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25. Libya (1951-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (December 24, 1951-August 31, 1969):  The Kingdom of Libya formally achieved its independence from Italy under UN Trusteeship (British administration) on December 24, 1951.  The U.S., Great Britain, and France were permitted to maintain military bases in Libya following independence.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 19, 1952, and supporters of King Idriss I won 37 out of 55 seats in the House of Representatives.  The National Congress Party (NCP) won eight seats in the House of Representatives.  Riots broke out after the NCP claimed election fraud.  One individual was killed during the riots.  King Idriss I banned political parties following the riots.  Beshir Bey Saadawi, leader of the NCP, was exiled to Egypt on February 22, 1952.  Parliamentary sessions were held in Benghazi between March 25 and April 8, 1952 and Tripoli between April 27 and August 18, 1952.  The Libyan government signed a 20-year military agreement with the British government on July 26, 1953.  Mohammad al-Saqizli formed a government as prime minister on February 18, 1954, but he resigned on April 11, 1954.  Mustafa Bin Halim formed a government as prime minister on April 12, 1954.  The Libyan government signed a military agreement with the U.S. government on September 9, 1954.  King Idris I proclaimed a state-of-siege after the assassination of his adviser, Ibrahim al-Shalhi, by a member of the royal family, Al-Sharif Bin al-Sayyid Muhi al-Din al-Sanussi, in Benghazi on October 5, 1954.

Al-Sharif was sentenced to death on December 11, 1954, and he was executed on February 6, 1955. Prime Minister Bin Halim resigned on May 24, 1957, and ‘Abd al-Majid Ku’bar formed a government as prime minister on May 26, 1957.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 17, 1960, and independents won all of the seats in the House of Representatives.  Prime Minister Ku’bar resigned on October 12, 1961, and Muhammad Bin Uthman formed a government as prime minister on October 16, 1961. Government police and student demonstrators clashed in Benghazi on January 16, 1964, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Prime Minister Mohieddine Fekini resigned on January 22, 1964, and Mahmud Muntassaer was appointed as prime minister on January 22, 1964. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Zavat and Jemel on January 27, 1964, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  Parliamentary elections were held on October 10, 1964, and independents won all of the seats in the House of Representatives.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 8, 1965, and independents won all of the seats in the House of Representatives.

Crisis Phase (September 1, 1969-February 16, 2011):  King Mohammed Idris al-Senussi (King Idris I) was deposed in a military coup led by the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) on September 1, 1969.   The governments of Egypt and Iraq provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on September 1, 1969.  The governments of Algeria, Sudan, and Syria provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on September 2, 1969. The governments of Britain, East Germany, France, Soviet Union, and the U.S. provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on September 3-6, 1969.  Suliman Maghribi formed a government as prime minister on September 9, 1969.  The Libyan government demanded the withdrawal of British military forces from the country on October 29, 1969.  The RCC suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Hawaz and Colonel Musa on December 10, 1969. Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, chairman of the RCC, formed a government as prime minister of the Libyan Arab Republic on January 16, 1970.  The U.S. military withdrew from Wheelus military base in Libya on June 11, 1970.  The Arab Socialist Union (ASU) was established on June 12, 1971.  The Libyan government nationalized British Petroleum (BP) assets in Libya on December 7, 1971.  Colonel Muammar Gaddafi resigned as prime minister, and Major Abdul Salam Jallud formed a government as prime minister on July 16, 1972.  Abd as-Salam Jallud was named as head of state on April 7, 1974.  Students demonstrated against the government in Benghazi on March 2, 1975.  The government suppressed a military rebellion led by Major Bashir Hawadi on August 13, 1975.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (restrictions on exports of strategic equipment) against Libya on September 12, 1975.  The General People’s Congress (GPC) convened on November 13, 1975.  Government troops and students clashed in Benghazi on January 4-7, 1976, resulting in the deaths of ten students.  Government troops suppressed student demonstrations on April 7, 1976.  The RCC was abolished, and Colonel Muammar Gaddafi was named Secretary-General of the GPC on March 2, 1977. On April 3, 1977, twenty-two military officers were executed for their involvement in the August 1975 military rebellion.  Colonel Muammar Gaddafi resigned as Secretary-General of the GPC on September 19, 1978.  The government suppressed a military rebellion in Tobruk on August 6-20, 1980, resulting in the deaths of several hundred individuals.  The National Front for the Salvation of Libya (NFSL) was established in opposition to the government of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi in Khartoum, Sudan on October 7, 1981. The Libyan Liberation Organization (LLO) was established by former Prime Minister Hamid Bakoush in Cairo in 1982.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (ban on the import of crude oil and trade embargo, except for food and medicine) against Libya on March 10, 1982.  NFSL rebels unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Colonel Muammar Gaddafi in Tripoli on May 8, 1984, resulting in the deaths of some 80 government soldiers and eight rebels.  Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Valayati of Iran expressed support for the government of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi on May 10, 1984.  The Libyan government accused the governments of Tunisia and Sudan of supporting the rebels, but the countries denied involvement in the assassination attempt on May 11, 1984.  Three members of the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) were executed on June 3-4, 1984. On June 14, 1984, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the arrest and torture of hundreds of Libyans following the attempted assassination. Libyan agents unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Hamid Bakoush in Egypt on November 12, 1984.  The U.S. government imposed additional economic sanctions (ban on import of all refined petroleum products) against Libya on November 5, 1985.  The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against Libya on January 27, 1986.  On March 31, 1992, the UN Security Council voted to impose economic and military sanctions against the government.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Misrata and Bani Walid in October 1993, resulting the the deaths of several hundred individuals.  Government troops clashed with members of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG) in Benghazi on September 6-7, 1995, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals.  Members of LIFG unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Colonel Muammar Gaddafi in February 1996, resulting in the deaths of several of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi’s bodyguards.  Several Islamic militants escaped from al-Kuwaifiya prison near Banghazi in March 1996.  Members of LIFG killed several government policemen near the town of Derna in June 1996.  More than 1,000 inmates at the Abu Salim prison in Tripoli were killed by government troops on June 28-29, 1996.  Government troops launched a military offensive against the LIFG  beginning in July 1996.  Members of the Islamic Martyrs Movement (IMM) and the Militant Islamic Group (MIG) clashed with government troops in Derna and Benghazi in August 1996, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals. On January 2, 1997, six government soldiers and two civilians were convicted of treason and sentenced to death for attempting to overthrow the government in October 1993 (the eight individuals were executed on January 2, 1997).  Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for the executions on January 3, 1997.  The government declared martial law in the Derna region.  Salah Fathi bin Salman, a LIFG commander, was killed during clashes with government troops in October 1997.  Mohammad Ahmed al-Manqoush was appointed as prime minister on December 29, 1997.  Mubarak Abdullah al-Shamikh was appointed as prime minister on March 1, 2000.  Colonel Muammar Gaddafi replaced Prime Minister Abdullah al-Shamikh with Shokri Ghanem on June 14, 2003.  The EU lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against Libya on October 11, 2004.  The National Conference for the Libyan Opposition (NCLO) was established in London on June 26, 2005.  The government released some 130 prisoners, including 85 members of the MB, on March 2, 2006.  Anti-government protests took place in Bayda, Dema, Benghazi, and other cities beginning on January 13, 2011.  Fethi Tarbel, a human rights activist, was arrested by government police on February 15-16, 2011.

Conflict Phase (February 17, 2011-October 23, 2011):  Government troops and anti-government rebels engaged in military hostilities beginning on February 17, 2011.  Anti-government rebels took control of Misrata on February 24, 2011.  On February 26, 2011, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government of Muammar Gaddafi.  The UN Security Council also referred alleged crimes to the International Criminal Court (ICC).  The Libyan National Council (or National Transitional Council – NTC) was established in Benghazi on February 27, 2011.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against Libya on February 28, 2011.  The NTC proclaimed itself as the sole representative of the Libyan people on March 5, 2011.  The French government recognized the NTC as the legitimate government of Libya on March 10, 2011.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for an immediate ceasefire on March 16, 2011.  On March 17, 2011, the UN Security Council approved a resolution demanding “an immediate ceasefire,” authorizing the establishment of a “no-fly zone”, and authorizing the use of military force to protect Libyan civilians.  The U.S. government demanded an immediate ceasefire on March 18, 2011.  The governments of Britain, France, and the U.S. militarily intervened against Libyan government forces beginning on March 19, 2011.  On March 31, 2011, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) assumed  command of the military operation against the Libyan government.  NATO aircraft inadvertently fired on a Libyan rebel convoy between Brega and Ajdabiya on April 2, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 13 individuals.  Three individuals, including Muammar Gaddafi and Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, were indicted for crimes against humanity by the ICC on June 27, 2011.  Anti-government rebels took control of most of Tripoli on August 21, 2011.  The UN General Assembly recognized the NTC as the legal representative of Libya on September 16, 2011.  Muammar Gaddafi was captured and killed by rebels in Sirte on September 16, 2011.  The UN established the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) on September 16, 2011, including 127 international civilian personnel headed by Special Representative to the Secretary-General Ian Martin from Britain.  Anti-government rebels captured Bani Walid on October 17, 2011, and rebels captured Sirte on October 20, 2011.  The NTC officially declared the liberation of Libya on October 23, 2011.  Several thousand individuals were killed during the conflict, including some 6,000 rebel soldiers, 4,000 government soldiers, and 7,000 civilians.  Some one million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 24, 2011-May 15, 2014):  The UN Security Council voted to end international military operations against Libya on October 31, 2011.  The NTC appointed Abdurrahim al-Keib as the interim prime minister on October 31, 2011.  Rival armed factions clashed between Zawiya and Tripoli on November 8-12, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 18 individuals.  Fifteen members of a Libyan militia were killed during fighting in Bani Walid on November 23, 2011.  The UN Security Council lifted economic sanctions (assets freeze) against Libya on December 16, 2011.  Rival militias clashed in Tripoli on January 3, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  Libya militias clashed in the town of Gharyan on January 13-15, 2012, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Government troops clashed with pro-Gaddafi forces in Bani Walid on January 23, 2012, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  More than 130 individuals were killed in clashes between members of the Zwai and Toubou tribes in the town of Kufra on February 12-21, 2012.  The Justice and Development Party (Hizb al-Adala Wal-Bina), the Muslim Brotherhood’s political party in Libya, was established in Tripoli on March 3, 2012.  Rival tribal forces clashed in the town of Sabha in southern Libya on March 26-31, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 150 individuals.  Arabs and Berbers clashed in the town of Zuwara in western Libya on April 1-3, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least 18 individuals.  Some 12 individuals were killed in clashes  between Zuwayya and Toubou tribesmen in the town of Kufra on April 20-21, 2012.  Gunman attacked the prime minister’s office in Tripoli on May 8, 2012, resulting in the death of one security guard.  The National Front Party (NFP) was founded by Mohamed Yousef el-Magariaf on May 9, 2012.  Rival tribal forces clashed in the town of Ghadames in western Libya on May 16, 2012, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Government troops clashed with Toubou tribesmen in the town of Kufra in southern Libya on June 9-10, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 23 individuals.  Rival militias clashed in the town of Zintan in western Libya on June 11-18, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 105 individuals.  Elections for the 200-member General National Congress (GNC) were held on July 7, 2012, and the National Forces Alliance (NFA) led by Mahmoud Jibril, won 39 out of 80 contested seats in the GNC.  The Justice and Development Party won 17 seats in the GNC.  Independent candidates were elected to 120 seats in the GNC.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 45 observers from 21 countries to monitor the elections from June 24 to July 9, 2012.  The European Union (EU) sent 21 election experts from 19 countries headed by Alexander Lambsdorff from Germany to assess the elections from June 20 to July 10, 2012.  The African Union (AU) sent 35 observers from 22 countries headed by Dr. Essam Sharaf of Egypt to monitor the elections from July 1 to July 14, 2012.  The NTC handed over power to the newly-elected, 200-member GNC on August 8, 2012.  The GNA elected Mohammed Yousef el-Magariaf, founder of the National Front Party (NFP), as Chairman of the GNA (interim head of state) on August 9, 2012.  Libyan General Mohamed Hadia al-Feitouri was assassinated in Benghazi on August 10, 2012.  Two individuals were killed in car bombings in Tripoli on August 19, 2012.  Rival tribes clashed in Zlitan in northern Libya on August 23-24, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  Three individuals were killed in clashes between local residents and Islamic extremists in the town of Rajma in eastern Libya on September 7, 2012.  Islamic extremists attacked the U.S. consulate in Benghazi on September 11, 2012, resulting in the deaths of the U.S. ambassador to Libya and three other Americans.  The GNC elected Mustafa Abu Shagur as prime minister on September 12, 2012.  On September 23, 2012, Prime Minister-elect Mustafa Abu Shagur ordered the disbanding of all militias or submission to government control within 48 hours.  Islamic militants killed four government policemen at a checkpoint in Susa on October 3, 2012.  Prime Minister Mustafa Abu Shagur was dismissed by the GNC on October 7, 2012.  The GNC elected Ali Zeidan as prime minister on October 14, 2012.  Pro-government militias and pro-Gaddafi loyalists clashed in the town of Bani Walid on October 17-21, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least 22 individuals.  The police chief of Benghazi was assassinated by gunmen on November 21, 2012.  Libyan gunmen ambushed government troops in Bani Walid on December 15, 2012, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers.  Government security forces clashed with demonstrators in Benghazi on December 20, 2012, resulting in the deaths of one government policemen, one government soldier, two armed gunmen, and three civilians.  Two Egyptians were killed in a bombing of a Coptic Christian Church in Misrata on December 30, 2012.  The Egyptian government condemned the bombing.  Zuwayya and Toubou tribesmen clashed in the town of Kufra on February 23-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least two individuals.  At least 12 individuals were killed during clashes between members of the Libyan Shield brigade and protesters in Benghazi on June 8, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militiamen in Benghazi on June 15, 2013, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers.  The Libyan parliament elected Nouri Abusahmain, an ethnic Berber, as President of the National Assembly on June 25, 2013.  Libyan gunmen ambushed and killed two government soldiers near Sirte on September 2, 2013.  Libyan gunmen ambushed and killed at least 12 government soldiers near Bani Walid on October 5, 2013.  Libyan gunmen kidnapped Prime Minister Ali Zeidan in Tripoli on October 10, 2013, but pro-government militiamen freed the prime minister some six hours later.  The kidnapping was condemned by the governments of the U.S., Britain, and France.  Government troops clashed with members of the Ansar al-Sharia militia in Benghazi on November 25, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least nine individuals.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Benghazi on November 28, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers.  Thirteen government soldiers were killed by a suicide bomber near Benghazi on December 22, 2013.  Nine government soldiers were killed during clashes with militants near Tripoli on January 24, 2014.  On February 14, 2014, General Khalifa Haftar demanded that the General National Congress (GNC)  be dissolved and replaced by an interim government.  Elections for the 60-member Constituent Assembly were held on February 20, 2014.  More than 1,500 individuals were killed in political violence in Libya between October 2011 and May 2014.

Conflict Phase (May 16, 2014-present):  Libyan troops commanded by General Khalifa Haftar launched a military operation (“Operation Libya’s Dignity”) against Islamic militias, including Ansar al-Sharia, in Benghazi beginning on May 16, 2014.  Several government officials, including the Minister of Culture Habib Amin and General Hassan Abu-Shannaq (head of the Libyan navy), declared their support for General Haftar.  On May 17, 2014, General Haftar declared that the General National Congress (GNC) was no longer a legitimate representative of the Libyan people.  Ansar al-Sharia militants attacked General Khalifa’s troops in Benghazi on June 2, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 22 individuals.  Ahmed Maiteeq was sworn in as prime minister on June 3, 2014, but just six days later the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) declared his election as prime minister by the GNC was unconstitutional and invalid.  Four individuals were killed in a suicide bombing at the home of General Khalifa Haftar in the town of Abyar on June 4, 2014.  General Haftar’s troops attacked Islamic militias in western Benghazi on June 15, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 12 individuals.  Legislative elections were held on June 25, 2014,  Candidates representing secular (non-Islamist) factions won a majority of the 200 seats in the House of Representatives.  Islamist candidates won about 30 seats in the Council of Deputies.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Benghazi on June 25, 2014, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Benghazi on July 13, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least six individuals.  Islamic militants launched a military operation (“Operation Libya Dawn”) to capture the Tripoli International Airport beginning on July 13, 2014.  On July 15, 2014, the U.S. government appealed for an end to the violence in Libya.  Islamic militants attacked a government military base in Benghazi on July 21, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least seven individuals.  At least four government soldiers were killed in suicide bombings at a government military base in Benghazi on July 22, 2014.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Benghazi on July 23-24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least nine individuals.  Islamic militants captured a government military base in Benghazi on July 28-29, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 75 individuals (mostly government soldiers).  The UN mediated ceasefire negotiations in Tripoli beginning on August 8, 2014.  Colonel Muhammad Suwaysi, head of the police in Tripoli, was assassinated in Tajoura on August 12, 2014.  Rival militias clashed in Tripoli on August 13, 2014, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  On August 14, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon appointed Bernardino Leon as UN Special Envoy and Head of UNMIL beginning on September 1, 2014.  Some five individuals were killed in airstrikes in Tripoli on August 17-18, 2014.  Islamic militias captured Tripoli International Airport from members of the Zintan Brigade on August 23-24, 2014.  The Turkish government condemned violence in Libya and appealed for a ceasefire on August 25, 2014.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and condemned the use of violence in Libya on August 27, 2014.  The European Council (heads of state and government of the EU) condemned the violence in Libya and appealed for a ceasefire on August 31, 2014.  The House of Representatives approved a new government headed by Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thinni on September 22, 2014.  Islamic militants launched an offensive to capture the Benina airport near Benghazi on October 2-3, 2014, resulting in the deaths of more than 40 government soldiers.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for “dialogue” on October 11, 2014.  Islamic militias clashed with rival militias in the town of Kikla on October 11, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 23 individuals.  General Khalifa Haftar’s troops launched an offensive against Islamic militias, including Ansar al-Sharia, in Benghazi beginning on October 15, 2014.  Some 600 individuals were killed in the fighting in Benghazi from October 15, 2014 to January 8, 2015.  The Turkish government appointed Emrullah İşler as Special Representative to Libya on October 20, 2014.  The EU Foreign Affairs Council condemned the violence in Libya and appealed for a ceasefire on October 20, 2014.  The Libyan government-funded militia, Zintan Brigade, captured the town of Kikla from Islamic militias on November 1, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 18 individuals.  On November 6, 2014, the Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) ruled that the parliament located in Tobruk was unconstitutional.  Five individuals were killed in car bombings in eastern Libya on November 12, 2014.  Government military aircraft bombed the Tripoli airport on November 24-25, 2014.  On November 26, 2014, the Turkish government “strongly condemned” the bombing of the Tripoli airport.  Government aircraft bombed Zawura on December 2, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  On December 3, 2014, government troops launched a military offensive to recapture Tripoli.  Government military aircraft attacked targets near the ports of Ras Lanuf and Es-Sider on December 13, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least four individuals.  Islamic militants attacked a power plant in Sirte on December 25, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 19 government soldiers.  Islamic militants, members of the Libya Dawn militia, attacked the port of al Sidra on December 25, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 22 government soldiers.  Government military aircraft bombed Misrata on December 28, 2014.  On December 29, 2014, the Turkish government condemned the airstrikes against Misrata.  Supporters of the Islamic State (IS) killed 14 government soldiers in southern Libya on January 3, 2015.  UN-sponsored negotiations between representatives of the rival groups took place in Geneva, Switzerland on January 14-15, 2015.  The rival groups declared a partial ceasefire with Islamic militias in western Libya on January 18, 2015.  Some 2,700 individuals have been killed and some 120,000 individuals have been displaced during the conflict.

[Sources: Africa Contemporary Record (ACR), 1977-1978; Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), September 1-30, 1969, April 1-30, 1977, June 1-30, 1984; African Union (AU) statement, July 9, 2012; Agence France Presse (AFP), February 13, 2012, February 21, 2012, March 28, 2012, April 4, 2012, April 21, 2012, June 9, 2012, June 10, 2012, June 11, 2012; Amnesty International (AI) press release, January 3, 1997; Banks and Muller, 1998, 547-551; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), December 29, 1997, March 1, 2000, June 14, 2003, March 2, 2006, April 2, 2011, October 27, 2011, October 31, 2011, November 14, 2011, December 16, 2011, January 16, 2012, January 23, 2012, February 21, 2012, March 27, 2012, April 3, 2012, May 8, 2012, May 16, 2012, June 10, 2012, June 16, 2012, June 20, 2012, July 7, 2012, July 18, 2012, August 9, 2012, August 10, 2012, August 19, 2012, August 23, 2012, August 25, 2012, September 7, 2012, September 12, 2012, October 7, 2012, October 14, 2012, October 17, 2012, October 21, 2012, October 31, 2012, November 21, 2012, December 30, 2012, October 11, 2013, May 17, 2014, May 21, 2014, June 2, 2014, June 4, 2014, June 15, 2014, July 15, 2014, August 12, 2014, August 24, 2014, August 26, 2014, August 27, 2014, October 15, 2014, November 6, 2014, November 12, 2014, December 25, 2014, December 28, 2014, January 18, 2015; Brogan, 1992, 45-52; The Carter Center (TCC) press release, June 27, 2012, July 9, 2012; Degenhardt, 1988, 225-226; Facts on File, February 22-28, 1952, January 23-29, 1964; Jessup, 1998, 426-430; Keesing’s Record of World Events, June 14-21, 1969, September 20-27, 1969, February 21-28, 1970, August 26-September 2, 1972, September 3, 1982, February 1985, August 1996, January 1997; Langer, 1972, 1292-1293; Libya Today, December 29, 2014; Middle East Journal (MEJ), Autumn 1984; Middle East Record (MER), 1969-1970; New York Times (NYT), March 18, 2011, November 14, 2011, February 13, 2012, July 6, 2012, July 7, 2012, July 9, 2012, September 12, 2012, June 8, 2013, June 15, 2013, June 9, 2014, September 1, 2014, October 12, 2014, December 25, 2014, January 14, 2015, January 18, 2015; PanAfrican News Agency (PANA), December 31, 1997; Reuters, June 14, 2003, March 16, 2011, March 30, 2011, August 22, 2011, October 20, 2011, July 9, 2012, February 27, 2013, March 14, 2013, June 25, 2013, August 8, 2013, October 10, 2013, November 27, 2013, December 23, 2013, May 21, 2014, June 10, 2014, June 15, 2014, July 14, 2014, July 15, 2014, July 17, 2014, July 20, 2014, July 21, 2014, July 22, 2104, July 24, 2014, July 29, 2014, July 30, 2014, July 31, 2014, August 4, 2014, August 6, 2014, August 7, 2014, August 8, 2014, August 12, 2014, August 13, 2014, August 14, 2014, August 18, 2014, September 15, 2014, September 21, 2014, September 22, 2014, September 24, 2014, September 29, 2014, October 2, 2014, October 3, 2014, October 10, 2014, October 11, 2014, October 14, 2014, October 15, 2014, October 16, 2014, October 26, 2014, October 29, 2014, October 31, 2014, November 3, 2014, November 6, 2014, November 12, 2014, November 16, 2014, November 25, 2014, November 26, 2014, November 29, 2014, December 2, 2014, December 5, 2014, December 8, 2014, December 10, 2014, December 13, 2014, December 16, 2014, December 18, 2014, December 22, 2014, December 23, 2014, December 26, 2014, December 28, 2014, January 3, 2015, January 4, 2015, January 5, 2015, January 8, 2015, January 10, 2015, January 13, 2015, January 14, 2015, January 16, 2014, January 18, 2015, January 20, 2015; Tillema, 1991, 141; United Nations (UN) press release, August 27, 2014; Washington Post (WP), July 6, 2012.]

 

Selected Bibliography:

Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif. 1994. The Making of Modern Libya. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Khadduri, Majid. 1963. Modern Libya: A Study in Political Development. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.

Pelt, Adrian. 1970. Libyan Independence and the United Nations. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Simons, Geoff. 1993/1996. Libya: The Struggle for Survival. 2nd edition. London: MacMillan Press.

Vandewalle, Dirk. 1995. Qadhafi’s Libya 1969-1994. New York: St. Martin’s Press.