, 1999. Foreign Minister Amr Moussa of Egypt mediated negotiations between President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir and Parliament Speaker Hassan al-Turabi beginning on December 25, 1999. Foreign Minister Sheikh Hamad of Qatar mediated negotiations between President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir and parliamentary Speaker Hassan al-Turabi on January 1-5, 2000.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir and Parliament Speaker Hassan al-Turabi reached an agreement on January 24, 2000.  On March 13, 2000, President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir extended the state-of-emergency until the end of the year.  The UP withdrew from the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) in March 2000.  Hassan al-Turabi formed the Popular Congress Party (PCP) on June 27, 2000. Twenty individuals were killed in political violence in Omdurman on December 9, 2000.  Legislative elections were held on December 13-23, 2000, and the National Congress Party (NCP) won 355 out of 360 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties, including the Umma Party (UP) and the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), boycotted the legislative elections.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir was re-elected with 87 percent of the vote on December 22, 2000, and he was inaugurated for a second term on February 12, 2001. Four individuals were killed in election-related violence in Sodari province on December 21, 2000. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent eight observers headed by Ambassador Pascal Gayama to monitor the elections from December 5-23, 2000. The League of Arab States (LAS) sent observers to monitor the elections from December 11-23, 2000. The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) sent observers to monitor the elections. Government policemen and NDA rebels clashed near Kassala on January 28, 2001. NDA rebels killed seven government policemen in Aroma on February 6, 2001. Members of the al-Muaalia and Reizagat tribes clashed in western Sudan in May 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals. On July 17, 2002, eighty-seven individuals were sentenced to death by a government court for their involvement in the May 2002 clashes in western Sudan. President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir lifted the ban on political party activity on August 13, 2002.  The parliament extended the state-of-emergency for an additional year on December 23, 2002.

Conflict Phase (February 26, 2003-March 18, 2010):  Members of the Sudan Liberation Movement/Sudan Liberation Army (SLM/SLA) (originally established as the Darfur Liberation Front – DLF) attacked the city of Golo in the Darfur region of western Sudan on February 26, 2003.  SLM/SLA rebels seized the town on Tine near the Chadian border on March 25, 2003.  Government troops clashed with Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) led by Khalil Ibrahim and SLM/SLA rebels in the town of al-Fashir on April 25, 2003, resulting in the deaths of some 75 government military personnel.  The Janjaweed, an Arab militia group supported by the Sudanese government, launched a counter-insurgency against the SLM/SLA and JEM by targeting the non-Arab population of the Darfur region.  Government troops clashed with rebels in the Darfur region on July 12, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 13 government soldiers and 30 rebels.  President Idriss Deby of Chad mediated negotiations between the Sudanese government and SLM/SLA beginning on August 30, 2003.  Representatives of the Sudanese government and SLM/SLA signed a Chadian-mediated ceasefire agreement in Abeche, Chad on September 3, 2003.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Sudanese government and non-governmental groups in the Darfur region on January 9, 2004.  Members of the Janjaweed killed some 168 individuals in Wadi Saleh in the Darfur region on March 5-7, 2004.  The African Union (AU) mediated a “humanitarian ceasefire agreement” between the Sudanese government, SLM/SLA, and JEM in N’Djamena, Chad on April 8, 2004.  On May 28, 2004, the African Union (AU) decided to establish the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS I), including the Ceasefire Monitoring Commission (CMC), to monitor the ceasefire agreement and protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance in the Darfur region.  AMIS I consisted of 80 military observers from Algeria, Congo-Brazzaville, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa, as well as 310 military personnel from Rwanda (155 personnel) and Nigeria (155 personnel) commanded by Major-General Festus Okonkwo of Nigeria.  AMIS I was deployed in Sudan on June 19, 2004.  The UN Security Council imposed military sanctions (mandatory arms embargo) against all “non-governmental entities” in Sudan on July 30, 2004.  The European Union (EU) sent a seven-member fact-finding mission to the Darfur region on August 3, 2004.  On August 9, 2004, the EU fact-finding mission reported that they had found no evidence of a genocide in the Darfur region.  The AU mediated negotiations between the Sudanese government, SLM/SLA, and JEM in Abuja, Nigeria from beginning on August 23, 2004.  On October 20, 2004, the AU decided to established the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS II) to monitor the ceasefire agreement, protect the delivery of humanitarian assistance, protect internally-displaced persons, and assist Sudanese police in maintaining law and order.  The military component of AMIS II consisted of 6,295 military personnel (including 5,645 peacekeeping soldiers and 650 military observers) from 28 countries commanded by General Festus Okonkwo of Nigeria.  The civilian police component of AMIS II consisted of some 1,346 civilian police personnel from 18 countries.  Government troops killed 17 demonstrators in Port Sudan in eastern Sudan on January 29, 2005.  The UN Security Council extended military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Sudanese government on March 29, 2005.  The Egyptian government facilitated negotiations between the government and NDA in Cairo beginning on June 12, 2005.  Representatives of the government and NDA signed a power-sharing agreement in Cairo, Egypt on June 18, 2005.  The Sudanese government lifted the nationwide state-of-emergency on July 11, 2005, except for the Darfur region and parts of eastern Sudan.  The Council of the EU approved the establishment of the European Union Support to the African Union Mission in Darfur (EU Support to AMIS) on July 18, 2005.  The mission consisted of some 150 military and civilian personnel (including military experts, military observers, and civilian police officers).  Pekka Haavisto of Finland was appointed as EU Special Representative on July 18, 2005.  Vice-President John Garang was killed in a helicopter accident on August 1, 2005.  On August 1-3, 2005, some 130 individuals were killed during riots that following the death of Vice-President Garang.  Three AMIS II military personnel, along with two AU civilian contractors, were killed in an ambush near Kourabashi on October 8, 2005.  The government signed an AU-mediated peace agreement (“Darfur Peace Agreement”) with a faction of the SLM/SLA headed by Minni Minnawi in Abuja, Nigeria on May 5, 2006.  Two AMIS II military personnel were killed on May 29, 2006.  The government of Eritrea mediated a ceasefire agreement between the Sudanese government and Eastern Front (EF), a coalition of rebels groups in eastern Sudan, on June 19, 2006.  Two AMIS II military personnel were killed in an attack on a fuel convoy in the Kutum area on August 19, 2006.  Government troops launched a military offensive in the Darfur region on August 29, 2006.  On September 12, 2006, EU Special Representative Pekka Haavisto claimed that government troops were “bombing civilians in Darfur.”  U.S. President George W. Bush appointed Andrew Natsios as U.S. Special Envoy to Sudan on September 19, 2006.  The U.S. government imposed additional economic sanctions against the Sudanese government on October 12, 2006.  The government of Eritrea mediated the signing of a peace agreement between the Sudanese government and EF on October 14, 2006.  Two AMIS II military personnel were killed in an ambush in Graida on March 6, 2007.  Five AMIS II military personnel were killed in Umm Barru on April 1, 2007.  Torben Brylle of Denmark replaced Pekka Haavisto of Finland as EU Special Representative to Sudan on May 1, 2007.  On May 10, 2007, the Chinese government appointed Ambassador Liu Giujin as Special Envoy to Sudan to focus on the Darfur matter.  The U.S. government expanded economic sanctions (financial restrictions) against 31 (mostly government controlled) Sudanese companies on May 29, 2007.  On July 31, 2007, the UN Security Council established the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) to provide protection for the delivery of humanitarian assistance; to provide security for UN personnel, humanitarian workers, internally-displaced persons, and refugees; to monitor compliance with previous ceasefire agreements; and to assist in the promotion of the rule of law in Darfur.  On July 31, 2007, UNAMID was authorized to include 19,555 military personnel and 6,432 civilian police personnel.  Ten AMIS II military personnel were killed by SLM/SLA rebels in the town of Haskanita on September 29, 2007.  The EU Support to AMIS mission was disbanded on December 31, 2007.  AMIS II was replaced by UNAMID on January 1, 2008.  A total of 33 AMIS II military personnel were killed during the mission.  Djibril Yipènè Bassolé of Burkina Faso was appointed as Joint AU-UN Mediator for Darfur on June 30, 2008.  Seven UNAMID personnel were killed in an attack by members of a militia in north Darfur on July 8, 2008.  Thirty-three internally-displaced persons were killed  by government troops in the Kalma camp on August 25, 2008.  On September 9, 2008, the League of Arab States (LAS) established a six-member committee led by the government of Qatar to mediate negotiations between the government and Darfur rebels.  One UNAMID personnel from Nigeria was killed on October 6, 2008.  One UNAMID personnel from South Africa was killed during an attack on October 29, 2008.  Representatives of the government and JEM held negotiations in Doha, Qatar beginning on February 10, 2009.  On February 17, 2009, representatives of the government and JEM signed a confidence-building agreement mediated by Qatar and the AU-UN Chief Mediator in Doha, Qatar.  Government troops clashed with JEM rebels in north Darfur on February 19, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 17 rebels and 11 government soldiers.  On March 4, 2009, the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague, Netherlands issued an arrest warrant for President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir for crimes against humanity and war crimes.  Representatives of JEM withdrew from negotiations with the government on March 20, 2009.  Members of the Murle ethnic group attacked members of the Lou Nuer ethnic group at a camp in the Akobo area in the state of Jonglei on August 3, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 160 individuals.  Government police clashes with protesters in Khartoum on August 5, 2009.  On September 1, 2009, Lt. General Patrick Nyamvumba of Rwanda took over as UNAMID Force Commander.  Lou Nuer tribesmen attacked the village of Duk Padiet in the state of Jonglei on September 20, 2009, resulting in the deaths of some 80 individuals.  One UNAMID personnel from Nigeria was killed in an attack on a UNAMID convoy in El Geneina in West Darfur on September 28, 2009.  Ten individuals were killed in clashed between members of the Zaghawa and Birgid tribes south of El Fasher on October 27, 2009.  Government and Darfur rebel representatives resumed negotiations in Doha, Qatar on November 18, 2009.  Government police arrested several opposition leaders in Khartoum on December 8, 2009.  Haile Menkerios of South Africa was appointed as UN Special Representative for Sudan on February 2, 2010.  Qatar mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the Sudanese government and the JEM in Doha, Qatar on February 23, 2010.  The Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM), a coalition of several smaller rebel groups in Darfur, was established on February 23, 2010.  Qatar, representing the six-member LAS committee, mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) in Doha, Qatar on March 18, 2010.  Some 300,000 individuals were killed, and some 2.5 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (March 19, 2010-November 11, 2011):  Legislative elections were held on April 11-15, 2010, and the National Congress Party (NCP) won 323 out of 450 seats in the National Assembly.  The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) won 99 seats in the National Assembly.  The Umma Party (UP) boycotted the legislative and presidential elections.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir was re-elected with 68 percent of the vote on April 11-15, 2010, and he was sworn in for another term on May 27, 2010.  The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sent 37 election observers headed by Wondimu Ghezahegn from Ethiopia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 9 to April 18, 2010.  The League of Arab States (LAS) sent 50 observers headed by Ambassador Salah Halima from Egypt to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 16 long-term observers and 48 short-term observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from late 2009 to April 17, 2010.  The European Parliament (EP) sent six short-term observers headed by Ana Gomes of Portugal to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 9 to April 17, 2010.  The European Union (EU) sent 147 observers from 28 countries (25 EU member-states, as well as Canada, Norway, and Switzerland) headed by Veronique de Keyser from Belgium to monitor the legislative and presidential elections on February 28 to May 18, 2010.  The African Union (AU) sent 50 observers headed by John Agyekum Kufuor of Ghana to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 18 to April 18, 2010.  Michael Fryer of South Africa, UNAMID Police Commissioner, resigned on April 30, 2010.  Two UNAMID personnel from Egypt were killed in an ambush near Edd al-Farsan on May 7, 2010.  JEM suspended its participation in peace negotiations with government representatives in Doha, Qatar on June 3, 2010. Three UNAMID personnel from Rwanda were killed in an attack in West Darfur on June 21, 2010.  On July 12, 2010, the ICC issued a second arrest warrant for President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir for charges of genocide.  James Oppong-Boanuh of Ghana took over as UNAMID Police Commissioner on August 19, 2010.  Rosalind Marsden of Britain replaced Torben Brylle of Denmark as EU Special Representative to Sudan on September 1, 2010.  Some 37 individuals were killed during attacks in Jebel Marra in north Darfur on September 2, 2010.  The government suspended negotiations with LJM in Doha, Qatar on December 31, 2010.  Al-Amin Moussa Al-Amin set himself on fire in Omdurman to protest the government on January 23, 2011.  Government police clashed with protesters in Khartoum and Al-Ubayyid on January 30, 2011, resulting in the death of one protester.  Djibril Yipènè Bassolé completed his duties as Joint AU-UN Mediator for Darfur on June 11, 2011.  Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria was appointed as the interim Joint AU-UN Mediator for Darfur on June 12, 2011.  Representatives of the government and LJM held negotiations in Doha, Qatar on May 27-31, 2011.  The government of Qatar mediated the signing of a peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM) in Doha, Qatar on July 14, 2011.  The Sudanese government declared a state of emergency in the state of Blue Nile on September 2, 2011.  Thirteen government policemen were killed in Jebel Marra in South Darfur on September 8, 2011.  Three UNAMID personnel, including two Rwandan soldiers and one Senegalese police adviser, were killed near the town of El Fasher in north Darfur on October 10, 2011.  One UNAMID military personnel was killed near Nyala on November 6, 2011.

Conflict Phase (November 12, 2011-June 17, 2016):  The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM), and other groups established the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) in opposition to the Sudanese government on November 12, 2011.  Some 35 government soldiers were killed by rebels in North Darfur on November 23, 2011.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in Warni in South Kordofan on December 10, 2011, resulting in the deaths of 19 individuals.  Government police clashed with protesters in Khartoum on December 22-30, 2011.  Khalil Ibrahim, leader of the JEM, was killed by government troops in North Kordofan on December 25, 2011.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in the state of Blue Nile beginning on January 20, 2012, resulting in the deaths of seven rebels and 26 government soldiers.  SLM rebels killed some 12 government soldiers in the state of North Darfur on February 22, 2012.  SRF rebels claimed to have killed up to 130 government soldiers near Lake Obyad in South Kordofan on February 26, 2012.  One UNAMID peacekeeping soldier was killed during an ambush in South Darfur on February 29, 2012.  On March 1, 2012, the ICC issued an arrest warrant for Defense Minister Abdelrahim Mohamed Hussein for crimes against humanity and war crimes.  One UNAMID personnel from Togo was killed during an attack on April 20, 2012.  On April 24, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the attack on the UNAMID.  JEM rebels attacked a government military camp in northeastern Darfur on June 2, 2012, resulting in the deaths of several government soldiers and 25 rebels.  The government released from detention two members of the opposition Popular Congress Party (PCP), Ibrahim al-Sanousi and Ali Shamar, on June 11, 2012.  Government police clashed with protesters in Khartoum, Omdurman, and other cities on June 16-29, 2012.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on June 21, 2012.  Government police clashed with protesters in Khartoum and Omdurman on July 11-16, 2012.  Government troops clashed with JEM rebels on July 24, 2012, resulting in the deaths of more than 50 rebels.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on July 25, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 46 government soldiers and five rebels.  Government police clashed with protesters in Nyala in South Darfur on July 31, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least six protesters.  Ibrahim Gambari completed his duties as Joint AU-UN Mediator for Dafur on July 31, 2012.  On July 31, 2012, government police and protesters clashed in Nyala in the state of South Darfur, resulting in the deaths of six protesters.  Aïchatou Mindaoudou Souleymane of Niger served as the interim Joint AU-UN Mediator from August 1, 2012 to March 31, 2013.  SRF rebels ambushed government troops in South Kordofan on August 21, 2012, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on August 22, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 17 government soldiers and one rebel.  On UNAMID personnel was killed during an attack on a UNAMID police station on August 15, 2012.  On August 15, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the attack.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on September 6, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 45 rebels and 21 civilians.  Government troops clashed with JEM rebels in North Darfur on September 6, 2012, resulting in the deaths of several government soldiers and 32 rebels.  Four UNAMID peacekeeping personnel from Nigeria were killed in an ambush near the town of Geneina in Darfur on October 3, 2012.  On October 3, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of UNAMID peacekeeping personnel.  Rebels shelled the city of Kadugli in South Kordofan on October 8, 2012, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  Government troops clashed with SRF rebels in South Kordofan on October 14, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 21 government soldiers and seven pro-government militiamen.  One UNAMID military personnel from South Africa was killed in an attack on a UNAMID patrol in North Darfur on October 17, 2012.  On October 17, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the attack on UNAMID.  SPLM-N rebels killed six government soldiers in South Kordofan on October 22, 2012.  SPLM-N rebels killed 30 government soldiers in South Kordofan on October 31, 2012.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on November 2, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 70 government soldiers and six rebels.  JEM and SLM rebels attacked a military convoy in North Darfur on November 10, 2012.  Government police clashed with student protesters at Gezira University in Darfur on December 5, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four students.  Government police clashed with student protesters in Khartoum and Omdurman on December 8-11, 2012.  SLM rebels attacked a military convoy in North Darfur on December 17, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 18 government soldiers.  SLM rebels attacked a military base in Jebel Moon in West Darfur on December 18, 2012, resulting in the deaths of more than 20 government soldiers and two rebels.  Mohamed ibn Chambas of Ghana was appointed as Head of UNAMID and Joint AU-UN Mediator for Darfur on December 20, 2012.  Four UNAMID military personnel were killed in Mukjar in West Darfur on December 21, 2012.  Some 30,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in the Jebel Marra region of Darfur in late December 2012 and early January 2013.  The government claimed to have repelled a SPLM-N attack near al-Hamra in South Kordofan on January 11, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on January 13, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 43 government soldiers and eight rebels.  Government troops clashes with SPLM-N rebels in South Kordofan on January 19, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and two rebels.  Government troops clashed with SLM rebels in Central Darfur on February 6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 52 government soldiers and 5 rebels.  More than 500 individuals were killed in clashes between rival Arab tribes over control of a gold mine near Kabkabiya  in North Darfur beginning on January 5, 2013.  Government troops clashed with SPLM-N rebels in the state of Blue Nile on March 12, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 16 government soldiers and 40 rebels.  SLM rebels claimed to have killed some 260 government soldiers during an ambush of government troops near Nyala in South Darfur on March 16, 2013.  On March 31, 2013, the military component of UNAMID consisted of 15,213 military personnel (including 14,902 troops and 311 military observers) from 36 countries commanded by Major-General Luther Agwai of Nigeria.  The civilian police component of UNAMID consisted of 4,858 civilian police personnel from 34 countries commanded by Police Commissioner Michael Fryer of South Africa.  UNAMID included 1,081 international civilian staff personnel.  SLM rebels attacked three government military camps in North Darfur on April 9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 64 government soldiers.  SLM rebels captured a government military base in South Darfur on April 14, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 40 government soldiers.  Government soldiers clashed with SLM rebels in South Darfur on April 18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 17 government soldiers.  One UNAMID peacekeeping soldiers was killed near Muhajeria in East Darfur on April 19, 2013.  On April 23, 2013, representatives of the government and SPLM-N met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia for negotiations mediated by former President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, representing the African Union (AU).  Government police clashed with protesters near Khartoum on April 26, 2013.  Government troops clashed with JEM rebels in North Kordofan on May 25, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  Rival Arab tribes clashed over agricultural land in Katila in South Darfur on May 28-29, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 64 individuals.  Government troops clashed with SLM rebels in South Darfur on June 4, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 46 government soldiers.  The National Consensus Forces (NCF), a coalition of opposition groups, called for mass protests against the government on June 8, 2013.  Government troops clashed with SLM rebels in Central Darfur on June 10, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 29 government soldiers. Rival Arab tribes clashed over control of a gold mine near El Sireaf in North Darfur on June 26, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 40 individuals.  Seven UNAMID peacekeeping soldiers, mostly from Tanzania, were killed in South Darfur on July 13, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the killed of UNAMID peacekeeping soldiers.  JEM rebels attacked a government military base near the town of Jebel al-Dayer on July 24, 2013.  Rival Arab tribes clashed in Um Dukhun in South Darfur on July 29, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 134 individuals.  President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir announced a cut in fuel subsidies on September 22, 2013.  Government police clashed with protesters in Khartoum and Omdurman from September 23 to October 11, 2013, resulting in the deaths of more than 200 individuals.  First Vice-President Ali Osman Taha was replaced by Lt. General Bakri Hassan Saleh on December 7, 2013. Two UNAMID peacekeeping soldiers were killed near Greida in South Darfur on December 29, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the killing of UNAMID peacekeeping soldiers.  One student was killed during a demonstration at Khartoum University on March 11, 2014.  On March 12, 2014, the U.S. government condemned the Sudanese government for recent violence in the Darfur region.  Th Sudanese government sentenced two leaders of the SPLM-N, Malik Agar and Yasir Arman, to death in absentia on March 13, 2014.  Government police clashed with student protesters in Khartoum on May 5, 2014.  Government police arrested former Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party (UP), on May 17, 2014.  On UNAMID peacekeeping soldier was killed in the village of Kabkabiya in North Darfur on May 24, 2014.  One individual was killed during clashes between government police and protesters in Khartoum on June 8, 2014.  Government police arrested Ibrahim al-Sheikh, leader of the opposition Sudanese Congress Party (SCP), on June 8, 2014.  On June 12, 2014, the U.S. government condemned the Sudanese government for recent attacks against civilians in the state of South Kordofan and Blue Nile.  Ibrahim al-Sheikh, leader of the opposition Sudanese Congress Party (SCP), was released from detention by the government on September 15, 2014.  An assailant killed two government soldiers guarding a gate at the presidential palace in Khartoum on November 8, 2014.  The assailant was killed by government soldiers.  The seventh round of African Union (AU)-mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and Sudanese People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) concerning conflict in the states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on November 12-17, 2014.  Peace negotiations mediated by AU mediator, former President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, resumed in Addis Ababa on November 23, 2014.  Some 133 individuals were killed during clashes between the Awlad Omran and Al-Ziyoud groups of the Mesiria tribe in the state of West Kordofan on November 26-27, 2014.  Government troops clashed with SRF rebels in South Kordofan on December 2, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 50 rebels.  Several anti-government opposition groups, including the Umma Party (UP) and the National Consensus Forces (NCF), signed a “unity agreement” on December 3, 2014.  Government security forces arrested Farouk Abu Issa, leader of the NCF, and Amin Mekki, human rights lawyer, on December 6, 2014.  AU-mediated peace negotiations held in Addis Ababa ended without an agreement on December 9, 2014.  Fatou Bensouda, Chief Prosecutor for the International Criminal Court (ICC), announced that she had decided to suspend the case against President Omar al-Bashir on December 12, 2014.  Legislative elections were held on April 13-16, 2015, and the National Congress (NC) won 323 out of 426 seats in the National Assembly.  President Omar al-Bashir of the National Congress (NC) was re-elected with 94 percent of the vote on April 16, 2015.  Several opposition political parties boycotted the presidential and legislative elections.  The African Union (A) sent 20 short-term observers from 14 countries led by former President Olusengun Obasanjo of Nigeria to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 10 to April 17, 2015.  The presidential and legislative elections were also monitored by the League of Arab States (LAS), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), and Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).  On June 17, 2016, President Omar al-Bashir declared a comprehensive four-month ceasefire with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in the states of Blue Nile and South Kordofan, as well as an end to offensive military actions in Darfur.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 18, 2016-present):  On January 16, 2017, President Omar al-Bashir extended the unilateral ceasefire in the states of Blue Nile, South Kordofan, and Darfur by six months.  On March 8, 2017, President Omar al-Bashir pardoned 259 rebels who had been captured in fighting with government forces.  Members of two Arab tribes in the state of East Darfur clashed in East Darfur on July 22-23, 2017, resulting in the deaths of up to ten individuals.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the Sudanese government on October 6, 2017.  UNAMID consisted of 13,178 troops, 160 military observers, 3,047 civilian police personnel, and 747 international civilian staff personnel on June 30, 2017.  UNAMID fatalities included 164 military personnel (163 troops and one military observer), 50 civilian police personnel, and six international civilian staff personnel as of June 30, 2017.  Government troops clashed with Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) rebels in Baw District in the state of Blue Nile on December 6, 2017, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers.  On December 28, 2017, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) faction led by Malik Agar declared a unilateral six-month ceasefire in the state of Blue Nile.  On March 28, 2018, President Omar al-Bashir extended the unilateral ceasefire in the states of Blue Nile, South Kordofan, and Darfur for an additional three months.

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Selected Bibliography:

Appiah-Mensah, Seth. 2006. “The African Mission in Sudan: Darfur Dilemmas,” African Security Review, vol. 51 (1), pp. 2-19.

Badescu, Cristina G. and Linnea Bergholm. 2009. “The Responsibility to Protect and the Conflict in Darfur: The Lig Let-Down,” Security Dialogue, vol. 40, pp. 287-309.

Hasan, Yusuf Fadl. 1967. “The Sudanese Revolution of October 1964,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 5 (4), pp. 491-509.

Luqman, Saka and A. J. Omede. 2012. “From AMIS to UNAMID: The African Union, the United Nations, and the Challenges of Sustainable Peace in Darfur, Sudan,” Canadian Social Science, vol. 8 (1), pp. 60-69.

Murithi, Tim. 2009. “The African Union’s Foray into Peacekeeping:  Lessons from the Hybrid Mission in Darfur,” Journal of Peace, Conflict, and Development, Issue 14, pp. 87-110.