15. Egypt (1922-present)

Crisis Phase (March 15, 1922-July 5, 1923):  The Kingdom of Egypt formally achieved its independence from Great Britain on March 15, 1922.  British troops remained in the country following Egypt’s independence in order to protect British interests, including the Suez Canal.  Ahmed Faud, who became Sultan of Egypt following the death of Sultan Hussein Kamil on October 9, 1917, assumed the title of King Faud I on March 15, 1922.  Prime Minister Abdel Khaliq Sarwat Pasha resigned on November 29, 1922, and Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha formed a government as prime minister on November 30, 1922.  Prime Minister Nasim Pasha resigned on February 5, 1923, and Yahia Ibrahim Pasha formed a government as prime minister on March 15, 1923.  A new constitution providing for a bicameral parliament (Senate and House of Representatives) went into effect on April 21, 1923.  King Faud I lifted martial law on July 5, 1923 (martial law had been declared in 1914).

Egypt map AFRICA - Country map of Egypt

Post-Crisis Phase (July 6, 1923-July 18, 1928):  Parliamentary elections were held on September 27, 1923 and January 12, 1924, and the Nationalist Party (Wafd Party) won 188 out of 214 seats in the House of Representatives.  Saad Zaghlul Pasha, the leader of the Wafd Party, formed a government as prime minister on January 28, 1924.  On September 25, 1924, Prime Minister Zaghlul Pasha and Prime Minister Ramsey MacDonald of Britain began negotiations concerning British troops in Egypt (negotiations ended without an agreement on October 3, 1924).  Sir Lee Stack, British Commander of the Egyptian military, was assassinated in Cairo on November 19, 1924.  Prime Minister Zaghlul Pasha resigned on November 24, 1924, and Ahmad Ziwar Pasha was appointed prime minister on November 25, 1924.  Sir George Lloyd was appointed as British high commissioner of Egypt on February 26, 1925.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 23, 1925, and the Wafd Party won 86 out of 215 seats in the House of Representatives.  King Faud I dissolved the parliament on March 23, 1925.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 24, 1926, and the Wafd Party won 150 out of 215 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Liberal Constitutionalist Party (LCP) won 30 seats in the House of Representatives.  Abd al-Khaleq Sarwat Pasha of the Liberal Party (LP) formed a government as prime minister on April 18, 1927.  The British government proposed a new draft treaty with Egypt on July 18, 1927, which called for British military occupation of Egypt for ten more years.  Saad Zaghlul Pasha died on August 23, 1927, and Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha was chosen as the new leader of the Wafd Party in September 1927.  The Egyptian parliament rejected the draft treaty with Britain on March 4, 1928.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on March 16, 1928.  The Muslim Brotherhood, a Sunni Muslim fundamentalist organization headed by Shaikh Hassan Banna, was established in Ismailia in March 1928.  King Faud I dismissed Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha on June 25, 1928, and Mohammed Mahmud formed a government as prime minister.

Crisis Phase (July 19, 1928-December 12, 1935):  On July 19, 1928, King Faud I dissolved the legislature and suspended the 1923 constitution,  Egyptian and British representatives resumed negotiations in London on March 8, 1929, but the parties ended negotiations without an agreement on May 1, 1929.  Sir Percy Loraine was appointed as British high commissioner of Egypt on August 8, 1929.  Adli Yeken formed a government as prime minister on October 20, 1929.  The 1923 constitution was restored on October 31, 1929.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 21, 1929, and the Wafd Party won 198 out of 236 seats in the House of Representatives.  The LCP boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on January 1, 1930, and the government resumed negotiations with Britain in London on March 27, 1930.  Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha submitted his resignation on June 17, 1930, and King Faud I appointed Ismail Sidqi Pasha as prime minister on June 20, 1930.  The Wafd Party ended its cooperation with the Egyptian government on June 26, 1930.  King Faud I dissolved the parliament on July 12, 1930.  A new constitution went into effect on October 22, 1930, but it was strongly opposed by Egyptian nationalists.  Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha established the People’s Party (PP) on December 8, 1930.  The Wafd Party headed by Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha and the LP headed by Muhammad Mahmud Pasha signed a National Pact on March 31, 1931, which provided for a united front against the government of Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha.  Parliamentary elections were held between May 14 and June 1, 1931, and the PP won a majority of the votes. The Wafd Party and Liberal Party boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Some 27 individuals were killed in election-related violence in Cairo and other cities on May 14-17, 1931.  The parliament convened on June 20, 1931.  Prime Minister Sidqi Pasha resigned on September 21, 1933, and Abdul Fattah Yahya Pasha formed a government on September 27, 1933.  Prime Minister Yahya Pasha resigned on November 6, 1934, and Tawfiq Nasim Pasha formed a government on November 15, 1934. King Faud I suspended the 1930 constitution and dissolved the parliament on November 30, 1934. The Wafd Party was allowed to resumed political activities on November 30, 1934.  The 1923 constitution was restored on December 12, 1935.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 13, 1935-August 31, 1939):  Prime Minister Nasim Pasha resigned on January 22, 1936, and Ali Maher Pasha formed a government on January 30, 1936.  King Faud I died on April 28, 1936, and he was succeeded by his son, Prince Farouk, on May 6, 1936.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 2, 1936, and the Wafd Party won 169 out of 232 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The LCP won 17 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha formed a government as prime minister on May 10, 1936.  Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha negotiated a treaty with Britain on August 27, 1936, which provided for the withdrawal of British troops from Egypt, except for the Suez Canal zone.  The Egyptian legislature ratified the treaty on December 22, 1936.  King Farouk dismissed the government of Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha on December 30, 1937, and appointed Mohammed Mahmud Pasha of the LP as prime minister.  King Farouk dissolved the parliament on February 2, 1938, and Prime Minister Mahmud Pasha’s party won a majority of seats in parliamentary elections held from March 31 to April 2, 1938.

Crisis Phase (September 1, 1939-February 5, 1950):  Prime Minister Mahmud Pasha declared martial law on September 1, 1939.  Parliamentary elections were held in March 1942, and the Wafd Party won 240 out of 264 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The LCP won four seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Most opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 8, 1945, and the Saadist Institutional Party (SIP) won 125 out of 264 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Wafd Party boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Prime Minister Ahmed Pasha was assassinated on February 24, 1945, and Mohammed Fahmy Nokrashy Pasha formed a government as prime minister on February 25, 1945.  Nine individuals were killed in anti-British demonstrations in Cairo on February 7-14, 1946.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha resigned on February 15, 1946, and Ismail Sidqi Pasha formed a government as prime minister on February 17, 1946.  Fourteen individuals were killed in political violence in Cairo on February 21, 1946.  Twenty-two individuals, including two British government soldiers, were killed in political violence in Alexandria on March 4-5, 1946.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha dissolved the MB on December 8, 1948.  Prime Minister Nokrashy Pasha was assassinated by members of the MB on December 28, 1948, and King Farouk appointed Abdul Hadi Pasha as prime minister on December 29, 1948.  Shaikh Hassan Banna, leader of the MB, was assassinated in Cairo on February 12, 1949.  Prime Minister Abdul Hadi Pasha resigned on July 25, 1949, and Hussein Sirry Pasha was appointed as prime minister on July 26, 1949.  Parliamentary elections were held on January 3-10, 1950, and the Wafd Party won 225 out of 319 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The SIP won 28 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Six individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Mustafa al-Nahhas Pasha of the Wafd Party formed a government as prime minister on January 12, 1950.  The government legalized the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) as a religious organization and lifted marital law on February 5, 1950.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 6, 1950-January 24, 1952):

Crisis Phase (January 25, 1952-September 28, 1970):  British troops attacked a government police barracks in Ismailiya on January 25, 1952, resulting in the deaths of some 50 Egyptians.  Members of the Muslim Brotherhood organized the “Black Sunday” attacks in Cairo on January 25, 1952, resulting in the deaths of 30 individuals.  Some 20 individuals were killed during rioting in Cairo on January 26, 1952, and Prime Minister al-Nahhas Pasha was replaced by Ali Maher Pasha on January 27, 1952.  Prime Minister Ali Maher Pasha resigned on March 1, 1952, and he was replaced by Ahmed Naguib al-Hilaili Pasha.  Prime Minister al-Hilaili Pasha resigned on June 28, 1952, and Hussein Sirry Pasha formed a government as prime minister on July 2, 1952.  King Farouk was deposed in a military coup led by General Mohammed Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser on July 23, 1952, and King Farouk abdicated the throne on July 26, 1952.  King Farouk’s son was proclaimed King Ahmed Faud II on July 26, 1952.  General Naguib forced the resignation of Prime Minister Ali Maher Pasha on September 7, 1952, and General Naguib formed a government as prime minister on September 8, 1952.  The U.S. government expressed support for the government of General Mohammed Naguib on September 8, 1952.  General Naguib suspended the constitution and formed a transitional government on December 10, 1952.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1952.  The government banned the Wafd Party in January 1953.  The Egyptian Republic was formally proclaimed on June 18, 1953.  General Naguib became the first president and the head of the ten-member Revolutionary Council (RC).  The RC banned the Muslim Brotherhood and arrested 450 members of the Muslim Brotherhood on January 13, 1954. The government revoked the ban against the MB on July 8, 1954.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser replaced General Naguib as prime minister on April 17, 1954.  Prime Minister Gamal Abdal Nasser survived an attempted assassination by members of the Muslim Brotherhood on October 26, 1954, and re-imposed the ban on the Muslim Brotherhood on October 29, 1954.  President Naguib was deposed by the RC on November 14, 1954, and the RC headed by Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser took control of the government on November 17, 1954.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser suppressed political opposition and established a one-party political system.  Some 26 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were convicted of plotting to overthrow the government and sentenced to death on December 4, 1954 and January 19, 1955 (all of the death sentences were later commuted to life imprisonment).  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser proposed a new constitution on January 16, 1956, which providing for a republic headed by a president elected for a six-year term by the People’s Assembly.  Egyptians approved the new constitution in a referendum held on June 23, 1956.  Colonel Gamal Abdal Nasser was elected president without opposition on June 23, 1956.  Legislative elections were held on July 3, 1957, and independents won 350 out of 350 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The People’s Assembly was dissolved on February 10, 1958.  A referendum on the establishment of the United Arab Republic (Egypt and Syria) was held on February 21, 1958.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser appointed Aly Sabry as prime minister on September 24, 1962.  Elections for the parliament of the United Arab Republic were held on March 10 and March 19, 1964, and the Arab Socialist Union (ASU) won 350 out of 350 seats.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser was re-elected with 100 percent of the vote on March 15, 1965.  Prime Minister Sabry resigned on September 29, 1965, and Zacharia Mohieddin formed a government as prime minister on September 30, 1965.  Three members of the Muslim Brotherhood were executed for treason on August 29, 1966.  Sidqi Suleiman formed a government as prime minister on September 10, 1966.  On September 22, 1966, several hundred members of the Muslim Brotherhood were tried and convicted of plotting to overthrow the government.  A referendum on the “March 30th Program” was held on May 2, 1968.  Legislative elections were held on January 8-13, 1969, and the ASU won 350 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  President Gamal Abdal Nasser died on September 28, 1970.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 29, 1970-October 5, 1981):  Muhammad Anwar Sadat was nominated as president by the People’s Assembly on October 7, 1970, and he was elected president with 90 percent of the vote on October 15, 1970.  President Anwar Sadat appointed Mahmud Fawzi as prime minister on October 20, 1970.  A referendum on the Federation of Arab Republics was held on September 1, 1971.  President Sadat dissolved the National Assembly on September 8, 1971.  Amendment to the constitution were approved in a referendum held on September 11, 1971.  Legislative elections were held on October 27 and November 3, 1971, and the ASU won 350 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Aziz Sidqi of the ASU formed a government as prime minister on January 17, 1972.  Students demonstrated against the government in Cairo on January 19, 1972 and December 19, 1972.  On January 3, 1973, the government ordered the closure of all colleges and universities after several weeks of student demonstrations. President Sadat dismissed Prime Minister Sidqi, and President Anwar Sadat assumed the duties of prime minister on March 26, 1973.  A referendum on the “October Paper” was held on May 15, 1974.  Prime Minister Abdel Aziz Mohammed Hegazy resigned on April 13, 1975, and Mamdouh Mohammed Salem formed a government as prime minister on April 15, 1975.  Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak was appointed as vice president on April 15, 1975.  President Anwar Sadat was nominated for a second six-year term by the People’s Assembly on August 25, 1976.  President Anwar Sadat was re-elected with nearly 100 percent of the vote on October 2, 1976, and he was inaugurated for a second term on October 16, 1976.  Legislative elections were held on October 28 and November 4, 1976, and the ASU won 313 out of 360 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 47 seats in the People’s Assembly,  Three individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Mamdouh Mohammed Salem formed a government as prime minister on November 9, 1976.  President Anwar Sadat legalized three political parties on November 11, 1976.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity” was held on February 10, 1977.  Mohammed Dahabi, former Minister of Islamic Affairs, was assassinated by an Islamic militants on July 3, 1977. The government lifted the ban on the Wafd Party on February 3, 1978. On March 19, 1978, five Islamic militants were executed for the murder of Minister of Religious Affairs Mohammed Hussein al-Zahabi.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity and social peace” was held on May 21, 1978.  President Anwar Sadat established the National Democratic Party (NDP) in July 1978. Mustafa Khalil formed a government as prime minister on October 2, 1978.  Political reforms, including the reintroduction of a multiparty system, were approved in a referendum held on April 19, 1979.  President Anwar Sadat dissolved the parliament on April 21, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on June 7-14, 1979, and the NDP won 347 out of 392 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Socialist Labour Party (SLP) won 30 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Prime Minister Khalil resigned on May 12, 1980, and President Sadat formed a government as prime minister on May 14, 1980.  A constitutional amendment establishing the Shuria Council (upper chamber of the parliament) was approved in a referendum held on May 22, 1980.  In September 1981, some 1,600 Islamic fundamentalists were arrested following unrest throughout the country.  A referendum on “the protection of national unity” was held on September 10, 1981.

Crisis Phase (October 6, 1981-May 31, 2012):  President Anwar Sadat and seven other individuals were assassinated by five Islamic militants (al-Jihad) in the Egyptian military, and Vice President Hosni Mubarak assumed the presidency on October 6, 1981.  President Hosni Mubarak proclaimed a state-of-emergency on October 6, 1981.  UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim and the Sudanese government condemned the assassination of President Sadat on October 7, 1981.  Government troops and Islamic militants clashed in Asyut on October 8-11, 1981, resulting in the deaths of some 120 individuals.  Hosni Mubarak was elected president with 99 percent of the vote on October 13, 1981.  President Hosni Mubarak served as prime minister from October 14, 1981 to January 2, 1982, when Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin of the NDP was appointed as prime minister.  On March 6, 1982, five individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the assassination of President Anwar Sadat, and the individuals were executed on April 15, 1982.  Legislative elections were held on May 27, 1984, and the NDP won 390 out of 458 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) won 58 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Prime Minister Ahmad Fuad Mohieddin died on June 5, 1984, and General Kamal Hasan Ali formed a government as prime minister on July 17, 1984.  Prime Minister Kamal Hassan Ali resigned on September 4, 1985, and Ali Lutfi Mahmoud Lutfi formed as government as prime minister on September 5, 1985.  Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Cairo and Asyut on February 25-28, 1986, resulting in the deaths of 107 individuals.  Mohammed Najib Sidqi of the NDP replaced Ali Mahmud Lutfi as prime minister on November 12, 1986.  A referendum on electoral reform was held on February 12, 1987.  Legislative elections were held on April 6, 1987, and the NDP won 346 out of 458 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Islamic Alliance (IA) won 60 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Hassan Abu Basha, former Minister of the Interior, was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists (members of Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) on May 7, 1987.  President Hosni Mubarak was re-elected for a second term with 97 percent of the vote on October 5, 1987.  The Supreme Constitutional Court (SCC) nullified the results of the 1987 legislative elections on May 19, 1990.  The People’s Assembly was dissolved as a result of a referendum held on October 11, 1990.  Rifa’at Mahgoub, president of the People’s Assembly, was assassinated on October 12, 1990.  Legislative elections were held on November 29 and December 6, 1990, and the NDP won some 348 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 83 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Several opposition political parties, including the New Wafd Party, boycotted the legislative elections.  Islamic fundamentalists (members of al-Jihad and Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) began a movement to overthrown the government in March 1992.  Government police clashed with Islamic militants in the Asyut region on May 9-10, 1993, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen. Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Cairo on May 21, 1993. Six Islamic militants were sentenced to death on May 27, 1993.  Two individuals were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants in Cairo on June 8, 1993.  Two Islamic militants were executed in Alexandria and Cairo on June 13-23, 1993.  Seven individuals were killed in a bombing in Shubra on June 18, 1993.  President Hosni Mubarak was re-elected to a third term with 96 percent of the vote on October 4, 1993.  Islamic militants killed five individuals at the Muharraq monastery near Asyut on March 11, 1994.  Islamic militants killed five government policemen in Sidfa on March 20, 1994, and government police killed six Islamic militants near Sidfa on March 21, 1994.  Islamic militants killed eight government policemen near Mallawi on January 2, 1995. Government police and Islamic militants clashed in the provinces of Asyut, Menia, Qena, and Suhag on January 28-29, 1995, resulting in the deaths of 30 individuals.  President Hosni Mubarak survived an attempted assassination by Islamic militants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on June 26, 1995.  Legislative elections were held on November 29, 1995, and the NDP won 318 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents won 112 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Some 25 individuals were killed in political violence in October and November 1995.  Prime Minister Najib Sidqi resigned and was succeeded by Kamal Ahmed Ganzouri of the NDP on January 2, 1996.  Government police killed two Islamic (Al Gamaa al-Islamiya) militant leaders in Asyut province on February 13, 1996, and Islamic militants killed three government policemen in Sahil in Asyut province on February 16, 1996.  Islamic militants killed nine civilians in the village of Akal al Bakhri in Asyut province on February 19-20, 1996.  Islamic militants killed eight individuals in the village of Atmaniya in Asyut province on February 24, 1996.  On February 26, 1996, the human rights non-governmental organization (NGO), Amnesty International, condemned Islamic militants (Al Ghamaa al-Islamiya) for the killings in the village of Atmaniya.  Islamic militants killed 18 Greek tourists in Cairo on April 18, 1996.  On April 18, 1996, the human rights non-governmental organization (NGO), Amnesty International, condemned Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Cairo.  On August 15, 1996, thirteen members of the Muslim Brotherhood were convicted and sentenced to prison terms for their membership in the illegal organization.  On August 20, 1996, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the Egyptian government for the trial and sentencing of the MB members.  Islamic militants killed ten Coptic Christians in the town of Abu-Qerqas on February 12, 1997.  On February 14, 1997, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the Islamic militants for the killings in Abu-Qerqas.  Islamic militants exploded a bomb in Cairo on September 18, 1997, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  On September 18, 1997, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned Islamic militants for the terrorist bombing in Cairo.  Islamic militants killed some 62 individuals in Luxor on November 17, 1997.  Hennadiy Udovenko, president of the UN General Assembly, and UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Luxor on November 17, 1997.  On November 17, 1997, the human rights non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the Islamic militants for the terrorist attack in Luxor.  Nine Islamic militants were convicted and sentenced to death for belonging to the illegal group (al-Jihad) on April 18, 1999.  President Mubarak was re-elected to a fourth term with 94 percent of the vote on September 26, 1999.  President Mubarak appointed Atef Obeid as prime minister on October 5, 1999.  Some 2,000 individuals were killed as a result of Islamic militant violence between 1992 and 1999.  On February 26, 2000, the People’s Assembly approved a three-year extension of the state-of-emergency.  Legislative elections were held between October 18 and November 8, 2000, and the NDP won 353 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Independents, including 17 members of the Muslim Brotherhood, won 72 seats in the People’s Assembly.  President Mubarak appointed Ahmed Nazif, the Minister of Communications and Information Technology, to serve as prime minister beginning on July 14, 2004.  Islamic extremists bombed several locations in the Sinai Peninsula on October 7, 2004, resulting in the deaths of some 34 individuals.  Islamic extremists bombed locations in Cairo on April 7, 2005, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  An amendment to the constitution, which provided for the direct election of the president, was approved in a referendum held on May 25, 2005.  Opposition political parties called for a boycott of the referendum.  Islamic extremists bombed several locations in Sharm el-Sheikh in the Sinai Peninsula on July 23, 2005, resulting in the deaths of 88 individuals.  President Hu Jintao of China, President George W. Bush of the U.S., President Vladimir Putin of Russia, Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin of France, Prime Minister John Howard of Australia, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia, Alpha Oumar Konare, chair of the African Union (AU) Commission, Foreign Secretary Jack Straw of Britain, and the UN Security Council condemned the terrorist bombings on July 23-24, 2005.  President Hosni Mubarak of the NDP was re-elected to a fifth term with 89 percent of the vote on September 7, 2005, and he was inaugurated on September 27, 2005.  Several of the main opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held from November 7 to December 9, 2005, and the NDP won 311 out of 454 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) won six seats, and Independent candidates associated with the Muslim Brotherhood won 88 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in the town of Damietta on December 7, 2005.  Islamic extremists bombed several locations in the Red Sea resort of Dahab on April 24, 2006, resulting in the deaths of some 23 individuals.  President George W. Bush of the U.S., President Hu Jintao of China, the UN Security Council, Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier of Germany, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz of Pakistan, President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, the Russian government, Prime Minister John Howard of Australia, Foreign Minister Gianfranco Fini of Italy, Prime Minister Tony Blair of Britain, President Mahmoud Abbas of the Palestinian Authority (PA), and Javier Solana, EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), condemned the terrorist bombings on April 24-25, 2006.  The People’s Assembly approved a two-year extension of the state of emergency on April 30, 2006.  Amendments to the constitution were approved in a referendum held on March 26, 2007.  The People’s Assembly approved a two-year extension of the state of emergency on May 26, 2008.  Nine individuals were killed during in a terrorist attack on a Coptic Christian Church in Nag Hammadi on January 7, 2010.  Mohammed Badie was elected as the president of the Muslim Brotherhood (MB) in Egypt on January 16, 2010.  Legislative elections were held on November 28 and December 5, 2010, and the NDP won 420 out of 518 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) won six seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Muslim Brotherhood (MB) and the New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) boycotted the second round of the legislative elections.  Twenty-three individuals were killed in a terrorist bombing of a Coptic Christian Church in Alexandria on January 1, 2011.  Demonstrations against the government began in Cairo, Alexandria, and other Egyptian cities beginning on January 25, 2011.  President Mubarak appointed Ahmed Shafik, an independent politician and Minister of Civil Aviation, to serve as prime minister on January 31, 2011.  President Mubarak resigned from office on February 11, 2011, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) headed by Field Marshall Mohammed Hussein Tantawi took control of the government.  Some 850 individuals were killed in political violence from January 25 to February 11, 2011.  The SCAF suspended the constitution and dissolved the parliament on February 13, 2011.  Essam Sharaf, an independent politician and former Minister of Transportation, was appointed by the military to serve as prime minister beginning on March 3, 2011.  Thirteen individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo on March 8, 2011.  Several amendments to the constitution, including reducing the president’s term to four years and implementing presidential term limits (two terms), were approved in a referendum held on March 19, 2011.  Twelve individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo on May 7, 2011. The Al-Nour Party (‘Party of the Light”), a conservative Islamic political party, was established on May 12, 2011.  Islamic militants killed six government policemen in El-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula on July 30, 2011.  Twenty-five individuals were killed in clashes between Muslims and Coptic Christians in Cairo on October 9, 2011.  Thirty-eight protesters were killed in clashes with government police in Cairo and Alexandria on November 18-24, 2011.  Legislative elections were held from November 28, 2011 to January 11, 2012, and the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) headed by Mohammed Morsi won 235 out of 508 seats in the People’s Assembly.  The Al-Nour Party won 123 seats, and the New Wafd Party (Hizb al-Wafd-al-Jadid) won 38 seats in the People’s Assembly.  Thirteen individuals were killed in clashes between protesters and government police in Cairo on December 16-21, 2011.  Kamal Ganzouri, an independent politician and former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation, was appointed by the military to serve as prime minister beginning on December 7, 2011.  The Administrative Court in Cairo suspended the 100-member constituent assembly on April 10, 2012.  Opponents complained that the constituent assembly did not reflect the diversity of Egyptian society, including women, youth, and minority groups.  More than 20 individuals, including one government soldier, were killed in clashes between protesters and government security forces in Cairo on May 2-4, 2012.  The first round of presidential elections was held on May 23-24, 2012.  The 31-year state of emergency was lifted by the military on May 31, 2012.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 1, 2012-July 2, 2013):  On June 8, 2012, the political parties in Egypt reach an agreement on how to select a new 100-member constituent assembly.  With 52 percent of the vote, Mohammed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) was elected president in the second round of the presidential elections held on June 16-17, 2012.  Mohammed Morsi was inaugurated as president on June 30, 2012.  President Mohammed Morsi appointed Hesham Qandil, former Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation, as prime minister on July 24, 2012, and he officially assumed the office of prime minister on August 2, 2012.  Islamic militants attacked and killed 16 government soldiers at a border post in Rafah on August 5, 2012.  Eight of the Islamic militants were killed by Israeli military forces when they tried to cross the border into Israel after capturing two Egyptian military vehicles.  Field Marshall Mohammed Hussein Tantawi, Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), was retired by President Mohammed Morsi on August 12, 2012.  Government troops killed seven suspected Islamic militants near El-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula on August 12, 2012.  The European Union (EU) pledged $900 million in military assistance to the government on September 13, 2012.  Islamic militants killed two policemen and one government soldier in northern Sinai peninsula on November 3, 2012.  On November 22, 2012, President Mohammed Morsi issued a declaration banning legal challenges to his decrees, laws, and decisions.  Three individuals were killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of President Morsi in Cairo on December 5, 2012.  As a result of more than two weeks of demonstrations, President Mohammed Morsi annulled the declaration issued on November 22nd.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on December 15 and December 22, 2012.  Millions of Egyptians demonstrated against the government in Cairo and other cities beginning on June 28, 2013.  Some 18 individuals were killed in clashes between anti-government protesters and pro-government supporters in Cairo on July 1, 2013.

Crisis Phase (July 3, 2013-present):  President Mohammed Morsi was deposed in a military coup led by General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi on July 3, 2013.  General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi suspended the constitution and ordered the arrest of President Morsi and several hundred Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members.  At least ten individuals were killed during clashes between rival protesters on July 3-4, 2013.  Supreme Court Chief Justice Adly Mansour was sworn in as Interim President on July 4, 2013.  The governments of Qatar and Tunisia condemned the military coup.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Egyptian government.  Some 35 individuals were killed during clashes between opponents and supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo and Alexandria on July 5, 2013.  Government troops conducted military operations against Islamic militants in the Sinai Peninsula from July 5 to August 23, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 78 suspected militants.  The U.S. government condemned the violence in Egypt on July 6, 2013.  Government troops clashed with supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on July 8, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 51 individuals.  Seven individuals were killed during clashes between government security forces and supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on July 15-16, 2013.  Hazem al-Beblawi was sworn in as interim prime minister, along with General Abdel Fatteh al-Sisi as deputy prime minister, on July 16, 2013.  Twelve government policemen were killed during an attack against a police station in Kerdasa on August 14, 2013.  Government police clashed with supporters of former President Mohammed Morsi in Cairo on August 14-18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of nearly 780 civilians and 70 government policemen.  Some 36 Muslim Brotherhood (MB) members died during an attempted prison escape on August 18, 2013.  Islamic militants ambushed and killed 25 government policemen near Rafah in the Sinai Peninsula on August 18, 2013.  The European Union (EU) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Egyptian government on August 21, 2013.  Government military forces killed 15 Islamic militants in the Sinai Peninsula on September 3, 2013.  Government military forces conducted an operation against Islamic militants in the Sinai Peninsula on September 7-9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and 29 militants.  Nine government soldiers were killed in a suicide bombing of the Egyptian intelligence headquarters in Rafah in the Sinai Peninsula on September 11, 2013.  On November 24, 2013, Interim President Adli Mansour signed a bill into law that prohibited protests without the approval of government police.  Islamic militants attacked a government security building in Mansoura on December 24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 16 individuals.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum held on January 14-15, 2014.  Several political parties and movements, including the Freedon and Justice Party (FJP), boycotted the referendum.  At least ten individuals were killed in violence during the referendum.  The U.S.-based NGO, Democracy International (DI), sent 83 observers from ten countries to monitor the referendum.  The Germany-based NGO, Transparency International (TI), sent observers to monitor the referendum.  Government military forces killed 30 suspected Islamic militants during an operation in the Sinai Peninsula on February 3, 2014.  Four individuals were killed in a bus bombing in the Sinai Peninsula on February 16, 2014.  Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected president with 97 percent of the vote on May 26-28, 2014, and he was sworn in as president on June 8, 2014.  Several political parties and movements, including the Ghad El-Thawra Party and the Strong Egypt Party, boycotted the presidential election.  The League of Arab States (LAS) sent 100 observers from 18 countries to monitor the presidential election from May 17 to May 29, 2014.  The African Union (AU) sent 45 observers led by former Prime Minister Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig of Mauritania to monitor the presidential election from May 16 to May 31, 2014.  The European Union (EU) sent 30 long-term observers led by Mario David from Portugal to monitor the presidential election from April 25 to May 29, 2014.  The International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers led by Felix Mutati of Zambia to monitor the presidential election from May 22 to May 29, 2014.  The U.S.-based NGO, Democracy International (DI), sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Islamic militants killed five government policemen near Matrouh on August 5, 2014.  Government troops killed Mohamed Abu Shatiya, an Islamic militant commander, in the Sinai Peninsula on October 10, 2014.  Islamic militants killed two government policemen in Al-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula on October 16, 2014.  Six government soldiers were killed by a roadside bomb in the Sinai Peninsula on October 19, 2014.  Islamic militants killed 33 government soldiers in the Sinai Peninsula on October 24, 2014.  The government declared a state of emergency in parts of the northern Sinai Peninsula.  Islamic militants attacked government troops near Sheikh Zuweid and Al-Arish in the Sinai Peninsula on October 24, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 33 government soldiers.  The European Union (EU), African Union (AU), the Turkish government, and the Singapore government condemned the attack in the Sinai Peninsula on October 25, 2014.  Two government policemen were killed in a train bombing in Menufia province on November 5, 2014.  lslamic militants killed five government soldiers in the Sinai Peninsula on November 13, 2014.  Three individuals, including two government soldiers, were killed by Islamic militants in Cairo and Qaliubiya on November 28, 2014.  An Egyptian court dropped charges against former President Hosni Mubarak on November 29, 2014.  On December 2, 2014, some 185 Muslim Brotherhood (MB) supporters were sentenced to death by an Egyptian court for the killing of 12 government policemen near Cairo in August 2013.  On December 6, 2014, the death sentences of seven men were upheld by an Egyptian court for the killing of 25 government policemen in the Sinai Peninsula in August 2013.  Government police killed five Islamic militants in the Nile Delta on December 21, 2014.  On January 13, 2015, Egypt’s High Court overturned former President Hosni Mubarak’s last remaining convictions.

[Sources: Africa Research Bulletin (ARB), November 1-30, 1976, March 1-31, 1978, October 1-31, 1981, May 1-31, 1984, March 15, 1986, April 15, 1986; African Union (AU) press release, October 25, 2014; Amnesty International (AI) press release, February 26, 1996, April 18, 1996, August 20, 1996; Associated Press (AP), April 18, 1999, September 27, 1999, October 5, 1999, February 27, 2000, July 28, 2005, January 18, 2014; Banks and Muller, 1998, 277-285; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), July 23, 2005, August 17, 2005, September 7, 2005, September 9, 2005, September 10, 2005, November 26, 2005, December 7, 2005, April 25, 2006, May 26, 2008, January 7, 2010, January 16, 2010, November 28, 2010, December 1, 2010, December 4, 2010, December 5, 2010, December 7, 2010, January 1, 2011, January 25, 2011, February 12, 2011, February 13, 2011, March 3, 2011, March 4, 2011, March 9, 2011, March 20, 2011, May 9, 2011, October 9, 2011, October 10, 2011, November 19, 2011, November 23, 2011, November 24, 2011, November 27, 2011, December 14, 2011, December 16, 2011, December 21, 2011, January 21, 2012, April 10, 2012, May 4, 2012, May 5, 2012, May 31, 2012, June 8, 2012, June 14, 2012, June 17, 2012, June 30, 2012, July 24, 2012, August 6, 2012, November 3, 2012, November 22, 2012, December 2, 2012, December 5, 2012, December 9, 2012, December 15, 2012, December 22, 2012, December 23, 2012, December 25, 2012, June 28, 2013, July 1, 2013, July 3, 2013, July 4, 2013, July 5, 2013, July 6, 2013, July 8, 2013, July 10, 2013, July 16, 2013, January 19, 2014, February 16, 2014, May 29, 2014, October 24, 2014, December 6, 2014; Brogan, 1992, 363-364; Cable News Network (CNN), April 8, 2005, July 25, 2005; Degenhardt, 1988, 84-88; Deutsche Welle (DW), April 25, 2006; European Union (EU) statement, May 29, 2014; Facts on File, February 10-16, 1946, February 17-23, 1946, March 3-9, 1946, December 26-31, 1948, July 24-30, 1949, January 1-5, 1950, January 6-12, 1950, January 13-19, 1950, June 27-July 3, 1952, July 18-24, 1952, July 25-31, 1952, September 5-11, 1952, November 12-18, 1954, February 24, 1978, March 24, 1978; Jessup, 1998, 178-179, 506-508, 637-639; Keesing’s Record of World Events, December 11-18, 1948, January 1-8, 1949, February 12-19, 1949, January 14-21, 1950, October 1-8, 1966, January 22-29, 1972, June 9-15, 1975, November 21, 1980, December 25, 1981, April 1986, March 1993, May 1993, February 1994, March 1994, January 1995, November 1997, October 1999; Langer, 1972, 1075-1078, 1293-1295; Middle East Journal (MEJ), Winter 1976; New York Times (NYT), November 17, 2005, December 26, 2012, July 1, 2013, July 9, 2013, July 10, 2013, May 29, 2014; Reuters, September 27, 1999, October 5, 1999, September 13, 2012, June 30, 2013, July 2, 2013, July 3, 2013, July 6, 2013, July 8, 2013, August 14, 2013, August 16, 2013, August 18, 2013, August 30, 2013, November 24, 2013, May 29, 2014, October 10, 2014, October 16, 2014, October 19, 2014, October 24, 2014, October 26, 2014, November 5, 2014, November 13, 2014, November 28, 2014, November 29, 2014, December 2, 2014, December 6, 2014, January 13, 2015; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 84-85, 1930, 561, 1931, 517, 1934, 698, 1936, 662-701, 1937, 615; United Nations (UN) press release, July 27, 2005; Voice of America (VOA), April 24, 2006; Washington Post (WP), December 23, 2012; Xinhua News Agency, April 24, 2006.]

 

Selected Bibliography:

Kirk, George. 1955. “The Egyptian Revolution and National Aspirations.” In Peter Calvocoressi, editor. Survey of International Affairs 1952. London: Oxford University Press, 203-230.

Vatikiotis, P. J. 1969/1991. The History of Modern Egypt: From Muhammad Ali to Mubarak. 4th edition. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.