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37. Republic of Yemen (1990-present)

Crisis Phase (May 22, 1990-April 26, 1994): The Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) and the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) unified to form the Republic of Yemen on May 22, 1990. Ali Abdullah Salih, president of North Yemen, was chosen as president of the Republic of Yemen on May 26, 1990.  Haydar Abu Bakr Attas, president of South Yemen, became prime minister of the Republic of Yemen on May 26, 1990. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on May 15-16, 1991. Two individuals were killed in political violence in Aden on August 21, 1992. Thirteen individuals were killed in political violence in northern Yemen on December 9-12, 1992.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent pre-election assessment missions consisting of between four and seven personnel to the country on January 26-February 2, 1993, March 9-16, 1993, and March 30-April 6, 1993.  Two government policemen were killed in political violence on February 16, 1993.

Map Of Yemen High-Res Vector Graphic - Getty Images

Legislative elections were held on April 27, 1993.  The General People’s Congress (GPC), the mainly northern political party, faced opposition in the elections by the Yemen Socialist Party (YSP), the mainly southern political party. The GPC won 121 of 301 seats in the parliament, while the YSP won 56 seats in the parliament.  Some 300 observers from several organizations, including 19 observers from the International Republican Institute (IRI), three observers from the NDI, and three observers from the International Federation of Electoral Systems (IFES), monitored the legislative elections.  Nine individuals, including seven supporters of the YSP, were killed in election-related violence on April 27, 1993, and some 150 members of the YSP were killed in political violence from 1991 to 1994.  Prime Minister Attas formed a coalition government (GPC and YSP) on May 30, 1993.  President Salih was elected chairman of the Presidential Council on October 16, 1993. A political crisis began when cooperation between President Salih and Vice-President Ali Salim Biedh broke down in January 1994.  Five government soldiers were killed in Lihej province on January 4, 1994, and one member of YSP was killed in political violence on January 7, 1994. Two members of the GPC were killed in political violence on February 17, 1994.  Representatives of the governments of Egypt, Jordan, and Oman attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning on February 20, 1994. Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Ibb on March 3, 1994. A member of the YSP was killed in Sana’a on March 25, 1994, and a member of the YSP was killed in the Najdah region on April 4, 1994. Some 250 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (April 27, 1994-July 27, 1994): Northern troops clashed with southern Yemen troops beginning on April 27, 1994.  President Salih declared a state-of-emergency, and dismissed Prime Minister Attas on May 5, 1994.  Muhammad Said Attar was chosen as provisional prime minister.  The League of Arab States (LAS) and the Egyptian government attempted to mediate a ceasefire beginning on May 5, 1994. Thirty-six individuals were killed in Scud missile attacks against Sana’a on May 6-23, 1994.  Six individuals were killed in a Scud missile attack against Aden on May 22, 1993.  Ali Salim Biedh, representing the YSP, declared a secessionist state in the south on May 21, 1994, and Haydar Aub Bakr Attas was chosen as prime minister on June 2, 1994.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on June 1, 1994.  Lakhdar Brahimi of Algeria was appointed as UN special envoy to Yemen on June 7, 1994.  UN Special Envoy Lakhdar Brahimi headed a fact-finding mission to the region on June 9-20, 1994.  Northern troops attacked Aden on June 23, 1994, resulting in the deaths of some 25 individuals.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire on June 29, 1994.  Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev of Russia mediated a ceasefire agreement between the parties in Moscow on June 30, 1994.  The parties resumed military hostilities on July 1, 1994.  Northern troops attacked Aden on July 4, 1994, resulting in the deaths of 41 individuals.  Northern troops captured Aden on July 7, 1994, and northern troops took control of southern Yemen on July 10, 1994.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency on July 27, 1994.  Some 3,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 28, 1994-June 19, 2004):  The parliament eliminated the Presidential Council on September 28, 1994, and elected Ali Abdullah Salih to a new five-year term as president on October 1, 1994. Several members of the southern Yemen leadership who fled into exile in July 1994 established the National Opposition Front (NOF) in London on September 30, 1994.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent a four-member pre-election assessment mission to the country on March 16-24, 1997.  Legislative elections were held on April 27, 1997, and the GPC won 187 out of 301 seats in the parliament.  The Islah Party (IP) won 53 seats in the parliament.  The YSP boycotted the legislative elections. The Joint International Observer Group in Yemen (JIOGY), which consisted of some 85 observers from Britain, Denmark, the European Commission, the European Parliament, Finland, France, Germany, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Russia, monitored the legislative elections from April 6 to April 29, 1997.  The NDI sent 34 observers from 13 countries headed by Chester Atkins of the U.S. and Joycelyn Lucas of Trinidad and Tobago to monitor the legislative elections from April 23 to April 30, 1997. Eleven individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Prime Minister Abdel Aziz Abdel-Ghani resigned on May 12, 1997, and Farag Said Ben Ghanem formed a government as prime minister on May 15, 1997.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Sana’a on April 3, 1998, and two individuals were killed in a bombing in Sana’a on April 24, 1998.  Prime Minister Farag Said bin Ghanem resigned, and Abdul Ali al-Karim al-Iryani was appointed as interim prime minister on April 29, 1998.  Some 50 individuals, including 21 government soldiers, were killed in political violence throughout the country on June 18-25, 1998.  Five individuals were killed in a bombing in Hodeidah on August 20, 1998.  The UN sent a seven-member landmine assessment mission headed by Wolfgang Hirsch to Yemen on September 9-17, 1998.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Aden on September 20, 1998.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Sana’a on November 24, 1998.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Sana’a on December 9, 1998, and a member of the YSP was killed in Damt on December 24, 1998.  Two individuals were killed in a bomb explosion in Aden on June 23, 1999.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing in Sana’a on August 4, 1999.  One individual was killed in political violence in Dar Saad on September 1, 1999, and two government policemen were killed in political violence in Sana’a on September 3, 1999.  President Ali Abdullah Saleh was re-elected with some 66 percent of the vote on September 23, 1999, and he was inaugurated as president on October 2, 1999. International observers from Czech Republic, Djibouti, Finland, India, Indonesia, Palestinian Authority, and South Korea, which were headed by Yhaya Rabah from the Palestinian Authority, monitored the presidential elections.  A coalition of opposition political parties had boycotted the election, and claimed election fraud.  Two individuals were killed in election-related violence.  A member of the opposition Islah Party was killed in political violence in Sa’ada on March 25, 2000.  The NDI sent a pre-election assessment mission consisting of seven personnel to the country between July 31 and August 6, 2000.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing in the village of Dhibin on January 11, 2001.  Fourteen individuals were killed in election-related violence between January 12 and February 19, 2001.  Municipal elections were held on February 20, 2001. Ten individuals were killed in election-related violence on February 20, 2001, and eight individuals were killed in political violence near Sana’a on February 22-23, 2001.  Three government policemen and three members of the IP were killed in political violence in Ibb province on February 25, 2001.  Government troops and tribesmen clashed in Marib province on June 29, 2001, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers.  Legislative elections were held on April 27, 2003, and the GPC won 238 out of 301 seats in the Assembly of Representatives.  The Yemeni Congregation for Reform (al-Tajmu al-Yamani li al-Islah) won 46 seats in the Assembly of Representatives.  Five individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The NDI sent 30 observers to monitor the legislative elections from April 22 to April 29, 2003.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Abyan province on June 25, 2003, resulting in the deaths of some ten militants and two government soldiers.  Eight individuals were killed in religious violence in Lahaj Province on July 20, 2003.  Some 500 individuals were killed in political violence between July 1994 and June 2004.

Conflict Phase (June 18, 2004-August 26, 2010):  Sheikh Hussein Badr al-Din al-Houthi, head of the Shi’ite Zeidi (or Zaidi) sect, launched an insurgency against the government in Sa’ada Province in northern Yemen on June 18, 2004.  Government troops launched a military offensive against supporters of Sheikh Hussein Badr al-Din al-Houthi in Sa’ada province beginning on June 20, 2004, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers and three Houthi insurgents.  Government troops killed ten Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada province on June 30, 2004.  Government troops killed seven Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada province on July 10, 2004.  Government troops stopped military operations on July 22, 2004, but resumed a military offensive against the Houthi insurgents on August 5, 2004.  Houthi insurgents ambushed government troops in Sa’ada province on August 24, 2004, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers.  Ten government soldiers and 30 Houthi insurgents were killed during clashes near Jabal Salman on September 2, 2004.  Fourteen individuals were killed in bombings in Sa’ada Province on September 8-9, 2004.  Government troops killed Sheikh Hussein Badr al-Din al-Houthi during a military offensive in Sa’ada Province on September 9-10, 2004.  Government troops killed three Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada province on March 19, 2005.  Government security forces and Houthi insurgents clashed in Amran region on March 28-29, 2005, resulting in the deaths of some 40 Houthi insurgents and 10 police officers.  Government troops and Houthi insurgents clashed in Sa’ada Province on March 31-April 6, 2005, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.  The government and Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada Province agreed to a ceasefire and amnesty for the rebels on June 23, 2005.  Some 36 individuals were killed in clashes between protesters and government police in Sana’a and other locations on July 20-21, 2005.  Islamic militants ambushed government policemen in the town of Munabbah on October 31, 2005, resulting in the deaths of twelve police officers.  The government released some 627 followers of Sheikh Hussein Badr al-Din al-Houthi on March 4, 2006.  President Saleh was re-elected with 77 percent of the vote on September 20, 2006, and he was inaugurated for a seven-year term on September 27, 2006.  Local council elections were held on September 20, 2006.  The European Union (EU) sent some 52 long-term observers/experts and 40 short-term observers to monitor the presidential and local council election from August 12 to September 21, 2006.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent observers to monitor the presidential and local council elections.  Houthi insurgents attacked military targets in Sa’ada Province in northern Yemen on January 28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers and seven insurgents.  Ten government soldiers were killed in a Houthi insurgents attack on a military checkpoint in al-Ruzamat region of Sa’ada Province on February 1, 2007.  Government troops conducted a military offensive against Houthi insurgents in February 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 200 government soldiers and 260 Houthi insurgents.  Twelve government soldiers were killed by Houthi insurgents on March 12-13, 2007.  Government troops killed some 25 Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada Province on March 18, 2007.  Government troops and Houthi insurgents clashed in Sa’ada Province on April 5-9, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 25 government soldiers and 20 insurgents.  The Yemeni government agreed to Qatari mediation beginning in May 2007.  The parties agreed to a Qatari-mediated cessation of military hostilities on June 16, 2007.  Sixteen individuals, including 10 government soldiers, were killed during clashes between Yemeni tribesmen and government troops in Shabwa Province on November 9, 2007.  Houthi insurgents attacked military bases in Jabal Marran in northern Yemen on January 10, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers.  The government declared a state of emergency in Sa’ada Province.  The parties signed a peace agreement in Doha, Qatar on February 1, 2008.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), and European Union (EU) provided humanitarian assistance.  Eighteen individuals were killed in tribal violence on April 6, 2008.  Three government police officers were killed in an Islamic militant attack in the city of Maareb on April 16, 2008.  One government soldier was ambushed and killed at a mosque in the Haydan District on April 25, 2008. Eight individuals were killed in clashes between Houthi insurgents and pro-government military forces near Haydan in Sa’ada Province in northern Yemen on April 29, 2008.  Houthi insurgents ambushed and killed seven government soldiers in Sa’ada Province on April 29-30, 2008.  Some 15 individuals were killed in a bombing of the Ben Salman mosque in the city of Sa’ada in Sa’ada Province on May 2, 2008.  Government troops and Houthi insurgents clashed on May 2-3, 2008, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and four insurgents.  Government troops killed several Houthi insurgents in Haydan District on May 4, 2008.  Government troops and Houthi insurgents clashed near the Saudi Arabian border in Sa’ada Province on May 12, 2008, resulting in the deaths of 13 government soldiers and 26 insurgents.  Eight individuals were killed in an attack on a mosque in Amran Province on May 30, 2008.  The government declared an end to the conflict in Sa’ada province on July 17, 2008.  Two individuals, including one government police officer, were killed in a suicide bombing of the police station in the town of Sayun in Hadramawt Province on July 25, 2008.  President Saleh lifted a state of emergency in Sa’ada Province in northern Yemen on August 25, 2008.  Sixteen individuals, including six government security personnel, were killed in car-bombings of the U.S. embassy in Sana’a on September 17, 2008.  The South Yemen Movement (SYM) began a secessionist insurgency against the government in southern Yemen beginning on April 27, 2009.  One government soldier was killed by secessionist militants in Mukalla in southern Yemen on April 28, 2009.  Government troops and secessionist militants clashed in the town of Zinjibar in Abyan Province in southern Yemen on July 23-24, 2009, resulting in the deaths some 12 individuals.  Four government soldiers were killed by secessionist militants in southern Yemen on July 28, 2009.  Government troops launched a military offensive (“Operation Scorched Earth”) against Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada Province in northern Yemen on August 11, 2009.  Government troops killed some 19 individuals during attacks against Houthi insurgents strongholds near the Saudi Arabian border on August 11-12, 2009.  The government declared a state of emergency in Sa’ada Province on August 12, 2009.  Government troops killed several Houthi insurgents during clashes in Sa’ada Province on September 9-10, 2009.  More than 80 individuals were killed by government military aircraft at a camp for displaced persons in the Harf Sufyan area of Amran Province on September 17, 2009.  Five government security officers, including Brig. General Ali Salem al-Ameri, were killed in an ambush by Islamic militants in Hadhramut Province on November 4, 2009.  Saudi Arabian military forces took action against Houthi insurgents in Sa’ada Province between November 4, 2009 and January 25, 2010, resulting in the deaths of 119 Yemeni government soldiers, 133 Saudi soldiers, 263 insurgents, and 277 civilians.  Five individuals, including two government soldiers, were killed during clashes in the town of Ataq, Shabwa Province, in southern Yemen.  Two individuals, including one government soldier, were killed by Houthi insurgents in Iqab District on February 12, 2010.  The government declared a state of emergency in southern Yemen on February 27, 2010.  Ten government security officers were killed in an Islamic militant attacked on the headquarters of the domestic intelligence agency in Aden on June 19, 2010.  Government troops clashed with secessionist militants in Dhaleh Province in southern Yemen on June 23-24, 2010.  Houthi insurgents clashed with tribesmen led by Sheikh Sagheer Aziz in the Souffian region in northern Yemen on July 20-21, 2010, resulting in the deaths of 49 individuals. Four government soldiers were killed in an ambush by secessionist militants in Lahij in southern Yemen on July 27, 2010.  Representatives of the Yemeni government and the Houthi insurgency signed a Qatari-mediated peace agreement in Doha, Qatar on August 26, 2010.  More than 20,000 individuals were killed and some 150,000 individuals were internally-displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 27, 2010-September 15, 2014):  Two individuals were killed in a car bombing in the town of Daleh on November 4, 2010.  Twenty-three Shi’ite Muslims were killed in a car-bombing in Al-Jawf Province on November 23, 2010.  Four government soldiers were killed in clashes with secessionist militants in Lahij in southern Yemen on January 12, 2011.  Anti-government demonstrations took place in Sana’a beginning on January 27, 2011.  Three individuals were killed during anti-government demonstrations in Sana’a on March 11, 2010.  On March 12, 2011, British Foreign Secretary William Hague condemned the “unacceptable” violence against protesters in Yemen.  Some 50 individuals were killed during anti-government demonstrations in Sana’a on March 18, 2011.  On March 18, 2011, the Iranian foreign ministry condemned the government for the deaths of more than 50 individuals.  U.S. President Barack Obama condemned the violence in Yemen, and British Foreign Secretary William Hague again condemned the violence in Yemen on March 18, 2011.  President Saleh declared a 30-day, nationwide state of emergency on March 18, 2011, and the parliament approved the state of emergency on March 23, 2011.  On March 21, 2011, the Canadian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lawrence Cannon, condemned the violence in Yemen.  The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) began mediation efforts in April 2011.  On April 9, 2011, the Dutch government condemned the violence in Yemen.  Jamal Benomar from Morocco was appointed as UN Special Adviser for Yemen in April 2011.  On May 12, 2011, the U.S. government condemned the political violence in Yemen.  Government troops clashed with opposition military forces in Sana’a beginning on May 23, 2011.  U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton appealed for an immediate ceasefire on May 26, 2011.  The parties agreed to a ceasefire that went into effect on May 28, 2011.  Government troops clashed with opposition forces in the city of Ta’izz on May 28-June 7, 2011, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers and 50 to 100 opponents of the government.  Some 47 individuals, including 14 government soldiers, were killed in clashes in Sana’a on May 31-June 1, 2011.  President Saleh was injured, and five individuals were killed, in a bombing of a mosque in the presidential compound in Sana’a on June 3, 2011.  U.S. President Obama condemned the violence and appealed for an immediate ceasefire on June 3, 2011.  Saudi Arabian King Abdullah mediated a ceasefire agreement, and Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi took over as acting president and supreme military commander on June 4, 2011.  Some 120 individuals were killed in violence in Al-Jawf Province on July 28, 2011.  The Alliance of Yemeni Tribes (AYT) headed by Sheikh Sadiq al-Ahmar was established in opposition to the government on July 30, 2011.  Government troops clashed with protesters in Sana’a on September 18-19, 2011, resulting in the deaths of more than 50 individuals.  On October 7, 2011, the International Federation of Journalist (IFJ) condemned the killing of journalists in Yemen.  On October 17, 2011, the French foreign ministry condemned the use of force against demonstrators in Yemen.  On October 21, 2011, the UN Security Council condemned the Yemeni government for its military crackdown of demonstrations.  On November 11, 2011, UN Special Adviser on Yemen, Jamal Benomar, condemned the continuing violence in Yemen.  President Saleh signed a GCC-mediated power-transfer agreement in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on November 23, 2011.  Presidential elections were held on February 21, 2012, and Abd Rabbuh Mansur al-Hadi was elected with 99.8 percent of the vote.  The election was boycotted by the Houthis in the north and the secessionists in the south.  Abd Rabbuh Mansur al-Hadi was inaugurated as president on February 25, 2012.  Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the “Arab Spring” uprising in Yemen from January 2011 to February 2012.  Some 14 individuals were killed in a car-bombing in Al-Jawf Province on March 25, 2012.  Sixteen individuals were killed in clashes between Houthis and Islahi militants in Rayday in Amran Province on September 21-23, 2012.  Yemen’s political factions agreed to established a new federal system and to extend President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi’s term as president by one additional year on January 21, 2014.  On February 26, 2014, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against “individuals and entities threatening the peace, security or stability of Yemen.”

Conflict Phase (September 16, 2014-present): Government troops clashed with Houthi rebels in Sana’a beginning on September 16, 2014.  Houthi rebels took control of Sana’a on September 21, 2014.  On November 7, 2014, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) against three leaders of the Houthi rebel group – Abd-al-Khaliq al-Huthi, Abd-al-Khaliq Badr-al-Din al-Huthi, and ‘Abd al-Khaliq Badr al-Din al-Huthi. On January 22, 2015, President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi resigned and fled from Sana’a.  On February 6, 2015, the Houthi movement established the Supreme Revolutionary Committee (or Revolutionary Council) as an interim government headed by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi.  On March 25, 2015, militias loyal to former President Ali Abdullah Saleh seized control of the Aden International Airport.  President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi fled Aden by boat to Saudi Arabia.  A Saudi Arabian-led coalition, including troops from the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Senegal, militarily intervened in support of the internationally-recognized government of President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi beginning on March 26, 2015.  The U.S. and UK provided intelligence and logistical support for the military intervention.  The Russian government and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) called for a temporary ceasefire on April 4, 2015.  The Chinese foreign ministry also called for a ceasefire on April 7, 2015.  On April 14, 2015, the UN Security Council demanded a ceasefire and imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze and travel ban) and military sanctions against the leadership of the Houthi rebel group, as well as former President Ali Abdullah Saleh and his son Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh.  On April 16, 2015, Jamal Benomar resigned as UN Special Adviser for Yemen.  On May 10, 2015, the parties to the conflict, including the Houthi rebels, agreed to a Saudi Arabia-proposed five-day ceasefire agreement to allow for the delivery of humanitarian assistance.  The temporary ceasefire lasted from May 12 to May 16, 2015.  On July 22, 2015, government forces loyal to President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi recaptured Aden from Houthi rebels.  Government forces loyal to President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi recaptured the governorates of Aden, Lahij, Dhale, and Abyan from Houthi rebels on August 11, 2015.  Government forces loyal to President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi recaptured the Shabwah governorate from Houthi rebels on August 15, 2015. On September 4, 2015, a Houthi missile attack against a military base in Ma’rib killed 45 soldiers from the United Arab Emirates, ten soldiers from Saudi Arabia, and five soldiers from Bahrain.  On October 6, 2015, Islamic militants launched a suicide attack against the Al-Qasr hotel in Aden, resulting in the deaths of two suicide attackers, four United Arab Emirates soldiers, one Saudi Arabian soldier, and ten other individuals.  On December 14, 2015, rebels launched a missile attack against a Saudi Arabia-led coalition military base in Taiz, resulting in the deaths of more than 150 individuals (reportedly 23 Saudi Arabian soldiers, 18 Sudanese soldiers, nine Moroccan soldiers, and seven United Arab Emirates soldiers were killed in the missile attack). On March 25, 2016, more than 25 individuals were killed in Islamic militant suicide car bombings in Aden.  On May 15, 2016, Islamic suicide bombers killed more than 45 government police in Mukalla in Hadhramaut province.  Earlier the same day, an Islamic suicide bomber killed 15 government troops at a military base outside of Mukalla. On July 28, 2016, the Houthi movement and the General People’s Congress (GPC) formed the ten-member executive body, the Supreme Political Council (SPC), headed by Saleh Ali al-Sammad.  The SRC formally relinquished power to the SPC on August 15, 2016.  On August 29, 2016, an Islamic suicide bomber killed more than 70 army recruits at a military base in Aden.  On December 10, 2016, an Islamic suicide bomber killed 48 government soldiers in Aden.  On December 18, 2016, more than 50 government soldiers were killed in an Islamic suicide bombing in Aden. On March 25, 2017, a court in Houthi-controlled Sana’a sentenced President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi and six other government officials to death in abstentia for high treason.  Former President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who two days earlier called for negotiations in order to end the civil war, was killed during clashes between his military forces and Houthi rebels near Sana’a on December 4, 2017.  On December 6-7, 2017, military forces loyal to President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi launched an offensive against Houthi rebels in Al Hodeidah governorate on December 6, 2017.  On April 23, 2018, Saleh Ali al-Sammad, president of the Supreme Political Council (SPC), was killed in a Saudi Arabia-led coalition airstrike in Al Hodeidah governorate.  On October 31, 2018, U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis and U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo called on all participants in the Yemen civil war to agree to a ceasefire within 30 days.  UN Special Envoy for Yemen Martin Griffiths mediated negotiations between representatives of the Yemeni government and Houthi rebels in Stockholm, Sweden on December 6-13, 2018.  The parties signed the “Stockholm Agreement on December 13, 2018, which provided for a ceasefire in the port city of Hodeidah, as well as the ports of Saleef and Ras Isa, beginning on December 18, 2018. On December 21, 2018, the UN Security Council approved the deployment of a UN advance team to monitor a ceasefire in Yemen’s Hodeidah region.  The next day, retired General Patrick Cammaert from the Netherlands arrived with an advance team of 20 international monitors to observe the ceasefire agreement.  On January 10, 2019, Mohammad Saleh Tamah, head of Yemen’s Intelligence Service, and five government soldiers were killed in a Houthi drone attack on al-Anad military base in Lahj province in southern Yemen.  On January 16, 2019, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Mission to Support the Hodeidah Agreements (UNMHA).  The UN special political mission UNMHA, which consisted of up to 75 international monitors, was mandated to support the implementation of the Stockholm Agreement, including the ceasefire in the port city of Hodeidah.  Lt. Gen. Michael Anker Lollesgaard of Denmark served as head of UNMHA from January 31, 2019 to July 31, 2019.  More than 30 individuals were killed in Houthi missile attacks on a military parade in Aden on August 1, 2019.  Earlier the same day, ten individuals were killed in a suicide bombing at a police station in Aden.  On August 11, 2019, rebels forces affiliated with the Southern Transitional Council (STC) seized control of military bases and the presidential palace in Aden, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals.  The governments of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates jointly appealed for a ceasefire in southern Yemen. Saudi Arabia troops clashed with Houthi rebels in Jabara Valley in Saada governorate on August 26-29, 2019, resulting in the deaths or capture of several hundred Saudi Arabian soldiers.  Forces loyal to the Yemeni government took control of Aden on August 28, 2019. The government of Oman mediated indirect talks between Saudi Arabia and Houthi rebels between September and November 2019.  On September 12, 2019, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres announced the appointment of retired Lt. General Abhijit Guha as head of UNMHA in Yemen.  On September 27, 2019, the Kuwaiti government offered to facilitate negotiations between the parties to the conflict.  On November 5, 2019, representatives of the Yemeni government and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) signed a Saudi Arabia-mediated power-sharing agreement, known as the “Riyadh Agreement”.  On November 6, 2019, Houthi rebels fired missiles at warehouses in the Red Sea port town of al-Makha, resulting in the deaths of at least eight individuals.  On January 18, 2020, Houthi rebels attacked a government military training camp in western Yemen, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 government soldiers.  UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres called for an immediate cessation of hostilities in Yemen on March 25, 2020.  On April 8, 2020, the Saudi Arabia-led coalition announced a two-week ceasefire.  On April 17, 2020, the UN Security Council called on Yemeni government troops and Houthi rebels to immediately end the fighting and to negotiate a peace agreement.  On April 25, 2020, the Southern Transitional Council (STC) declared a state of emergency and announced self-government in the southern provinces, including the port city of Aden.  On May 16, 2020, Yemen government troops clashed with separatists affiliated with the Southern Transitional Council (STC) in Abyan province, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and four separatists.  On May 26, 2020, Houthi rebels fired missiles at government military targets in Marib province, resulting in the deaths of eight government soldiers.  On June 22, 2020, representatives of the Saudi Arabia-backed government and the Southern Transitional Council (STC) agreed to a ceasefire in Abyan province.  On July 29, 2020, the Southern Transitional Council (STC) agreed to end their goal of achieving self-government and to implement the Saudi Arabia-mediated power-sharing agreement with the government of President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi.  On August 6 2020, at least nine children were killed in Saudi Arabia-led coalition airstrikes in al-Jawf governorate.  On August 16, 2020, Yemeni government troops clashed with Houthi rebels in Al-Jawf province, resulting in the deaths of nine government soldiers.  The same day, two Yemeni government soldiers were killed when their military base in Marib was attacked by missiles launched by Houthi rebels.  On September 15, 2020, UN Special Envoy Martin Griffiths told the U.N. Security Council that he had recently sent an “advanced draft” of a ceasefire agreement to the parties to Yemen civil war.  On October 8, 2020, UN Special Envoy Martin Griffiths called for an immediate end to clashes between Houthi rebels and Saudi Arabia-backed Yemeni government troops near Hodeidah.  Eight civilians were killed during an attack on an industrial compound in Hodeidah on December 3, 2020.  On December 26, 2020, President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi swore in a new 24-member government, including five members of the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC), headed by Prime Minister Maeen Abdul Malik.  On December 30, 2020, at least twenty individuals were killed in explosions at the main airport in Aden.  UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack on the Aden airport.  On January 10, 2021, the U.S. government designated the Houthi rebel group as a terrorist organization.  On February 4, 2021, U.S. President Joe Biden announced the end of U.S. support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and the appointment of Timothy Lenderking as U.S. Special Envoy to Yemen.  On February 5, 2021, the U.S. government removed the Houthi rebel group’s designation as a foreign terrorist organization.  On February 7, 2021, the U.S. Department of State appealed to Houthi rebels to ““immediately cease attacks impacting civilian areas inside Saudi Arabia and to halt any new military offensives inside Yemen.”  UN Special Envoy for Yemen Martin Griffiths held talks in Tehran with Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and other Iranian officials on February 7-8, 2021. On February 10, 2021, U.S. Special Envoy for Yemen Timothy Lenderking met Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Prince Faisal bin Farhan Al Saud in Riyadh regarding the situation in Yemen.  On February 16, 2021, the U.S. Department of State called on the Houthi rebels to cease military operations and participate in UN-sponsored peace negotiations.  More than 100,000 individuals have been killed and more than three million individuals have been displaced during the conflict since September 2014.

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