NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATES

Masks are required as the campus is at red status.

23. Jordan (1946-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (March 22, 1946-July 19, 1951): Transjordan formally achieved its independence from Britain on March 22, 1946, and the Kingdom of Transjordan was proclaimed on May 25, 1946. Parliamentary elections were held on October 20, 1947, and the Revival Party (RP) won a majority of seats in the National Assembly. Transjordan was renamed the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan on June 2, 1949.

Crisis Phase (July 20, 1951-December 1, 1958): King Abdullah ibn-Hussein was assassinated by a follower of the former Mufti of Jerusalem (Haj Amin Husseini) in Jerusalem on July 20, 1951. Prime Minister Rifai resigned on July 24, 1951, and Tawfiq Abu Huda formed a government as prime minister on July 25, 1951. Ten individuals were accused of conspiring to assassinate King Abdullah on August 11, 1951, and six of the individuals were sentenced to death on August 28, 1951. Parliamentary elections were held on August 29, 1951, and independents won 40 out of 40 seats on the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber of Deputies proclaimed Emir Talal as King of Jordan on September 5, 1951. Fuad Nassir, leader of the communist movement, was arrested on December 29, 1951 (he was sentenced to ten years in prison on February 20, 1952). A new constitution went into effect on January 1, 1952. The Chamber of Deputies declared King Talal unfit to rule on August 11, 1952, and Crown Prince Hussein ibn Talal was crowned King of Jordan on May 2, 1953. Prime Minister Abu Huda resigned on May 5, 1953, and Fawzi Mulky formed a government as prime minister on May 6, 1953. Prime Minister Mulky resigned on May 2, 1954, and Tawfiq Abu Huda formed a government as prime minister on May 4, 1954. Parliamentary elections were held on October 16, 1954, and independents won 37 out of 40 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Ummah Party (UP) won one seat in the Chamber of Deputies. Nine individuals were killed in election-related violence. On November 16, 1954, the UP disbanded after alleging that the political system did not favor the existence of political parties. Said Mufti formed a government as prime minister on May 30, 1955. Prime Minister Mufti resigned on December 14, 1955, and Hazza Majali formed a government as prime minister on December 15 1955. On December 19, 1955, Prime Minister Majali resigned after two days of demonstrations against the country’s proposed membership in the Baghdad Pact. King Hussein dissolved the parliament on December 19, 1955. Some 41 individuals were killed during the demonstrations. Ibrahim Hashim formed a provisional government as prime minister on December 20, 1955, and Samir Rifai formed a government as prime minister on January 9, 1956. Prime Minister Rifai resigned on May 20, 1956, and Said Mufti formed a government as prime minister on May 22, 1956. Prime Minister Mufti resigned on June 30, 1956. Parliamentary elections were held on October 21, 1956, and left-wing nationalists won a majority of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Suleiman Nabulsi formed a nationalist government as prime minister on October 29, 1956. On March 1, 1957, the government formally ended the Anglo-Jordanian Treaty under which the British had provided military and economic assistance, and Britain agreed to the termination on March 13, 1957. On April 3, 1957, Prime Minister Nabulsi announced that the government intended to establish diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and to recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC). King Hussein dismissed Prime Minister Nabulsi on April 10, 1957, and Hussein Fakhri Khalidi formed a government as prime minister on April 15, 1957. King Hussein’s royalist troops suppressed a military rebellion by nationalist troops in Zerqa on April 13, 1957, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. King Hussein declared martial law and dissolved political parties on April 25, 1957. The US ordered naval ships to the eastern Mediterranean in support of King Hussein on April 25, 1957. Prime Minister Khalidi resigned on April 25, 1957, and Ibrahim Hashim formed a government as prime minister on April 26, 1957. Jordan requested economic assistance from the US on April 27, 1957, and the US government provided $30 million in economic assistance between April 29 and November 10, 1957. US naval ships were withdrawn from the eastern Mediterranean on May 3, 1957. The US agreed to provide $10 million in military assistance to the government on June 29, 1957, and the US delivered military assistance (eight transport planes) to the government on September 9, 1957. British troops completed their withdrawal from Jordan on July 13, 1957. On December 24, 1957, the government sentenced eleven communists and socialists to prison terms for their involvement in the recent rebellion. Jordan and Iraq formed a federation on February 14, 1958, and the countries proclaimed the Constitution of the Arab Federation on March 19, 1958. On July 12, 1958, the government arrested 60 military personnel for their involvement in a military rebellion. On July 16, 1958, the government requested US and British military assistance after the overthrow of King Faisal of Iraq. Some 3,500 British troops were deployed in Jordan beginning on July 17, 1958, and 50 US military aircraft provided air cover for the British troop deployment. The government referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on July 17, 1958, and severed diplomatic relations with the United Arab Republic on July 20, 1958. The US pledged $7.5 million in economic assistance to the government on July 20, 1958. The Arab Federation was dissolved on August 2, 1958. On August 12, 1958, thirteen individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for subversion against the government. The UN secretary-general established the United Nations Presence in Jordan (civilian observation mission) after the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution dealing with the crisis on August 21, 1958. The UN secretary-general appointed Pier Spinelli as his personal representative in the country on September 19, 1958, and some 100 UN personnel established offices in Amman. The US sent a nine-member military advisory mission to the country on October 11, 1958. British troops completed their withdrawal from the country on November 2, 1958. King Hussein lifted martial law on December 1, 1958. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 2, 1958-August 28, 1960): Prime Minister Rifai resigned on May 5, 1959, and Hazza Majali formed a government as prime minister on May 6, 1959.

Crisis Phase (August 29, 1960-February 9, 1970): Prime Minister Majali and eleven other individuals were killed in a bomb explosion in Amman on August 29, 1960. Bahjat Talhuni formed a government as prime minister on August 30, 1960. The government accused Egypt (United Arab Republic) of involvement in the bombing and deployed troops on the border with Syria. UN Special Envoy Pier Spinelli and the League of Arab States (LAS) Secretary-General Abdul Hassouna mediated a cessation of the crisis on August 31-September 1, 1960. Prime Minister Talhouni resigned on January 27, 1962, and Wasfi Tal formed as government as prime minister on January 27, 1962. Jordanians demonstrated in support of Arab unity on April 18-23, 1963, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals. Prime Minister Samir Rifai resigned on April 20, 1963. King Hussein dissolved the parliament and appointed Sherif Hussein ibn Nasser as interim prime minister on April 21, 1963. Prime Minister Sherif Hussein ibn Nasser resigned due to ill health on July 6, 1964, and Bahjat Talhouni formed a government as prime minister on July 7, 1964. Former Prime Minister Wasfi Tal formed a government as prime minister on February 13, 1965. King Hussein dissolved the parliament on December 22, 1966. Parliamentary elections were held on April 15, 1967, and Saad Jumma was appointed as prime minister on April 23, 1967.  The United Nations Presence in Jordan was disbanded in 1967.  On February 6, 1969, Yasser Arafat, chairman of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), announced that the PLO headquarters would be moved from Syria to Jordan. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (February 10, 1970-September 27, 1970): Government troops and PLO rebels engaged in military clashes on February 10-12, 1970. Government troops and PLO rebels engaged in military hostilities near Amman on June 6-10, 1970, resulting in the deaths of 200 individuals. Lt. General Hammad Shihab, Defense Minister of Iraq, mediated negotiations between the parties on June 9-10, 1970. President Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Muammar Qaddafi of Libya appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on June 10, 1970. Syria expressed support for the PLO rebels on June 11, 1970. League of Arab States (LAS) heads-of-state established a four-member conciliation commission (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) chaired by President Jafar Muhammad Numaryi of Sudan on June 22, 1970. Prime Minister Bahjat Talhouni resigned on June 26, 1970, and Abdul Moneim Rifai was appointed as prime minister on June 28, 1970. Government and PLO representatives signed an agreement in Amman on July 10, 1970. PLO rebels unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate King Hussein on September 1, 1970. The LAS Council appealed for a ceasefire on September 6, 1970. King Hussein dismissed the civilian government and appointed a military government headed by General Mahammad Dawoud on September 16, 1970. The military government declared martial law on September 16, 1970. Iraq and Syria condemned the military government on September 16, 1970. Government troops launched a military offensive PLO rebels on September 17, 1970. Egypt, Libya, and Sudan appealed for a ceasefire on September 17, 1970, and Libya imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against Jordan on September 18, 1970. Some 20,000 Syrian troops intervened in support of PLO rebels on September 18, 1970. The government appealed to the US for assistance, and referred the matter to the LAS Council on September 19, 1970. China expressed support for the PLO rebels on September 19, 1970.  The US mobilized naval ships and troops in the area between September 3, 1970 and October 4, 1970.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) agreed to provide humanitarian assistance to Jordanians displaced during the conflict on September 20, 1970. Kuwait imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government on September 21, 1970. Foreign Minister Abdul Aziz Boutflika of Algeria condemned the government’s aggression against the PLO. Syrian troops withdrew from northern Jordan on September 23, 1970. The LAS conciliation commission mediated a ceasefire agreement in Amman on September 25, 1970. Libya imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on September 26, 1970. King Hussein appointed Ahmad Tuqan (Toukan) as prime minister on September 26, 1970. Government and PLO representatives signed a formal agreement in Cairo on September 27, 1970. Some 2,000 individuals, including 750 Jordanian government soldiers and 100 Syrian soldiers, were killed during the conflict. Some 100,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 28, 1970-January 13, 1971): US troops airlifted humanitarian assistance to the government beginning on September 28, 1970. The LAS established a military observation mission (Supreme Arab Follow-Up Committee – SAFC) consisting of 100 military personnel from Egypt, Kuwait, Libya, Sudan, and Tunisia headed by Brig. Hilmi of Egypt on September 28, 1970. The US provided military assistance (arms and ammunition) to the government beginning in October 1970. King Hussein and Yasser Arafat of the PLO signed a peace agreement on October 13, 1970. Prime Minister Ahmed Tuqan resigned, and Wasfi Tal as appointed as prime minister on October 28, 1970.

Conflict Phase (January 14, 1971-July 19, 1971): Government troops and PLO rebels clashed in northern Jordan on January 14-21, 1971. Government troops and PLO rebels clashed in Amman on February 11-16, 1971. Syria mediated an agreement between government and PLO representatives on April 9, 1971. PLO rebels began withdrawing from Amman on April 13, 1971. Government troops captured some 2,000 PLO rebels, and drove the remaining rebels into Syria on July 13-19, 1971.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 20, 1971-March 30, 1992): Libya condemned the government, and Algeria imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on July 29, 1971. The LAS condemned the government and expressed support for the PLO on July 30, 1971. Government troops attacked PLO rebel bases in Syria on August 11, 1971. Syria imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on August 12, 1971. Prime Minister Tal was assassinated by PLO rebels in Cairo, Egypt on November 28, 1971, and Ahmed Louzi formed a government as prime minister on November 29, 1971. Government troops arrested 17 rebels on February 13, 1973, and the rebels were sentenced to death on March 4, 1973 (King Hussein commuted the death sentences on March 14, 1973). Prime Minister Louzi resigned on May 26, 1973, and Zaid Rifai formed a government as prime minister on May 27, 1973. On September 18, 1973, King Hussein proclaimed a general amnesty for the Palestinians detained for their involvement in the rebellion, and 750 Palestinians were released from detention on September 19-20, 1973. King Hussein dissolved the parliament on November 22, 1974. The government abolished the Arab National Union (ANU) on February 18, 1976. Prime Minister Rifai resigned on July 12, 1976, and Mudar Badran formed a government as pwrime minister on July 13, 1976. Parliamentary elections were held on November 8, 1989, and pro-government candidates won 31 out of 80 seats in the House of Representatives. The MB won 20 seats in the House of Representatives. The government’s decision to lift martial law (which had been imposed on June 5, 1967) was approved by royal decree on March 30, 1992.  Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between October 1970 and March 1992.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 31, 1992-present): King Hussein dissolved the House of Representatives on August 4, 1993. Parliamentary elections were held on November 8, 1993, and candidates loyal to King Hussein won a majority of the 80 seats in the House of Representatives. The Islamic Action Front (IAF) won 16 seats in the House of Representatives.

[Sources: Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), September 1-30, 1970; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 142; Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 637-638, 643-644; Butterworth, 1976, 214-215, 229-233, 272-274, 444-448; Clodfelter, 1992, 1050; Facts-on-File, April 25-May 1, 1957, May 2-8, 1957, September 5-11, 1957, July 17-23, 1958, December 11-17, 1958, January 25-31, 1962, April 18-24, 1963, August 13-19, 1964, May 18-24, 1967, June 11-17, 1970, September 17-23, 1970, September 24-30, 1970, October 8-14, 1970; Jessup, 1998, 365-369; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 28-August 4, 1951, September 29-October 6, 1951, August 9-16, 1952, May 25-June 1, 1957, June 7-14, 1958, July 26-August 2, 1958, August 9-16, 1958, March 7-14, 1959, May 9-16, 1959, September 10-17, 1960, March 20-27, 1965, August 22-29, 1970, December 26-31, 1970, August 14-21, 1971, December 4-11, 1971, April 2-8, 1973, July 2-8, 1973, October 15, 1976, November 1989, July 1991, August 1993, November 1993; Langer, 1972, 1303-1305; Middle East Journal (MEJ), Autumn 1951, Spring 1952, Autumn 1952, Summer 1953, Summer 1954, Winter 1955, Spring 1956, Autumn 1955, Summer 1956, Winter 1956, Spring 1957, Summer 1957, Autumn 1957, Winter 1957, Spring 1958, Autumn 1958, Winter 1959, Summer 1959, Autumn 1960, Winter 1970; Middle East Record (MER), 1967, 1969-1970; Slaieh, 1974, 42-59; Tillema, 1991, 170, 181-183; Wainhouse, 1973, 386-390; Weisburd, 1997, 196-197.]