NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATES

Masks are required as the campus is at red status.

19. Iraq (1932-present)

 

Crisis Phase (October 3, 1932-April 29, 1941): Iraq formally achieved its independence from League of Nations (LON) mandate under British administration on October 3, 1932. Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa’id resigned on October 27, 1932, and Naji Shawkat formed a government as prime minister on November 3, 1932. Prime Minister Naji Shawkat resigned on March 18, 1933, and Rashid Ali Gaylani formed a government as prime minister on March 20, 1933. Government troops massacred 315 Assyrians in Simayl on August 11, 1933. King Faisal I (Faisal ibn-Hussein) died on September 8, 1933, and he was succeeded by his son,, King Ghazi I. Prime Minister Rashid Ali Gaylani resigned on October 28, 1933, and Jamil al-Madfa’i formed a government as prime minister on November 9, 1933. Prime Minister Jamil al-Madfa’i resigned on August 26, 1934, and Ali Jawdat al-Ayyubi formed a government as prime minister on August 27, 1934. Prime Minister Ali Jawdat al-Ayyubi resigned on February 27, 1935, and General Yasin al-Hashimi formed a government as prime minister on March 17, 1935. Parliamentary elections were held on August 6, 1935. Prime Minister Yasin al-Hashimi was overthrown in a military rebellion led by General Bakir Sidqi on October 29, 1936, and Sayyid Hikmat Sulayman formed a government as prime minister on November 29, 1936. The Society for National Reform (SNR) was established on November 26, 1936. General Sidqi was assassinated in Mosul on August 8, 1937. Prime Minister Sayyid Hikmat Sulayman resigned on August 17, 1937, and Jamil al-Madfa’i formed a government as prime minister on August 17, 1937. Prime Minister Jamil al-Madfa’i resigned on January 24, 1938, and Nuri al-Sa’id formed a government as prime minister on January 25, 1938. King Ghazi I was killed in a automobile accident in Baghdad on April 3, 1939, and he was succeeded by his three-year old son, King Faisal II (Amir Abdul Ilah ruled as regent on behalf of King Faisal II). Minister of Finance Rustum Haydar was assassinated on January 18, 1940. Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa’id resigned on February 18, 1940, and Rashid Ali Gaylani formed a coalition government on March 31, 1940. Britain imposed economic sanctions and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government in December 1940. Prime Minister Rashid Ali Gaylani resigned on January 31, 1941, and Taha al-Hashimi formed a government as prime minister on February 1, 1941. The US imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on March 1, 1941. Prime Minister Taha al-Hashimi was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Colonel Fahmi Sa’id, Colonel Mahmud Salman, Colonel Kamil Shabib, and Colonel Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh on April 1, 1941. Germany agreed to provide military assistance to the military government on April 10, 1941. Britain, Egypt, Turkey, and the US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the pro-Axis military government headed by former Prime Minister Rashid Ali Gaylani on April 12, 1941. Britain ordered the mobilization of their troops in the country on April 17, 1941. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (April 30, 1941-May 31, 1941): Government troops attacked the British military base near Habbaniyah beginning on April 30, 1941. Government troops and British military forces clashed near Habbaniyah on May 2-7, 1941, resulting in the deaths of some 500 government troops. Turkey offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on May 4, 1941, but Britain rejected the mediation offer on May 6, 1941. The military government requested military assistance (military aircraft) from Germany on May 6, 1941, and Germany provided military assistance (arms and ammunition) to the government beginning on May 13, 1941. British troops captured Fallujah on May 19, 1941. German military aircraft arrived in Iraq on May 25, 1941, and German military aircraft attacked British troops on May 26-29, 1941. Prime Minister Rashid Ali Gaylani fled to Tehran, Iran on May 30, 1941, and the parties agreed to a cessation of military hostilities on May 31, 1941. Some 100 British soldiers and 500 government soldiers were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 1, 1941-June 22, 1948): Arab nationalists attacked the Jewish quarter of Baghdad on June 1-2, 1941, resulting in the deaths of 179 Jewish civilians. Jamil al-Madfa’i formed a government as prime minister on June 2, 1941, and Nuri al-Said formed a government as prime minister on October 9, 1941. Hamdi Pachachi formed a government as prime minister in June 1944. Prime Minister Hamdi Pachachi resigned in January 1946, and Tawfiq al-Suwaydi formed a government as prime minister on February 23, 1946. Prime Minister Tawfiq al-Suwaydi resigned on May 3, 1946, and Arshad al-Umari formed a government as prime minister in June 1946.  Government police clashed with oil workers in Kirkuk on July 12, 1946, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Sayed Saleh Jabr formed a government as prime minister on March 30, 1947. British troops were withdrawn from the country on October 26, 1947.  Some 70 individuals were killed during demonstrations on January 15-28, 1948. Prime Minister Saleh Jabr resigned on January 27, 1948, and Sayid Mohammed al-Sadr formed a government as prime minister on January 29, 1948. Amir Abdullah dissolved the parliament on February 19, 1948. The government imposed martial law on May 16, 1948. Parliamentary elections were held on June 15, 1948, and Prime Minister Sayid Mohammed al-Sadr resigned on June 21, 1948. Muzahim al-Pachachi formed a government as prime minister on June 22, 1948.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 23, 1948-November 22, 1952): Prime Minister Muzahim al-Pachachi resigned on January 6, 1949, and Nuri Sa’id formed a government as prime minister. Prime Minister Nuri Sa’id resigned on December 12, 1949, and Ali Jawdat al-Ayubi formed a government as prime minister.  Tawfiq al-Suwaydi formed a government as prime minister on February 5, 1950, but he was forced to resign on September 12, 1950.  Nuri Sa’id formed a government as prime minister on September 16, 1950. Prime Minister Mustapha Umari resigned on November 22, 1952, and General Nuriddin Mahmoud formed a government as prime minister on November 23, 1952.

Crisis Phase (November 23, 1952-May 19, 1958): Eleven individuals were killed in political violence on November 23-24, 1952. General Nuriddin Mahmoud dissolved political parties and banned demonstration on November 24, 1952. Parliamentary elections were held on January 17, 1953, and the Constitutional Union Party (CUP) won a majority of seats in the parliament. Jamil Madfai formed a government as prime minister on January 29, 1953.King Faisal II formally assumed the throne on May 2, 1953. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government in April 1954. Parliamentary elections were held in June 1954. King Faisal II dissolved the Chamber of Deputies on August 4, 1954. Parliamentary elections were held in September 1954. Several political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections.  King Faisal II declared martial law and suspended the parliament on November 1, 1956. Six individuals were killed in political violence on December 21, 1956. The government lifted martial law on May 28, 1957. Prime Minister Nuri es-Said resigned on June 8, 1957, and Ali Jawdat formed a government as prime minister on June 19, 1957. Iraqi and Jordanian government leaders agreed to establish the Arab Union of Jordan and Iraq on February 14, 1958. General Nuri as-Said formed a government as prime minister on March 3, 1958. The Iraqi parliament approved the constitution of the Arab Union on May 12, 1958, and Nuri as-Said was named prime minister of the Arab Union on May 19, 1958.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 20, 1958-July 13, 1958):

Crisis Phase (July 14, 1958-March 1, 1991): King Faisal II of Iraq was deposed in a military coup led by General Abdul Karim Kassim and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif on July 14, 1958, resulting in the death of King Faisal and several other individuals. General Kassim abolished the constitution, and proclaimed the establishment of the Republic of Iraq on July 15, 1958. The United Arab Republic (UAR) provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on July 16, 1958. The Council of Sovereignty headed by General Najil Rubai took control of the government, and General Kassim was appointed as prime minister on July 16, 1958. Iran and Pakistan provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on July 30, 1958. Turkey provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on July 31, 1958. Britain provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on August 1, 1958. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on August 2, 1958, and resumed military assistance to the military government on August 20, 1958. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Baghdad on October 5, 1958. The Istiqlal Party (IP), National Democratic Party (NDP), and the Communist Party of Iraq (CPI) established the National Front (NF) on November 23, 1958. Ten individuals were killed in political violence in Baghdad on December 30-31, 1958. Some 2,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1958. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Abdul Wahab Shawaf in Mosul on March 7-10, 1959, resulting in the deaths of some 2,000 individuals. President Gamal Nasser of Egypt expressed opposition to the government of President Kassem on March 11, 1959. Government troops suppressed riots in Kirkuk on July 14-20, 1959, resulting in the deaths of some 80 individuals. Five military personnel and one civilian were sentenced to death for their involvement in the Mosul rebellion on August 19, 1959, and the six individuals were executed on August 25, 1959. On September 20, 1959, seventeen individuals were executed for their involvement in the March 1959 rebellion. Prime Minister Kassem survived an assassination attempt in Baghdad on October 7, 1959, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. Jordan provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on October 1, 1960. Prime Minister Kassim was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Abdel Salam Arif on February 8, 1963. The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) headed by Colonel Arif as provisional president took control of the government on February 8, 1963. Some 1,000 individuals, including former President Kassim, were killed in political violence on February 8-13, 1963. The United Arab Republic provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on February 9, 1963. The Soviet Union and US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the RCC on February 11, 1963. Government troops killed some 5,000 communists during a purge beginning on February 16, 1963. Prime Minister Ahmed Hassan Bakr resigned on May 11, 1963, but he formed a new government as prime minister on May 13, 1963. The government suppressed a military rebellion on May 25, 1963, resulting in the execution of eleven military personnel. Syria expressed support for the government of Prime Minister Bakr on May 25, 1963. Prime Minister Bakr resigned during a military rebellion led by Colonel Abdul Rahman Arif on November 18, 1963. Some 250 individuals were killed during the rebellion. Syria condemned the military rebellion on November 18, 1963, and Egypt expressed support for the military rebellion on November 18, 1963. Lt. General Taher Yahya formed a government as prime minister on November 22, 1963. Prime Minister Aref Abdul Razzak led an unsuccessful rebellion against President Arif on September 16, 1965. Prime Minister Razzak fled to Egypt. Abdul Rahman Bazzaz formed a government as prime minister. President Arif was killed in a helicopter crash on April 13, 1966, and General Abdul Rahman Arif was named president on April 16, 1966. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by former Prime Minister Razzak on June 30, 1966, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. Prime Minister Bazzaz resigned on August 6, 1966, and General Naji Taleb formed a government as prime minister on August 9, 1966. President Rahman Arif was overthrown in a rebellion led by General Ahmed Hassan Bakr, a leader of the Baathist Party, on July 17, 1968. ‘Abd ar-Razzaq an-Nayif formed a government as prime minister on July 18, 1968, and General Hassan Bakr was appointed as president by the RCC . General Hassan Bakr overthrew the government of Prime Minister an-Nayif on July 30, 1968, and General Hassan Bakr formed a government as prime minister on July 31, 1968. President Bakr proclaimed a new constitution on September 21, 1968. Fourteen individuals, including nine Iraqi Jews, were executed for treason in Baghdad and Basra on January 27, 1969. United Nations (UN) Secretary-General U Thant, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol of Israel, and US Secretary-of-State William Rogers condemned the government for the executions on January 27, 1969. The US referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on January 29, 1969. The Vatican condemned the government for the executions on January 29, 1969. Seven individuals were executed for treason in Baghdad on February 20, 1969. General Hassan Bakr was elected president by the RCC on November 10, 1969. The government suppressed a rebellion on January 20, 1970. On January 21-24, 1970, forty-four individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion. Seventeen military officers were executed for their involvement in a rebellion in February 1973. Colonel Nazem Kazzar led a military rebellion against President Bakr on June 30-July 1, 1973, resulting in the death of Defense Minister Hamad Shehab. Colonel Kazzar and 21 supporters were convicted of treason and executed on July 7-8, 1973. President Bakr resigned on July 16, 1979, and Saddam Hussein became president and chairman of the RCC on July 16, 1979. The RCC discovered an alleged plot against the government on July 28, 1979, and 21 individuals were executed for their involvement in the alleged plot on August 8, 1979. Ayatollah Bakr Sadr, spiritual leader of the Iraqi Shi’ite Muslims, was executed by the government on April 9, 1980, and another 96 Shi’ite Muslims were executed by the government in 1980. Members of the Islamic Shi’ite group (Al-Dawa) unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate President Hussein in the town of Dujail on July 8, 1982.  Some 148 Shi’ite Muslims were later killed by the government as a reprisal for the attempted assassination.  Al-Dawa rebels bombed a government building in Baghdad on August 1, 1982, resulting in the deaths of 20 individuals. Al-Dawa and several other Shi’ite Muslim groups formed the Supreme Assembly of the Islamic Revolution (SAIR) on November 17, 1982. Some 600 Shi’ite Muslims were executed by the government in 1984. Al-Dawa rebels unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate President Hussein near Mosul on April 9, 1987, resulting in the deaths of 10 presidential bodyguards. Al-Dawa rebels killed some 20 individuals in a bombing in Baghdad on August 12, 1987. Parliamentary elections were held on April 1, 1989, and the Arab Ba’ath Socialist Party (ABSP) won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly.  Some 15,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (March 2, 1991-December 31, 1992): Shi’ite Muslims rebelled against the government in southern Iraq on beginning on March 2, 1991. Government troops attacked Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq between April and December 1992. Several Shi’ite, Sunni, and Kurdish opposition groups formed the Iraqi National Congress (INC) in Vienna, Austria beginning in June 1992. Britain, France, and the US established a no-fly zone in southern Iraq on August 26, 1992. British and US military aircraft enforced the no-fly zone beginning on August 27, 1992. Government troops suppressed the Shi’ite Muslim rebellion in December 1992. Some 50,000 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 1, 1993-May 25, 2003): Government troops attacked Shi’ite Muslims in southern Iraq on August 27, 1996. Izzat Ibrahim, vice-president of the RCC, survived an assassination attempt in Karbala in southern Iraq on November 22, 1998. Some 1,000 Shi’ite Muslims were killed by government troops in 1998. Ayatollah Mohammed Sadiq al-Sadr, leader of Shi’ite Muslims in Iraq, was killed by government troops on February 19, 1999. Government troops suppressed demonstrations by Shi’ite Muslims in Baghdad and other cities on February 20-22, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals.US-led multinational military forces invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003, and the multinational military forces overthrew the government of President Saddam Hussein on April 9, 2003.  The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) headed by Paul Bremer of the US was established on April 21, 2003 (U.S. occupation of Iraq was authorized by the UN Security Council on May 22, 2003).  Paul Bremer officially dissolved the Iraqi army on May 23, 2001.

Conflict Phase (May 26, 2003-May 10, 2008):  Sunni Muslims launched an armed insurgency against the CPA and US-led multinational military forces beginning on May 26, 2003.  One US soldier was killed by Sunni insurgents near the town of Haditha, and one US soldier was killed by a landmine near Baghdad on May 26, 2003.  Two US soldiers were killed by Sunni insurgents in Falluja, a predominantly Sunni Muslim town northwest of Baghdad, on May 27, 2003.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan formally appointed Sergio Vieira de Mello of Brazil as Special Representative in Iraq on May 29, 2003.  One US soldier was killed when his supply vehicle was attacked by Sunni insurgents on May 29, 2003.  One US soldier was killed by Sunni insurgents in the town of Falluja on June 5, 2003, and one US soldier was killed by Sunni insurgents near Takrit on June 7, 2003.  One US soldier was killed by Sunni insurgents in the town of Al-Qaim on June 9, 2003, and one US soldier was killed by Sunni insurgents in Baghdad on June 10, 2003.  US military forces launched Operation Desert Scorpion against Sunni insurgents in north-central Iraq from June 15 to June 29, 2003, resulting in the arrests of several hundred individuals.  One US soldier was killed by a sniper in Baghdad on June 17, 2003.  One US soldier and two Iraqi protesters were killed in Baghdad on June 18, 2003.  Six British Royal Military Police (RMP) personnel were killed by Iraqis in the town of Al Majar al-Kabir in southern Iraq on June 24, 2003.  US troops clashed with Sunni insurgents in Ramadi on June 24, 2003, resulting in the deaths of five Iraqis.  On August 13, 2003, the UN Security Council established the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) to provide electoral assistance, coordinate UN humanitarian efforts, and to assist in promoting political dialogue.  UNAMI consists of a maximum of 459 international civilian personnel and a maximum of 324 military personnel (316 troops contributed by Fiji, Denmark, Romania, Georgia, and Nepal and eight military observers contributed by Denmark, New Zealand, Australia, Jordan, Canada, Austria, Britain, Nepal, and the US).  On August 19, 2003, the UN headquarters in Baghdad was bombed, resulting in the deaths of 22 individuals (including UN Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello and 13 other UN personnel).  Shi’ite cleric Muhammad Baqr Hakim and 84 other individuals were killed by a car bomb in Najaf on August 28, 2003.  On October 16, 2003, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1511, which authorized the US-led Multinational Forces in Iraq (MNF-Iraq).  The MNF-Iraq, which consisted of a maximum of 176,000 troops from 38 countries, was responsible for maintaining law and order, training/equipping Iraqi security forces, providing humanitarian assistance, and protecting UN personnel and facilities beginning on May 15, 2004.  Former President Saddam Hussein was captured by US military personnel near Tikrit on December 13, 2003.  Some 105 individuals were killed in a bombing of Kurdish political party offices in Irbil on February 1, 2004.  Some 140 individuals were killed by suicide bombers in Karbala and Baghdad on March 2, 2004.  The CPA turned over sovereignty to the Interim Iraqi Government headed by Prime Minister Iyad Allawi on June 28, 2004.  Ashraf Jehangir Qazi of Pakistan was appointed as UN Special Representative in Iraq on July 14, 2004.  On December 20, 2004, the International Mission for Iraqi Elections (IMIE), which consisted of representatives from Albanian, Australia, Bangladesh, Ghana, Mexico, Panama, Romania, United Kingdom, and Yemen headed by Jean-Pierre Kingsley of Canada.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 31, 2005, and the United Iraqi Alliance (UIA) headed by Abdul Aziz al-Hakim and former Prime Minister Irahim al-Jaafari won 140 out of 275 seats in the parliament.  The Kurdistan Alliance (KA) headed by President Jalal Talabani and Masoud Barzani won 75 seats, and the Iraqi List (IL) headed by former Prime Minister Iyad Allawi won 40 seats in the parliament.  Forty-four individuals were killed in election-related violence on January 30, 2005.  The European Union (EU) provided electoral assistance (eight election experts) to the government from November 23, 2004 to March 9, 2005.  The Interim Iraqi Government was disbanded and replaced by the Transitional Iraqi Government headed by Prime Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari on May 3, 2005.  Some 180 individuals were killed in suicide car bombings in Baghdad on September 14, 2005.  A new Iraqi constitution was approved by 79 percent of the voters in a referendum on October 15, 2005.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 18, 2005, and the UIA won 128 out of 275 seats in the Council of Representatives.  The KA won 53 seats, and the Iraqi Accord Front (IAF) won 44 seats in the Council of Representatives.  The EU provided electoral assistance (six election experts) to the government from December 15, 2005 to January 1, 2006.  Some 110 individuals were killed in suicide bombings in Karbala on January 5, 2006.  The Al-Askari mosque (Imam Ali al-Hadi Shrine) in Samarra, a Shi’ite Muslim holy site, was partially destroyed in a bombing on February 22, 2006.  OIC Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain, President George W. Bush of the US, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh of India, Javier Solana of the EU, and Foreign Minister Karel de Gucht of Belgium condemned the bombing of the Al-Askari mosque on February 22-24, 2006.  Nouri al-Maliki of the Islamic Dawa Party (IDP) formed a government as prime minister on May 20, 2006.  Some 66 individuals were killed in a car bombing in Baghdad on July 1, 2006.  OIC Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu condemned the car bombing on July 2, 2006.  Some 53 individuals were killed in a car bombing in Kufa on July 18, 2006.  OIC Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu condemned sectarian violence in Iraq on August 21, 2006.  On November 5, 2006, Saddam Hussein and two other former government officials were convicted and sentenced to death for the killings of 148 Shi’ite Muslims in the town of Dujail on July 8, 1982.  Saddam Hussein was executed by the government on December 30, 2006.  The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) condemned the execution of Saddam Hussein on December 31, 2006.  Staffan de Mistura of Sweden was appointed as UN Special Representative in Iraq on September 11, 2007.  Iraqi government troops commanded by Lt. General Ali Ghaidan Majid launched a military operation against Shi’ite Muslim militants in Basra on March 25, 2008.  Iran mediated a ceasefire agreement between Iraqi government troops and Shi’ite Muslim militants in Basra on March 31, 2008.  Some 480 individuals were killed in the Basra military operation, including 400 militants, 15 government soldiers, 15 government police personnel, and 50 civilians.  US and Iraqi government military forces launched an assault against Shi’ite Muslim militants in Sadr City in Baghdad from April 6 to May 10, 2008, when a ceasefire went into effect.  Some 941 individuals were killed in the April-May 2008 military assault against Sadr City, including 22 US soldier, 17 Iraqi government soldiers, 331 Shi’ite Muslim militants, and 591 civilians.  More than 100,000 individuals, mostly Iraqi civilians, were killed during the conflict, and some 4.7  million Iraqis were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 11, 2008-present):  Ad Melkert of the Netherlands was appointed as UN Special Representative in Iraq on July 13, 2009.  The US-led Multinational Forces in Iraq (MNF-Iraq) was disbanded on December 31, 2009.  Some 318 MNF-Iraq (non-US) military personnel were killed during the mission, including 179 British soldiers, 33 Italian soldiers, 23 Polish soldiers, and 18 Ukrainian soldiers.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 7, 2010, and the Al-Iraqiyya party won 91 out of 325 seats in the Council of Representatives.  The State of Law Coalition headed by Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki won 89 seats, and the National Iraqi Alliance (NIA) headed by Ibrahim al-Jaafari won 70 seats in the Council of Representatives.  Some 404 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The newly-elected Council of Representatives of Iraq convened on June 14, 2010.  Martin Kobler of Germany was appointed as UN Special Representative in Iraq and Head of UNAMI on August 11, 2011.  US military personnel completed their withdrawal from Iraq on December 18, 2011.  The Iraqi government issued an arrest warrant for Iraqi Vice-President Tariq al-Hashemi on December 19, 2011.  Some 4,487 US military personnel were killed during the US military intervention in Iraq lasting from March 2003 to December 2011.  At least 25 individuals were killed in a truck bombing in the city of Diwaniya and four individuals were killed by car bombs in Karbala on July 3, 2012.  Eight individuals were killed in a car bombing in the town of Zubaidiya and two policemen were killed in Baghdad on July 4, 2012.  Six individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing in Ramadi on July 6, 2012.  Five individuals were killed in bombings in the town of Madaen and eleven individuals were killed in bombings in the town of Mahmudiyya on July 22, 2012.  Forty-one individuals were killed in bombings in Taji and 16 individuals were killed in bombings in Sadr City in Baghdad on July 23, 2012.  Six government soldiers and three civilians were killed in bombings in Mosul on July 23, 2012.  At least 19 individuals were killed in car bombings in Baghdad on July 31, 2012.  A total of 325 individuals were killed in political violence across Iraq in July 2012, including 107 individuals who were killed on July 23, 2012.  Twelve individuals were killed in bombings in Iraq on August 2, 2012, including seven individuals who died in bombings in the Baghdad district of Husseiniya.  Eleven individuals were killed in a car bombing in the town of Suwayrah on August 8, 2012.  Ten individuals were killed in car bombings in Diyala Province on August 15, 2012, including seven individuals killed in a car bombing in the town of Muqdadiya and three individuals killed in a car bombing in the town of Baquba.  More than 70 individuals were killed in political violence across Iraq on August 16, 2012, including 27 individuals killed in the Baghdad district of Zafraniya.  Some 270 individuals were killed in political violence across Iraq in August 2012, including 106 members of Iraqi security forces.  At least 92 individuals were killed in political violence across Iraq on September 9, 2012, including 11 government soldiers were killed in a bomb attack on an army base north of Baghdad.  On September 9, 2012, Iraqi Vice-President Tariq al-Hashemi was found guilty of involvement with some 150 “death squad” killings and sentenced to deathin abstentia.  At least 32 individuals have been killed in car bombings across Iraq on September 30, 2012, including eight individuals killed in the town of Taji.  Some 365 individuals were killed in political violence in September 2012.  Ten individuals, including two police officers, were killed in bombings and shootings in Baghdad on October 20, 2012.  Nine individuals were killed in bombings in Baghdad on October 23, 2012, including seven individuals killed in the district of Shula and two individuals killed in the district of Chikuk.    At least 30 individuals were killed in bomb attacks across Iraq on October 27, 2012, including 13 individuals killed in bombings in Sadr City in Baghdad.  At least 27 individuals were killed in a car bombing at an Iraqi army base in Taji on November 6, 2012.  At least 17 individuals were killed in bombings across Iraq, including five individuals killed in the city of Kirkuk.  Nineteen individuals were killed in bomb attacks in Baghdad on November 27, 2012.  At least 33 individuals were killed in bomb attacks on November 29, 2012, including 28 individuals killed in the city of Hilla and five individuals killed in the city of Karbala.  At least 25 individuals were killed in bombings across Iraq on December 17, 2012, including seven individuals killed in a truck bombing in the city of Mosul.  At least 22 individuals were killed in bombings across Iraq on December 31, 2012, including seven individuals killed in the town of Mussayib.

[Sources: Arnold et al., 1991, 155-159; Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) press release, December 31, 2006; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), November 24, 1998, May 23, 2003, May 27, 2003, May 29, 2003, June 5, 2003, June 7, 2003, June 9, 2003, June 11, 2003, June 13, 2003, June 17, 2003, June 18, 2003, June 24, 2003, June 26, 2003, January 30, 2005, January 20, 2006, June 15, 2006, October 26, 2006, December 30, 2006, January 9, 2007, April 6, 2008, April 28, 2008, April 30, 2008, May 3, 2008, May 14, 2008, June 19, 2008, July 3, 2012, July 4, 2012, July 6, 2012, July 22, 2012, July 23, 2012, July 31, 2012, August 3, 2012, August 8, 2012, August 15, 2012, August 17, 2012, August 29, 2012, September 9, 2012, September 30, 2012, October 20, 2012, October 23, 2012, October 27, 2012, November 6, 2012, November 14, 2012, November 27, 2012, November 29, 2012, December 17, 2012, December 28, 2012, December 31, 2012; Cable News Network (CNN), February 22, 2006, May 11, 2008; Clodfelter, 1992, 813-814; Degenhardt, 1988, 171-175; El-Solh, 1996, 101-135; Facts on File, January 25-31, 1948, February 15-21, 1948, November 28-December 4, 1952, February 6-12, 1953, November 28-December 4, 1956, December 19-25, 1956, July 10-16, 1958, July 31-August 6, 1958, August 21-27, 1958, October 2-8, 1958, January 1-7, 1959, March 5-11, 1959, March 12-18, 1959, July 16-22, 1959, September 17-23, 1959, February 7-13, 1963, May 9-15, 1963, May 23-29, 1963, November 14-20, 1963, May 19-25, 1966, July 28-August 3, 1966, September 29-October 5, 1966, July 18-24, 1968, January 23-29, 1969, January 30-February 5, 1969, February 20-26, 1969, July 20, 1979, August 10, 1979; Jessup, 1998, 326-330; Keesing’s Record of World Events, February 14-21, 1948, July 6-13, 1957, July 26-August 2, 1958, August 2-9, 1958, August 23-30, 1958, April 11-18, 1959, July 25-August 1, 1959, September 26-October 3, 1959, October 10-17, 1959, October 1-8, 1960, March 30-April 6, 1963, July 30-August 6, 1966, March 8-15, 1969, August 13-19, 1973, February 22, 1980, April 1989, March 1991, August 1992; Langer, 1972, 1095-1096, 1308-1309; Longrigg 1953; Middle East Journal (MEJ), Summer 1963; Middle East Record (MER), 1968; New York Times (NYT), August 19, 2003, October 26, 2005, March 28, 2008, April 20, 2008, May 21, 2008, July 29, 2009; Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) press release, February 22, 2006, July 2, 2006, August 21, 2006; Porch 2004; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), July 29, 2003; Reuters, June 24, 2003, July 4, 2004, August 16, 2012; Simon 1986; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1936, 949, 1937 (vol. 1), 618-619; Tillema, 1991, 146-147; United Nations (UN) press release, July 14, 2004, September 11, 2007, July 13, 2009, August 11, 2011; Washington Post (WP), June 3, 2005, June 26, 2006; Xinhua News Agency, February 23, 2006.]