15. Egypt (1922-present)

Crisis Phase (March 15, 1922-July 5, 1923):  The Kingdom of Egypt formally achieved its independence from Great Britain on March 15, 1922.  British troops remained in the country following Egypt’s independence in order to protect British interests, including the Suez Canal.  Ahmed Faud, who became Sultan of Egypt following the death of Sultan Hussein Kamil on October 9, 1917, assumed the title of King Faud I on March 15, 1922.  Prime Minister Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha resigned on November 29, 1922, and Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha formed a government as prime minister on November 30, 1922.  Prime Minister Nasim Pasha resigned on February 5, 1923, and Yahia Ibrahim Pasha formed a government as prime minister on March 15, 1923.  A new constitution providing for a bicameral parliament (Senate and House of Representatives) went into effect on April 21, 1923.  After bring in place for nine years, King Faud I lifted martial law on July 5, 1923.

Egypt map AFRICA - Country map of Egypt

Post-Crisis Phase (July 6, 1923-July 18, 1928):  Parliamentary elections were held on September 27, 1923 and January 12, 1924, and the Nationalist Party (Wafd Party) won 188 out of 214 seats in the House of Representatives.  Saad Zaghlul Pasha, the leader of the Wafd Party, formed a government as prime minister on January 28, 1924.  On September 25, 1924, Prime Minister Zaghlul Pasha and Prime Minister Ramsey MacDonald of Britain began negotiations concerning British troops in Egypt, and negotiations ended without an agreement on October 3, 1924.  Sir Lee Stack, British Commander of the Egyptian military, was assassinated in Cairo on November 19, 1924.  One day after Prime Minister Zaghlul Pasha resigned, Ahmad Ziwar Pasha was appointed prime minister on November 25, 1924.  Sir George Lloyd was appointed as British high commissioner of Egypt on February 26, 1925.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 23, 1925, and the Wafd Party won 86 out of 215 seats in the House of Representatives.  King Faud I dissolved the parliament on March 23, 1925.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 24, 1926, and the Wafd Party won 150 out of 215 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Liberal Constitutionalist Party (LCP) won 30 seats in the House of Representatives.  Abd al-Khaleq Sarwat Pasha of the Liberal Party (LP) formed a government as prime minister on April 18, 1927.  The British government proposed a new draft treaty with Egypt on July 18, 1927, which called for British military occupation of Egypt for ten more years.  Saad Zaghlul Pasha died on August 23, 1927, and Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha was chosen as the new leader of the Wafd Party in September 1927.  The Egyptian parliament rejected the draft treaty with Britain on March 4, 1928.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on March 16, 1928.  The Muslim Brotherhood, a Sunni Muslim fundamentalist organization headed by Shaikh Hassan Banna, was established in Ismailia in March 1928.  King Faud I dismissed Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha on June 25, 1928, and Mohammed Mahmud formed a government as prime minister.

Crisis Phase (July 19, 1928-December 12, 1935):  On July 19, 1928, King Faud I dissolved the legislature and suspended the 1923 constitution,  Egyptian and British representatives resumed negotiations in London on March 8, 1929, but the parties ended negotiations without an agreement on May 1, 1929.  Sir Percy Loraine was appointed as British high commissioner of Egypt on August 8, 1929.  Adli Yeken formed a government as prime minister on October 20, 1929.  The 1923 constitution was restored on October 31, 1929.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 21, 1929, and the Wafd Party won 198 out of 236 seats in the House of Representatives.  The LCP boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on January 1, 1930, and the government resumed negotiations with Britain in London on March 27, 1930.  Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha submitted his resignation on June 17, 1930, and King Faud I appointed Ismail Sidqi Pasha as prime minister on June 20, 1930.  The Wafd Party ended its cooperation with the Egyptian government on June 26, 1930.  King Faud I dissolved the parliament on July 12, 1930.  A new constitution went into effect on October 22, 1930, but it was strongly opposed by Egyptian nationalists.  Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha established the People’s Party (PP) on December 8, 1930.  The Wafd Party headed by Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha and the LP headed by Muhammad Mahmud Pasha signed a National Pact on March 31, 1931, which provided for a united front against the government of Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha.  Parliamentary elections were held between May 14 and June 1, 1931, and the PP won a majority of the votes. The Wafd Party and Liberal Party boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Some 27 individuals were killed in election-related violence in Cairo and other cities on May 14-17, 1931.  The parliament convened on June 20, 1931.  Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha resigned on September 21, 1933, and Abdul Fattah Yahya Pasha formed a government on September 27, 1933.  Prime Minister Yahya Pasha resigned on November 6, 1934, and Tawfiq Nasim Pasha formed a government on November 15, 1934.  King Faud I suspended the 1930 constitution and dissolved the parliament on November 30, 1934.  The Wafd Party was allowed to resumed political activities on November 30, 1934.  The 1923 constitution was restored on December 12, 1935.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 13, 1935-August 31, 1939):  Prime Minister Nasim Pasha resigned on January 22, 1936, and Ali Maher Pasha formed a government on January 30, 1936.  King Faud I died on April 28, 1936, and he was succeeded by his son, Prince Farouk, on May 6, 1936.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 2, 1936, and the Wafd Party won 169 out of 232 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The LCP won 17 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on May 10, 1936.  Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha negotiated the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty with Britain on August 27, 1936.  The treaty provided for the withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except for the Suez Canal zone.  The Egyptian legislature ratified the treaty on December 22, 1936.  King Farouk dismissed the government of Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha on December 30, 1937, and appointed Mohammed Mahmud Pasha of the LP as prime minister.  King Farouk dissolved the parliament on February 2, 1938, and Prime Minister Mahmud Pasha’s party won a majority of seats in parliamentary elections held from March 31 to April 2, 1938.

Crisis Phase (September 1, 1939-February 5, 1950):  Prime Minister Mahmud Pasha declared martial law on September 1, 1939.  Parliamentary elections were held in March 1942, and the Wafd Party won 240 out of 264 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The LCP won four seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Most opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 8, 1945, and the Saadist Institutional Party (SIP) won 125 out of 264 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Wafd Party boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Prime Minister Ahmed Pasha was assassinated on February 24, 1945, and Mohammed Fahmy Nokrashy Pasha formed a government as prime minister on February 25, 1945.  Nine individuals were killed in anti-British demonstrations in Cairo on February 7-14, 1946.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha resigned on February 15, 1946, and Ismail Sidqi Pasha formed a government as prime minister on February 17, 1946.  Fourteen individuals were killed in political violence in Cairo on February 21, 1946.  Twenty-two individuals, including two British government soldiers, were killed in political violence in Alexandria on March 4-5, 1946.  The government proclaimed martial law on May 15, 1948.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha dissolved the Muslim Brotherhood on December 8, 1948.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha was assassinated by members of the Muslim Brotherhood on December 28, 1948, and King Farouk appointed Ibrahim Abdul Hadi Pasha as prime minister on December 29, 1948.  Shaikh Hassan Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, was assassinated in Cairo on February 12, 1949.  Prime Minister Ibrahim Abdul Hadi Pasha resigned on July 25, 1949, and Hussein Sirry Pasha was appointed as prime minister on July 26, 1949.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 3-10, 1950, and the Wafd Party won 225 out of 319 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The SIP won 28 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Six individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha of the Wafd Party formed a government as prime minister on January 12, 1950.  The government legalized the Muslim Brotherhood as a religious organization and lifted marital law on February 5, 1950.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 6, 1950-January 24, 1952):  King Farouk dismissed 17 members of the Egyptian Senate, including former prime ministers Ibrahim Abdul Hadi Pasha and Hussein Sirry Pasha, on June 18, 1950.  Several opposition political parties, including the Liberal Constitutional Party (LCP), agreed to temporarily boycott the Senate and Chamber of Deputies on June 19, 1950.  Egyptian Army commander in chief, General Mohammed Haider Pasha, resigned on November 12, 1950.  One student was killed during anti-British riots in Cairo on November 15, 1950.  On November 16, 1950, Prime Minister Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha demanded the withdrawal of British military forces from the Suez Canal Zone.  Following two days of anti-British riots in Cairo, the government banned all political demonstrations on November 17, 1950.  On November 20, 1950, the British government rejected the Egyptian government’s demand that its military forces withdraw from the Suez Canal Zone.  Several thousand Egyptian students demonstrated against the British in Cairo on November 21-23, 1950.  The government declared a state of emergency in Cairo on November 23, 1950.  The government re-imposed a state of emergency in Cairo on December 2, 1950.  The Egyptian parliament approved a law that lifted the ban on the Muslim Brotherhood.  Senate elections were held on April 26, 1951, and the Wafd Party won a majority of the seats in the 198-member body.  On October 8, 1951, the Egyptian government unilaterally abrogated the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty and declared the union of Egypt and Sudan.  British troops clashed with Egyptians in Ismailia and Port Said in the Suez Canal Zone on October 16, 1951, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals.  Prime Minister Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha declared a three-day state of emergency.  Anti-British demonstrations took place in Cairo and Alexandria on October 23, 1951, resulting in the death of one demonstrator in Alexandria.  British soldiers clashed with Egyptian police in Ismailia in the Suez Canal Zone on November 18, 1951, resulting in the deaths of five Egyptian policemen, four Egyptian civilians, and four British soldiers.  British soldiers clashed with Egyptian police and civilians in the Suez Canal Zone on December 3-4, 1951, resulting in the deaths of at least eleven British soldiers and more than 30 Egyptians.  British troops killed five Egyptian civilians in the Suez Canal Zone on December 20, 1951.

Crisis Phase (January 25, 1952-September 28, 1970):  British troops attacked an Egyptian police barracks in Ismaïlia on January 25, 1952, resulting in the deaths of some 50 Egyptian policemen.  Anti-British riots took place in Cairo on January 26, 1952, resulting in the deaths of 26 individuals.  King Farouk dismissed Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha and declared martial law on January 26, 1952.  King Farouk appointed Ali Maher Pasha as prime minister on January 27, 1952.  Prime Minister Ali Maher Pasha resigned on March 1, 1952, and he was replaced by Ahmed Naguib al-Hilaili Pasha.  Prime Minister al-Hilaili Pasha dissolved the Egyptian parliament on March 24, 1952.  Prime Minister al-Hilaili Pasha resigned on June 28, 1952, and Hussein Sirry Pasha formed a government as prime minister on July 2, 1952.  King Farouk was deposed in a military coup led by General Mohammed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser on July 23, 1952, and King Farouk abdicated the throne on July 26, 1952.  King Farouk’s son was proclaimed King Ahmed Faud II on July 26, 1952.  General Naguib forced the resignation of Prime Minister Ali Maher Pasha on September 7, 1952, and General Naguib formed a government as prime minister on September 8, 1952.  The U.S. government expressed support for the government of General Mohammed Naguib on September 8, 1952.  General Naguib suspended the constitution and formed a transitional government on December 10, 1952.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1952.  The government banned the Wafd Party in January 1953.  The Egyptian Republic was formally proclaimed on June 18, 1953.  General Naguib became the first president and the head of the ten-member Revolutionary Council (RC).  The RC banned the Muslim Brotherhood and arrested 450 members of the Muslim Brotherhood on January 13, 1954. The government revoked the ban against the MB on July 8, 1954.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser replaced General Naguib as prime minister on April 17, 1954.  Prime Minister Gamal Abdal Nasser survived an attempted assassination by members of the Muslim Brotherhood on October 26, 1954, and re-imposed the ban on the Muslim Brotherhood on October 29, 1954.  President Naguib was deposed by the RC on November 14, 1954, and the RC headed by Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser took control of the government on November 17, 1954.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser suppressed political opposition and established a one-party political system.  Some 26 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and sentenced to death on December 4, 1954 and January 19, 1955 (all of the death sentences were later commuted to life imprisonment).  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser proposed a new constitution on January 16, 1956, which providing for a republic headed by a president elected for a six-year term by the People’s Assembly.  Egyptians approved the new constitution in a referendum held on June 23, 1956.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser was elected president without opposition on June 23, 1956.  Legislative elections were held on July 3, 1957, and independents won 350 out of 350 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The People’s Assembly was dissolved on February 10, 1958.  A referendum on the establishment of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) was held on February 21, 1958.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser appointed Aly Sabry as prime minister on September 24, 1962.  Elections for the parliament of the United Arab Republic were held on March 10 and March 19, 1964, and the Arab Socialist Union (ASU) won 350 out of 350 seats.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser was re-elected with 100 percent of the vote on March 15, 1965.  Prime Minister Sabry resigned on September 29, 1965, and Zacharia Mohieddin formed a government as prime minister on September 30, 1965.  Three members of the Muslim Brotherhood were executed for treason on August 29, 1966.  Sidqi Suleiman formed a government as prime minister on September 10, 1966.  On September 22, 1966, several hundred members of the Muslim Brotherhood were tried and convicted of plotting to overthrow the government.  A referendum on the “March 30th Program” was held on May 2, 1968.  Legislative elections were held on January 8-13, 1969, and the ASU won 350 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser died on September 28, 1970.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 29, 1970-October 5, 1981):  Muhammad Anwar Sadat was nominated as president by the People’s Assembly on October 7, 1970, and he was elected president with 90 percent of the vote on October 15, 1970.  President Anwar Sadat appointed Mahmud Fawzi as prime minister on October 20, 1970.  A referendum on the Federation of Arab Republics was held on September 1, 1971.  President Sadat dissolved the National Assembly on September 8, 1971.  Amendment to the constitution were approved in a referendum held on September 11, 1971.  Legislative elections were held on October 27 and November 3, 1971, and the ASU won 350 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Aziz Sidqi of the ASU formed a government as prime minister on January 17, 1972.  Students demonstrated against the government in Cairo on January 19, 1972 and December 19, 1972.  On January 3, 1973, the government ordered the closure of all colleges and universities after several weeks of student demonstrations. President Sadat dismissed Prime Minister Sidqi, and President Anwar Sadat assumed the duties of prime minister on March 26, 1973.  A referendum on the “October Paper” was held on May 15, 1974.  Prime Minister Abdel Aziz Mohammed Hegazy resigned on April 13, 1975, and Mamdouh Mohammed Salem formed a government as prime minister on April 15, 1975.  Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak was appointed as vice president on April 15, 1975.  President Anwar Sadat was nominated for a second six-year term by the People’s Assembly on August 25, 1976.  President Anwar Sadat was re-elected with nearly 100 percent of the vote on October 2, 1976, and he was inaugurated for a second term on October 16, 1976.  Legislative elections were held on October 28 and November 4, 1976, and the ASU won 313 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 47 seats in the People’s Assembly,  Three individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Mamdouh Mohammed Salem formed a government as prime minister on November 9, 1976.  President Anwar Sadat legalized three political parties on November 11, 1976.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity” was held on February 10, 1977.  Mohammed Dahabi, former Minister of Islamic Affairs, was assassinated by an Islamic militants on July 3, 1977. The government lifted the ban on the Wafd Party on February 3, 1978. On March 19, 1978, five Islamic militants were executed for the murder of Minister of Religious Affairs Mohammed Hussein al-Zahabi.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity and social peace” was held on May 21, 1978.  President Anwar Sadat established the National Democratic Party (NDP) in July 1978. Mustafa Khalil formed a government as prime minister on October 2, 1978.  Political reforms, including the reintroduction of a multiparty system, were approved in a referendum held on April 19, 1979.  President Anwar Sadat dissolved the parliament on April 21, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on June 7-14, 1979, and the NDP won 347 out of 392 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Socialist Labour Party (SLP) won 30 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Prime Minister Khalil resigned on May 12, 1980, and President Sadat formed a government as prime minister on May 14, 1980.  A constitutional amendment establishing the Shuria Council (upper chamber of the parliament) was approved in a referendum held on May 22, 1980.  In September 1981, some 1,600 Islamic fundamentalists were arrested following unrest throughout the country.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity” was held on September 10, 1981.

Crisis Phase (October 6, 1981-May 31, 2012):  President Anwar Sadat and seven other individuals were assassinated by five Islamic militants (al-Jihad) in the Egyptian military, and Vice President Hosni Mubarak assumed the presidency on October 6, 1981.  President Hosni Mubarak proclaimed a state-of-emergency on October 6, 1981.  UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim and the Sudanese government condemned the assassination of President Sadat on October 7, 1981.  Government troops and Islamic militants clashed in Asyut on October 8-11, 1981, resulting in the deaths of some 120 individuals.  Hosni Mubarak was elected president with 99 percent of the vote on October 13, 1981.  President Hosni Mubarak served as prime minister from October 14, 1981 to January 2, 1982, when Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin of the NDP was appointed as prime minister.  On March 6, 1982, five individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the assassination of President Anwar Sadat, and the individuals were executed on April 15, 1982.  Legislative elections were held on May 27, 1984, and the NDP won 390 out of 458 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party won 58 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Prime Minister Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin died on June 5, 1984, and General Kamal Hasan Ali formed a government as prime minister on July 17, 1984.  Prime Minister Kamal Hassan Ali resigned on September 4, 1985, and Ali Lutfi Mahmoud Lutfi formed as government as prime minister on September 5, 1985.  Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Cairo and Asyut on February 25-28, 1986, resulting in the deaths of 107 individuals.  Mohammed Najib Sidqi of the NDP replaced Ali Mahmud Lutfi as prime minister on November 12, 1986.  A referendum on electoral reform was held on February 12, 1987.  Legislative elections were held on April 6, 1987, and the NDP won 346 out of 458 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Islamic Alliance (IA) won 60 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Hassan Abu Basha, former Minister of the Interior, was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists (members of Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) on May 7, 1987.  President Hosni Mubarak was re-elected for a second term with 97 percent of the vote on October 5, 1987.  The Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) nullified the results of the 1987 legislative elections on May 19, 1990.  The People’s Assembly was dissolved as a result of a referendum held on October 11, 1990.  Rifa’at Mahgoub, president of the People’s Assembly, was assassinated on October 12, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on November 29 and December 6, 1990, and the NDP won some 348 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 83 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Several opposition political parties, including the New Wafd Party, boycotted the legislative elections.  Islamic fundamentalists (members of al-Jihad and Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) began a movement to overthrown the government in March 1992.  Government police clashed with Islamic militants in the Asyut region on May 9-10, 1993, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen. Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Cairo on May 21, 1993. Six Islamic militants were sentenced to death on May 27, 1993.  Two individuals were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants in Cairo on June 8, 1993.  Two Islamic militants were executed in Alexandria and Cairo on June 13-23, 1993.  Seven individuals were killed in a bombing in Shubra on June 18, 1993.  President Hosni Mubarak was re-elected to a third term with 96 percent of the vote on October 4, 1993.  Islamic militants killed five individuals at the Muharraq monastery near Asyut on March 11, 1994.  Islamic militants killed five government policemen in Sidfa on March 20, 1994, and government police killed six Islamic militants near Sidfa on March 21, 1994.  Islamic militants killed eight government policemen near Mallawi on January 2, 1995. Government police and Islamic militants clashed in the provinces of Asyut, Menia, Qena, and Suhag on January 28-29, 1995, resulting in the deaths of 30 individuals.  President Hosni Mubarak survived an attempted assassination by Islamic militants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on June 26, 1995.  Legislative elections were held on November 29, 1995, and the NDP won 318 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 112 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Some 25 individuals were killed in political violence in October and November 1995.  Prime Minister Najib Sidqi resigned and was succeeded by Kamal Ahmed Ganzouri of the NDP on January 2, 1996.  Government police killed two Islamic (Al Gamaa al-Islamiya) militant leaders in Asyut province on February 13, 1996, and Islamic militants killed three government policemen in Sahil in Asyut province on February 16, 1996.  Islamic militants killed nine civilians in the village of Akal al Bakhri in Asyut province on February 19-20, 1996.  Islamic militants killed eight individuals in the village of Atmaniya in Asyut province on February 24, 1996.  On February 26, 1996, the London-based non-governmental organization (NGO), Amnesty International, condemned Islamic militants (Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) for the killings in the village of Atmaniya.  Islamic militants killed 18 Greek tourists in Cairo on April 18, 1996.  On April 18, 1996, Amnesty International condemned Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Cairo.  On August 15, 1996, thirteen members of the Muslim Brotherhood were convicted and sentenced to prison terms for their membership in the illegal organization.  On August 20, 1996, Amnesty International condemned the Egyptian government for the trial and sentencing of the MB members.  Islamic militants killed ten Coptic Christians in the town of Abu-Qerqas on February 12, 1997.  On February 14, 1997, Amnesty International condemned the Islamic militants for the killings in Abu-Qerqas.  Islamic militants exploded a bomb in Cairo on September 18, 1997, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  On September 18, 1997, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned Islamic militants for the terrorist bombing in Cairo.  Islamic militants killed some 62 individuals in Luxor on November 17, 1997.  Hennadiy Udovenko, president of the UN General Assembly, and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Luxor on November 17, 1997.  On November 17, 1997, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Luxor.  Nine Islamic militants were convicted and sentenced to death for belonging to the illegal group (al-Jihad) on April 18, 1999.  President Mubarak was re-elected to a fourth term with 94 percent of the vote on September 26, 1999.  President Mubarak appointed Atef Obeid as prime minister on October 5, 1999.  Some 2,000 individuals were killed as a result of Islamic militant violence between 1992 and 1999.  Twenty-one individuals, including 20 Coptic Christians and one Muslim, were killed during riots near the village of Kosheh on January 2, 2000.  On February 26, 2000, the People’s Assembly approved a three-year extension of the state-of-emergency.  Legislative elections were held between October 18 and November 8, 2000, and the NDP won 353 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents, including 17 members of the Muslim Brotherhood, won 72 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Government police clashed with supporters of Islamist political parties in the town of Ashmun on October 24, 2000, resulting in the death of at least one individual.  President Mubarak appointed Ahmed Nazif, the Minister of Communications and Information Technology, to serve as prime minister beginning on July 14, 2004.  Islamic militants bombed several locations in the Sinai peninsula on October 7, 2004, resulting in the deaths of some 34 individuals.  Islamic militants bombed locations in Cairo on April 7, 2005, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  An amendment to the constitution, which provided for the direct election of the president, was approved in a referendum held on May 25, 2005.  Opposition political parties called for a boycott of the referendum.  Islamic militants bombed several locations in Sharm el-Sheikh in the Sinai peninsula on July 23, 2005, resulting in the deaths of 88 individuals.  The bombings in Sharm el-Sheikh were condemned by the AU Commission and UN Security Council, as well as the governments of Australia, China, Ethiopia, France, Russia, UK, and the U.S.  President Hosni Mubarak of the NDP was re-elected to a fifth term with 89 percent of the vote on September 7, 2005, and he was inaugurated on September 27, 2005.  Several of the main opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held from November 7 to December 9, 2005, and the NDP won 311 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party won six seats, and Independent candidates associated with the Muslim Brotherhood won 88 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in the town of Damietta on December 7, 2005.  Islamic militants bombed several locations in the Red Sea resort of Dahab on April 24, 2006, resulting in the deaths of some 23 individuals.  The bombings in Dahab were condemned by the UN Security Council and the European Union (EU) High Representative Javier Solana, as well as the governments of Afghanistan, Australia, China, Italy, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Russia, UK, and the U.S.  The People’s Assembly approved a two-year extension of the state of emergency on April 30, 2006.  Amendments to the constitution were approved in a referendum held on March 26, 2007.  The People’s Assembly approved a two-year extension of the state of emergency on May 26, 2008.  Eight Coptic Christian, and one other individual, were killed during in an Islamic militant attack on a Coptic Christian Church in Nag Hammadi on January 7, 2010.  The attack was condemned by the foreign ministers of Canada and Italy.  Mohammed Badie was elected as the president of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt on January 16, 2010.  Legislative elections were held on November 28 and December 5, 2010, and the NDP won 420 out of 518 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party won six seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Muslim Brotherhood and the New Wafd Party boycotted the second round of the legislative elections.  Twenty-three individuals were killed in an Islamic militant bombing of a Coptic Christian Church in Alexandria on January 1, 2011.  The bombing in Alexandria was condemned by the EU and the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and the U.S.  Demonstrations against the government began in Cairo, Alexandria, and other Egyptian cities beginning on January 25, 2011.  President Mubarak appointed Ahmed Shafik, an independent politician and Minister of Civil Aviation, to serve as prime minister on January 31, 2011.  The governments of the UK and U.S. condemned the violence in Egypt on February 2, 2011.  President Mubarak resigned from office on February 11, 2011, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) headed by Field Marshall Mohammed Hussein Tantawi took control of the government.  Some 850 individuals were killed in political violence from January 25 to February 11, 2011.  The SCAF suspended the constitution and dissolved the parliament on February 13, 2011.  Essam Sharaf, an independent politician and former Minister of Transportation, was appointed by the military to serve as prime minister beginning on March 3, 2011.  Thirteen individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo on March 8, 2011.  Several amendments to the constitution, including reducing the president’s term to four years and implementing presidential term limits (two terms), were approved in a referendum held on March 19, 2011.  Fifteen individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Giza on May 7, 2011.  The Al-Nour Party (‘Party of the Light”), a conservative Islamic political party, was established on May 12, 2011.  Islamic militants killed six government policemen in El-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on July 30, 2011.  Twenty-five individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo on October 9, 2011.  Thirty-eight protesters were killed in clashes with government police in Cairo and Alexandria on November 18-24, 2011.  Legislative elections were held from November 28, 2011 to January 11, 2012, and the Freedom and Justice Party headed by Mohammed Morsi won 235 out of 508 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Al-Nour Party won 123 seats, and the New Wafd Party won 38 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 24 observers, including seven long-term observers, from 11 countries to monitor the legislative elections.  Thirteen individuals were killed in clashes between protesters and government police in Cairo on December 16-21, 2011.  Kamal Ganzouri, an independent politician and former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was appointed by the military to serve as prime minister beginning on December 7, 2011.  The Administrative Court in Cairo suspended the 100-member constituent assembly on April 10, 2012.  Opponents complained that the constituent assembly did not reflect the diversity of Egyptian society, including women, youth, and minority groups.  More than 20 individuals, including one government soldier, were killed in clashes between protesters and government security forces in Cairo on May 2-4, 2012.  The first round of presidential elections was held on May 23-24, 2012.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 11 long-term observers and 22 short-term observers from 14 countries led by former president Cassam Uteem of Mauritius to monitor the presidential elections between May 8 and June 28, 2012.  The 31-year state of emergency was lifted by the military on May 31, 2012.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 1, 2012-July 2, 2013):  On June 8, 2012, the political parties in Egypt reach an agreement on how to select a new 100-member constituent assembly.  With 52 percent of the vote, Mohammed Morsi of the FJP was elected president in the second round of the presidential elections held on June 16-17, 2012.  Mohammed Morsi was inaugurated as president on June 30, 2012.  President Mohammed Morsi appointed Hesham Qandil, former Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, as prime minister on July 24, 2012, and he officially assumed the office of prime minister on August 2, 2012.  Islamic militants attacked and killed 16 government soldiers at a border post in Rafah on August 5, 2012.  Eight of the Islamic militants were killed by Israeli military forces when they tried to cross the border into Israel after capturing two Egyptian military vehicles.  Field Marshall Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), was retired by President Mohammed Morsi on August 12, 2012.  Government troops killed seven suspected Islamic militants near El-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on August 12, 2012.  The EU pledged $900 million in military assistance to the government on September 13, 2012.  Islamic militants killed two policemen and one government soldier in northern Sinai peninsula on November 3, 2012.  On November 22, 2012, President Mohammed Morsi issued a declaration banning legal challenges to his decrees, laws, and decisions.  Three individuals were killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of President Morsi in Cairo on December 5, 2012.  As a result of more than two weeks of demonstrations, President Mohammed Morsi annulled the declaration issued on November 22nd.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on December 15 and December 22, 2012.  The opposition National Salvation Front (NSF) alleged fraud in the referendum.  Brigadier-General Tarek El-Mergawi was killed in an explosion near Cairo University on April 2, 2013.  Millions of Egyptians demonstrated against the government in Cairo and other cities beginning on June 28, 2013.  Some 18 individuals were killed in clashes between anti-government protesters and pro-government supporters in Cairo on July 1, 2013.

Crisis Phase (July 3, 2013-October 25, 2021):  President Mohammed Morsi was deposed in a military coup led by General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi on July 3, 2013.  General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi suspended the constitution and ordered the arrest of President Morsi and several hundred Muslim Brotherhood members.  At least ten individuals were killed during clashes between rival protesters on July 3-4, 2013.  Supreme Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour was sworn in as Interim President on July 4, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appealed for “calm, non-violence, dialogue and restraint.”  The military coup was condemned by the governments of Qatar and Tunisia.  The African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council (PSC) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Egyptian government on July 5, 2013.  Some 35 individuals were killed during clashes between opponents and supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo and Alexandria on July 5, 2013.  Government troops conducted military operations against Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula from July 5 to August 23, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 78 suspected militants.  The U.S. government condemned the violence in Egypt on July 6, 2013.  Government troops clashed with supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on July 8, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 51 individuals.  Seven individuals were killed during clashes between government security forces and supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on July 15-16, 2013.  Hazem al-Beblawi was sworn in as interim prime minister, along with General Abdel Fatteh al-Sisi as deputy prime minister, on July 16, 2013.  Twelve government policemen were killed during an attack against a police station in Kerdasa on August 14, 2013.  Government police clashed with supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on August 14-18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of nearly 780 civilians and 70 government policemen.  The political violence in Egypt, including the killing of protesters by government security forces in Cairo, was condemned by the governments of several countries, including Brazil, Colombia, France, Iran, Qatar, Turkey, UK, U.S., and Venezuela.  Some 36 Muslim Brotherhood members died during an attempted prison escape on August 18, 2013.  Islamic militants ambushed and killed 25 government policemen near Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on August 18, 2013.  The EU imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Egyptian government on August 21, 2013.  Government military forces killed 15 Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula on September 3, 2013.  Government military forces conducted an operation against Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula on September 7-9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and 29 militants.  Nine government soldiers were killed in a suicide bombing of the Egyptian intelligence headquarters in Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on September 11, 2013.  Five government soldiers were killed by Islamic militants near Ismailia on October 7, 2013.  Four individuals were killed in an attack on a Coptic Christian church in Cairo on October 20, 2013.  Eleven government soldiers were killed by a suicide car bombing of two military buses in the northern Sinai peninsula on November 20, 2013.  On November 24, 2013, Interim President Adli Mansour signed a bill into law that prohibited protests without the approval of government police.  Sixteen individuals were killed in a suicide car bombing by members of an Islamic militant group against a government security facility in Mansoura on December 24, 2013.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on January 14-15, 2014.  Several political parties and movements, including the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), boycotted the referendum.  At least ten individuals were killed in violence during the referendum.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent seven medium-term and nine short-term observers from 10 countries led by former president Cassam Uteem of Mauritius to monitor the referendum.  The U.S.-based NGO, Democracy International (DI), sent 83 observers from ten countries to monitor the referendum.  The Germany-based NGO, Transparency International (TI), sent observers to monitor the referendum.  Seven individuals were killed in a series of coordinated bombings in Cairo on January 24-25, 2014.   The bombings in Cairo were condemned by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton and the governments of Iran, Russia, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and U.S.  Government military forces killed 30 suspected Islamic militants during an operation in the Sinai peninsula on February 3, 2014.  Four individuals were killed in a bus bombing in the Sinai peninsula on February 16, 2014.  Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected president with 97 percent of the vote on May 26-28, 2014, and he was sworn in as president on June 8, 2014.  Several political parties and movements, including the Ghad El-Thawra Party and the Strong Egypt Party, boycotted the presidential election.  The League of Arab States (LAS) sent 100 observers from 18 countries to monitor the presidential election from May 17 to May 29, 2014.  The AU sent 45 observers led by former Prime Minister Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig of Mauritania to monitor the presidential election from May 16 to May 31, 2014.  The EU sent 30 long-term observers led by Mario David from Portugal to monitor the presidential election from April 25 to May 29, 2014.  The International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers led by Felix Mutati of Zambia to monitor the presidential election from May 22 to May 29, 2014.  The U.S.-based NGO, Democracy International (DI), sent 88 observers from 17 countries to monitor the presidential election.  Islamic militants killed five government policemen near Matrouh on August 5, 2014.  Six government policemen were killed in a roadside bombing in the Sinai peninsula on September 16, 2014.  Government troops killed Mohamed Abu Shatiya, an Islamic militant commander, in the Sinai peninsula on October 10, 2014.  Islamic militants killed two government policemen in Al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on October 16, 2014.  Six government soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb in the Sinai peninsula on October 19, 2014.  Islamic militants killed 33 government soldiers during attacks in the towns of Sheikh Zuweid and Al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on October 24, 2014.  The attacks were condemned by EU High Representative Catherine Ashton and the governments of Singapore and Turkey.  The government declared a state of emergency in parts of the northern Sinai peninsula.  Islamic militants attacked government troops near Sheikh Zuweid and Al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on October 24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 33 government soldiers.  The attacks were condemned by the EU and AU, we well as the governments of Morocco, Singapore, and Turkey.  Two government policemen were killed in a train bombing in Menufia province on November 5, 2014.  Islamic militants killed five government soldiers in the Sinai peninsula on November 13, 2014.  Three individuals, including two government soldiers, were killed by Islamic militants in Cairo and Qaliubiya on November 28, 2014.  An Egyptian court dropped charges against former President Hosni Mubarak on November 29, 2014.  On December 2, 2014, some 185 Muslim Brotherhood supporters were sentenced to death by an Egyptian court for the killing of 12 government policemen near Cairo in August 2013.  On December 6, 2014, the death sentences of seven men were upheld by an Egyptian court for the killing of 25 government policemen in the Sinai peninsula in August 2013.  Government police killed five Islamic militants in the Nile Delta on December 21, 2014.  On January 13, 2015, the High Court of Egypt overturned former President Hosni Mubarak’s last remaining convictions.  Government security forces killed at least 17 individuals during protests in Cairo, Alexandria, and other cities on January 25, 2015.  Islamic militants attacked several government military and police facilities in the towns of El-Arish, Sheikh Zuweid, and Rafah on January 29, 2015, resulting in the deaths of 24 soldiers, six policemen, and 14 civilians.  The attacks were condemned by Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Secretary-General Iyad Madani, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, and the UN Security Council, as well as the governments of Bahrain, China, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, UK, and U.S.  Government security forces killed 47 Islamic militants during operations in the northern Sinai peninsula on February 6, 2015.  Three government policemen were killed in a bombing in Mahalla in the central Nile Delta on March 7, 2015.  Three military cadets were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants in Kafr El-Sheikh in the Nile Delta on April 15, 2015.  On April 21, 2015, an Egyptian court sentenced former President Mohammed Morsi to 20 years in prison for the killed on protesters in December 2012.  Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in the village of Basarta on May 9, 2015, resulting in the deaths of three civilians and one government policeman.  Islamic militants attacked several government military checkpoints and the police station in Sheikh Zuweid on July 1, 2015, resulting in the deaths of 21 soldiers and more than 100 militants.  Government troops killed 25 Islamic militants between the towns of Sheikh Zuweid and Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on July 5, 2015.  Government police clashes with Islamist protesters in Cairo on July 17, 2015, resulting in the deaths of at least six individuals.  Government police killed six members of the Muslim Brotherhood in Fayoum province on August 6, 2015.  Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in the Bahariya Oasis on September 21, 2015, resulting in the deaths of ten militants.  Government security forces killed nine Islamic militants during a raid in the town of Ossim in Giza governorate on September 25, 2015.  Legislative elections were held between October 17 and December 2, 2015, and the Free Egyptians Party won 65 out of 568 contested seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nation’s Future Party won 53 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent ten long-term observers and 24 short-term observers from 17 countries led by Sheikh Abdul Karimo Sau of Mozambique and former president Cassam Uteem of Mauritius to monitor the legislative elections from October 6 to December 12, 2015.  The AU sent 35 short-term observers from 19 countries led by former president Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the legislative elections on October 9-20, 2015.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent 50 short-term observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The U.S.-based NGO, Democracy International (DI), sent 26 observers to monitor the legislative elections.  At least seven individuals, including four government policemen and three civilians, were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants in al-Arish in the northern Sinai peninsula on November 24, 2015.  Nine individuals, including six government policemen, were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants near Cairo on January 21, 2016.  Twelve government soldiers were killed by Islamic militants at a military checkpoint in Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on October 14, 2016.  The governments of Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen condemned the attack.  In the aftermath, government troops killed some 15 militants.  Six government policemen were killed in a bombing near a police checkpoint in Cairo on December 9, 2016.  Islamic militants bombed the St. Peter and St. Paul Coptic Church in Cairo on December 11, 2016, resulting in the deaths of 24 individuals.  The bombing was condemned by the UN Security Council and the Commission of the AU, as well as the governments of Algeria, Bangladesh, Israel, Jordon, Malta, Philippines, Russian, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the U.S.  Four government soldiers were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in Sheikh Zuweid in the Sinai peninsula on December 12, 2016.  Islamic militants attacked a government police checkpoint near Naqb in New Valley province on January 16, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least eight policemen.  Government soldiers clashed with Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula on March 23, 2017, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and 15 militants.  Islamic militant suicide bombers attacked Coptic Christian churches in Tanta and Alexandria on April 9, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 47 individuals.  The attacks were condemned by UN Secretary-General António Guterres and the UN Security Council, as well as the governments of Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, Jordan, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the U.S.  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi declared a state of emergency on April 10, 2017.  Islamic militants killed three government policemen in Cairo on May 1, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked a passenger bus in Minya province on May 26, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least 28 Coptic Christians.  The government of Israel and Palestinian Authority (PA) President Mahmoud Abbas condemned the attack.  Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull of Australia condemned the attack on May 28, 2017.  Four government soldiers were killed in a bombing near El-Bawiti in western Egypt on June 1, 2017.  One government policeman was killed by a roadside bomb near Maadi on June 18, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked a government military checkpoint in Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on July 7, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 23 government soldiers and 46 militants.  The attack was condemned by UN Secretary-General António Guterres, the UN Security Council, and OIC Secretary-General Yousef al-Othaimeen, as well as the governments of Bahrain, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Jordon, Germany, UK, and the U.S.  Government policemen killed 14 Islamic militants during an attack on a militant training camp in Ismailia province on July 8, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked a government security checkpoint south of Cairo on July 14, 2017, resulting in the deaths of five government policemen.  Islamic militants killed two government policemen in al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on August 8, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked a convoy of government policemen near the town of el-Arish on September 11, 2017, resulting in the deaths of at least 18 policemen.  Government police killed three Islamic militants south of Cairo on October 2, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked government military outposts in the Sinai peninsula on October 15, 2017, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers and at least 24 militants.  Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in al-Wahat al-Bahriya district in Giza province on October 20, 2017, resulting in the deaths of more than 50 government security personnel.  Islamic militants attacked the al-Rawdah Mosque in the town of Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on November 24, 2017, resulting in the deaths of 311 individuals.  UN Secretary-General António Guterres, the UN Security Council, and EU Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker condemned the attack on the al-Rawdah Mosque in Bir al-Abed.  The governments of several countries, including Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Iran, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Oman, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Korea, Sudan, Turkey, UK, U.S., and Yemen, condemned the attack on the al-Rawdah Mosque in Bir al-Abed.  Government security forces killed eleven Islamic militants during a raid in Ismailia province on November 28, 2017.  Islamic militants attacked the Saint Mina Coptic Church in Helwan district near Cairo on December 29, 2017, resulting in the deaths of nine civilians and one militant.  The U.S. government condemned the attack.  Two Coptic Christians were killed by Islamic militants in Giza on January 1, 2018.  On January 31, 2018, a coalition of opposition political parties called for a boycott of upcoming presidential elections.  Two individuals, including one government policeman, were killed in a bombing in Alexandria on March 24, 2018.  The next day, government security forces responded by killing six Islamic militants that were alleged to be connected to the bombing in Alexandria.  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was re-elected with 90 percent of the vote on March 26-28, 2018.  The AU sent 40 short-term election observers led by former foreign minister Abdoulaye Diop of Mali to monitor the presidential election between March 17 and March 30, 2018.  The OIC, LAS, and COMESA sent short-term observers to monitor the presidential election.  Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was sworn in for a second term as president on June 2, 2018.  Government police killed six Islamic militants during a raid in Cairo on August 12, 2018.  Islamic militants attacked a passenger bus in Minya on November 2, 2018, resulting in the deaths of seven Coptic Christians.  The next day, government security forces killed 19 militants in the area.  Four individuals were killed in a tourist bus bombing near the Giza pyramids on December 28, 2018.  The bus bombing in Giza was condemned by the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the OIC General Secretariat, as well as the governments of Algeria, Argentina, Bahrain, Belgium, Kuwait, India, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, U.S., and Yemen.  Government security forces killed 40 Islamic militants during raids in the Giza region on December 29, 2018.  One government policeman was killed trying to defuse a bomb outside a Coptic Christian Church in Nasr City on January 5, 2019.  Government police killed six Islamic militants during a raid in Sohag province on January 12, 2019.  On January 22, 2019, the Egyptian military announced that 59 Islamic militants and seven government soldiers had been killed during recent military operations in northern Sinai peninsula.  Islamic militants attacked a government military checkpoint in the Sinai peninsula on February 16, 2019, resulting in the deaths of eleven soldiers and seven militants.  Three government policemen, including one policeman who later died of his injuries, were killed in an suicide bombing in Cairo on February 18, 2019.  The next day, government security forces kill 16 Islamic militants during raids in the town of al-Arish in northern Sinai peninsula.  Government security forces killed seven Islamic militants during military operations near Cairo on March 7, 2019.  On March 11, 2019, the Egyptian military announced that 46 Islamic militants and three government soldiers had been killed during recent operations in the Sinai peninsula.  Two individuals, including a government police officer, were killed when their vehicle was attacked by Islamic militants in Cairo on April 7, 2019.  Four government policemen and three civilians were killed in a suicide bombing in the town of Sheikh Zuweid in the Sinai peninsula on April 9, 2019.  The governments of the Palestinian Authority and Qatar condemned the suicide bombing.  The Egyptian House of Representatives approved constitutional amendments to extend the presidential term from four years to six years and to remove the two-term limit on April 16, 2019.   The constitutional amendments were approved by 89 percent of the vote in a referendum held on April 20-22, 2019. On May 16, 2019, the Egyptian military announced the deaths of five government soldiers and 47 Islamic militants during recent military operations in the Sinai peninsula.  A day after a tourist bus was bombed near the Giza pyramids, government security forces killed 12 Islamic militants during raids in Cairo on May 20, 2019.  Government policemen killed 16 Islamic militants during raids in al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on May 21, 2019.  Islamic militants attacked a government police checkpoint in al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on June 5, 2019, resulting in the deaths of at least eight policemen.  Over the next three days, more than 30 Islamic militants were killed by government security forces in the area.  Former President Mohamed Morsi died while being tried by the government on espionage charges in Cairo on June 17, 2019.  Islamic militants attacked government police checkpoints in al-Arish in northern Sinai peninsula on June 25, 2019, resulting in the deaths of seven policemen, one civilian, and four militants.  One government soldier and four other individuals were killed in attacks, including a suicide bombing, by Islamic militants in Sheikh Zuweid and Hasna in the Sinai peninsula on July 18, 2019.  Twenty individuals were killed in a car bombing in Cairo on August 4, 2019.  Four days later, government security forces killed at least 15 Islamic militants during raids in the Cairo area and other locations  The car bombing in Cairo was condemned by the governments of Bahrain, Iraq, Palestinian Authority, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.  Government police killed six Islamic militants during raids in the Bahariya Oasis southwest of Cairo on September 5, 2019.  Government police killed nine Islamic militants during raids near Cairo on September 18, 2019.  Government police arrested more than 1,000 individuals during anti-government protests in Cairo and other cities on September 20-21, 2019.  Government police killed six Islamic militants during a raid near Cairo on September 24, 2019.  Islamic militants ambushed government soldiers in Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on September 27, 2019, resulting in the deaths of eight soldiers, one civilian, and 15 militants.  Government police killed 15 Islamic militants during a raid in al-Arish in northern Sinai peninsula on September 29, 2019.  Nine individuals were killed in a roadside bombing in Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on October 12, 2019.  One government policeman was killed in an attack by Islamic militants in the town of Sheikh Zuweid on October 28, 2019.  Government troops conducted a military operation against Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula from October 28 to November 4, 2019, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and more than 80 militants.  Government security forces killed 13 Islamic militants in al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on October 29, 2019.  Two government security personnel were killed in a roadside bombing in Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on November 9, 2019.  Three government policemen were killed by militants in the village of Kafr al-Hasafa in northern Egypt on November 11, 2019.  Three government security personnel were killed in a roadside bombing in the town of Sheikh Zuweid in the Sinai peninsula on November 17, 2019.  Islamic militants attacked a government police checkpoint in Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on December 8, 2019, resulting in the death of one policeman and one militant.  At least three government soldiers were killed by Islamic militants near al-Arish in the Sinai peninsula on February 6, 2020.  Islamic militants attacked a government military camp near Sheikh Zuweid in the Sinai peninsula on February 9, 2020, resulting in the deaths of at least seven soldiers and ten militants.  On March 3, 2020, a criminal court in Cairo sentenced 37 individuals to death on terrorism-related charges.  One government soldier was killed by Islamic militants in Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on March 14, 2020.  Two government soldiers were killed during an Islamic militant attack on a military camp near Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on March 26, 2020.  Four government soldiers were killed in an explosion in Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on March 28, 2020.  Government security forces clashed with Islamic militants in Amiriyah district in Cairo on April 14, 2020.  Ten government soldiers were killed in an explosion targeting an armored vehicle near Bir al-Abed in northern Sinai peninsula on April 30, 2020.  Government security forces killed 18 Islamic militants in the town of Bir al-Abed in northern Sinai peninsula on May 2, 2020.  Government security forces killed seven Islamic militants in the Sinai peninsula on May 15, 2020.  Government security forces killed 21 Islamic militants during raids in the northern Sinai peninsula on May 23, 2020.  On May 31, 2020, the government announced that at least 19 Islamic militants and five government soldiers were killed during a recent military operation in the northern Sinai peninsula.   Islamic militants attacked a government military post in the town of Bir al-Abed in the Sinai peninsula on July 21, 2020, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers and 18 militants.  Government security forces killed more than 70 Islamic militants in operations in the Sinai peninsula between July 22 and August 30, 2020.  Senate elections were held on August 11-12, 2020, and the Nation’s Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) won 149 out of 300 seats.  Government security personnel suppressed anti-government protests in Cairo and other locations on September 20-25, 2020, resulting in the death of one protester.  Three government policemen and four prisoners were killed during an attempted prison escape in Cairo on September 23, 2020.  On October 22, 2020, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the Egyptian government for recent executions.  Legislative elections were held on October 24-25 and November 7-8, 2020, and the Nation’s Future Party (Mostaqbal Watan) won 316 out of 596 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Republican People’s Party (RPP) won 50 seats in the House of Representatives.  Islamic militants attacked a government military vehicle near Rafah on November 2, 2020, resulting in the deaths of two soldiers.  Three government security personnel were killed in bombings by Islamic militants in the town of Sheikh Zuweid in the Sinai peninsula on December 17, 2020.  Four Islamic militants were later killed by government security forces.  Two government security personnel were killed by a roadside bomb in the town of Bir al-Abed on January 1, 2021.  Islamic militants killed one government soldier near the town of Sheikh Zuweid on February 22, 2021.  Three government soldiers were killed by an improvised explosive device (IED) during a patrol near Rafah on February 27, 2021. The leader of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) affiliate in the Sinai peninsula, Salim Salma Said Mahmoud al-Hamadin, was killed during clashes with Sinai Tribal Union (Bedouin) and Egyptian security forces south of Rafah on March 22, 2021.  An Egyptian court sentenced 24 members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death for the killing of police officers in 2014 and 2015.  On August 1, 2021, the government announced that eight government soldiers and 89 Islamic militants were killed during recent operations in the northern Sinai peninsula.  Eight government security personnel were killed by a roadside bomb in the town of New Rafah on August 13, 2021.  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi lifted the state of emergency on October 25, 2021.  More than 7,000 individuals, including more than 3,200 government security personnel and more than 1,500 civilians, were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 26, 2021-present):  On January 30, 2022, an Egyptian court sentence four members of the Muslim Brotherhood to death for planning attacks against government police.  Eleven government soldiers were killed during an ambush by Islamic militants in the town of Qantara in the Sinai peninsula on May 7, 2022.  The governments of Bahrain, France, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and the U.S. condemned the attack by Islamic militants against Egyptian soldiers in Qantara.  The secretaries-general of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and the League of Arab States (LAS), as well as the chairperson of the AU Commission, condemned the attack by Islamic militants against Egyptian soldiers in Qantara.  Five government soldiers and seven Islamic militants were killed during a militant attack on a border guard checkpoint near Rafah in the Sinai peninsula on May 11, 2022.  On June 28, 2022, an Egyptian court sentenced ten individuals to death and 50 individuals to life imprisonment for their involvement in Islamic militant attacks in Cairo from 2013 to 2015.

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Selected Bibliography:

Kirk, George. 1955. “The Egyptian Revolution and National Aspirations.” In Peter Calvocoressi, editor. Survey of International Affairs 1952. London: Oxford University Press, 203-230.

Vatikiotis, P. J. 1969/1991. The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. 4th edition. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.