11. Spain (1909-present)

 

Crisis Phase (July 26, 1909-July 16, 1936):  Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Barcelona on July 26-August 1, 1909, resulting in the deaths of eight government soldiers and 104 rebels. Five individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion (La Semana Tragica). On October 9, 1909, Francisco Ferrer was sentenced to death for his involvement in the Barcelona rebellion. Francisco Ferrer was executed on October 13, 1909. Prime Minister Antonio Maura resigned on October 22, 1909, and Jose Canalejas Mendez of the Liberal Party (LP) formed government as prime minister. Prime Minister Canalejas Mendez was assassinated on November 12, 1912. The Conservatives formed a government on October 27, 1913.

A military rebellion broke out against the government in Barcelona on September 12, 1923, and General Miguel Primo de Rivera seized control of the government on September 13, 1923. General Primo de Rivera dissolved the parliament on September 16, 1923, and proclaimed martial law on September 17, 1923. General Primo de Rivera suspended martial law on May 16, 1925.  General Primo de Rivera dissolved the military directorate, and formed a government as prime minister on December 3, 1925. Spain withdrew from the League of Nations (LON) on June 10, 1926, but rejoined on March 22, 1928. The government suppressed an attempted rebellion in Catalonia on November 2, 1926.  The government suppressed a military rebellion in Ciudad Real on January 29, 1929. Prime Minister Primo de Rivera resigned on January 28, 1930, and General Damaso Berenguer was appointed as prime minister on January 30, 1930. Miguel Primo de Rivera died on March 16, 1930. The government suppressed a military rebellion in Jaca on December 12-13, 1930. King Alfonso XIII restored the constitution on February 8, 1931. Municipal elections were held on April 12, 1931, and the Republicans won a majority of the votes. Niceto Alcala Zamora, the republican leader, called for the abdication of King Alfonso XIII. King Alfonso XIII departed from Spain on April 14, 1931, and a provisional government headed by President Alcala Zamora was established on April 14, 1931. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held on June 28, 1931, and the Socialist Party (SP) won 116 out of 457 seats. The Radical Socialist Party (RSP) won 60 seats in the Constituent Assembly, and the Republican Action (Accion Republicana – AR) won 30 seats in the Constituent Assembly. Manuel Azana formed a republican government as prime minister in October 1931. The Constituent Assembly declared King Alfonso XIII guilty of treason on November 12, 1931, and approved a new constitution on December 9, 1931. Niceto Alcala Zamora was elected president on December 10, 1931. The government suppressed a military rebellion led by General Jose Sanjurjo in Seville on August 10, 1932, and the government suppressed a rebellion in Barcelona on January 8, 1933. Municipal elections were held on April 23, 1933. Prime Minister Azafia resigned on September 8, 1933, and Alejandro Lerroux formed a coalition government on September 12, 1933. Prime Minister Lerroux resigned on October 3, 1933, and Martinez Barrios formed a government on October 8, 1933. The parliament (Cortes) was dissolved on October 9, 1933. Parliamentary elections were held on November 19, 1933, and right-wing political parties won 207 seats in the Cortes. The left-wing political parties won 99 seats in the Cortes. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Barcelona on December 9-18, 1933. Prime Minister Martinez Barrios resigned on December 16, 1933, and Alejandro Lerroux formed a government on December 17, 1933. Alejandro Lerroux formed a government on October 4, 1934. Government troops suppressed left-wing rebellions in Catalonia and Asturias provinces on October 5-18, 1934, resulting in the deaths of some 900 rebels, 300 government security personnel, and 40 civilians. Some 30,000 individuals were imprisoned for their involvement in the rebellions. The Cortes was dissolved on January 4, 1936, and the left-wing Popular Front (PF) was established on January 16, 1936. Parliamentary elections were held on February 16 and March 3, 1936, and the PF won 278 out of 470 seats in the Cortes. The right-wing National Front (NF) won 134 seats in the Cortes. Prime Minister Portela Valladares resigned on February 19, 1936, and Manuel Azana formed a PF government on February 20, 1936. The Cortes voted to remove President Zamora from office on April 10, 1936, and appointed Manuel Azana as provisional president. Manuel Azana was elected president on May 10, 1936. Santiago Casares Quiroga formed a government as prime minister on May 13, 1936. More than 2,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (July 17, 1936-March 31, 1939): Nationalists rebelled against the republican government of President Azana and Prime Minister Casares Quiroga beginning on July 17, 1936. Prime Minister Casares Quiroga resigned on July 19, 1936. General Franco took command of the nationalist troops on July 20, 1936. Jose Giral y Pereira of the PF formed a republican government as prime minister, and requested French military assistance (weapons, ammunition, and military aircraft) on July 19-20, 1936. Prime Minister Leon Blum of France rejected the request for military assistance on July 25, 1936, but he did agree to sell military aircraft to the republican government through the government of Mexico. General Franco requested military assistance from Germany and Italy on July 22, 1936. Italy agreed to provide military assistance (eleven military transport aircraft) in support of the nationalist rebels beginning on July 25, 1936. Germany agreed to provide military assistance (thirty transport aircraft, 85 pilots and technicians, six fighter aircraft) in support of the nationalist rebels beginning on July 26, 1936. France imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the republican government and nationalist rebels on August 9, 1936. Poland, Sweden, and the Netherlands imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the republican government and nationalist rebels on August 11, 1936. Britain imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the republican government and nationalist rebels on August 15, 1936. Mexico provided military assistance to the republican government. Prime Minister Giral y Pereira resigned on September 4, 1936, and Largo Caballero of the PF formed a republican government as prime minister on September 5, 1936. Twenty-four European countries (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Turkey, Yugoslavia) established the Non-Intervention Committee (NIC) in London on September 9, 1936. The Basques surrendered San Sebastian to nationalist rebels on September 13, 1936. The republican government protested against German, Italian, and Portuguese military assistance to the nationalist rebels on September 15, 1936. Uruguay imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the republican government on September 22, 1936. Portugal joined the NIC on September 28, 1936, and imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the republican government on October 23, 1936. General Franco was named head-of-state of Nationalist Spain on October 1, 1936. The Soviet Union provided military assistance (military aircraft, tanks, ammunition) in support of the republican government beginning on October 15, 1936. Germany deployed some 10,000 troops in support of the nationalist rebels beginning on November 6, 1936. Nationalist rebels began a siege of Madrid on November 7, 1936. Germany and Italy provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the nationalist government of General Franco on November 18, 1936. The republican government referred the matter of German and Italian aggression to the League of Nations (LON) Council on November 27, 1936. The LON Council met to discuss the matter on December 10-12, 1936, but did not take any action to intervene in the conflict. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in 1936. Britain and France attempted to mediate a ceasefire agreement between the parties beginning on December 4, 1936. Italy deployed some 50,000 troops in support of the nationalist rebels beginning on December 6, 1936, and Italian troops took part in a nationalist rebel attack against Malaga on February 3, 1937. The NIC agreed to border and maritime control operations, including 130 personnel monitoring the French-Spanish border and 550 personnel headed by Rear-Admiral Olwer of the Netherlands supervising the unloading of cargo at ports, to enforce military sanctions against the republican government and nationalist rebels on March 8, 1937. Prime Minister Caballero resigned on May 15, 1937, and Juan Negrin formed a socialist government on May 17, 1937. Republican military aircraft attacked the Italian naval ship Barletta near Palma on May 24, 1937, and republican military aircraft attacked the German naval ship Deutschland near Palma on May 29, 1937. German warships responded by bombarding republican positions in Almeria on May 31, 1937. The German naval ship Leipzig was attacked by a republican submarine on June 18, 1937. Germany and Italy withdrew from border and maritime control operations on June 23, 1937. General Franco was named as prime minister of the nationalist government on January 31, 1938. Nationalist troops captured Barcelona on January 26, 1939. Britain and France provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Franco on February 27, 1939, and President Azana resigned on February 28, 1939. Prime Minister Negrin was deposed in a military coup led by General Segismundo Casado on March 6, 1939. The National Defense Council (NDC) headed by General Jose Miaja took control of the government on March 7, 1939. Republican troops surrendered to nationalist troops in Madrid and Valencia on March 28-31, 1939. Some 370,000 individuals were killed during the conflict, including 110,000 republican soldiers, 90,000 nationalist soldiers, 165,000 civilians, 6,000 Italian soldiers, and 300 German soldiers. Some 440,000 Spaniards fled as refugees to France.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 1, 1939-July 6, 1947): General Franco took control of the government on April 1, 1939. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Franco on April 1, 1939. The NIC was formally dissolved on April 20, 1939. Italian and German troops began their withdrawal from Spain on May 20, 1939, and the withdrawal was completed on June 30, 1939. Some 100,000 individuals were executed by the government between 1940 and 1943. Don Juan, the Bourbon claimant to the Spanish throne, called for the resignation of General Franco and the restoration of the Spanish monarchy on March 22, 1945. Jose Giral formed a republican government-in-exile as prime minister in Mexico City on August 22, 1945. The governments of the US, Britain, and France appealed to the people of Spain to overthrow General Franco and restore democracy on March 4, 1946. The United Nations (UN) General Assembly imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic boycott) against Spain on December 12, 1946. Italy withdrew its ambassador from Spain on December 20, 1946. Britain withdrew its ambassador from Spain on December 25, 1946, and the Netherlands withdrew its ambassador from Spain on December 28, 1946. Prime Minister Giral resigned on January 27, 1947, and Rodolfo Llopis became prime minister of a republican government-in-exile on February 9, 1947. General Franco became head-of-state for life following a national referendum on July 6, 1947. The national referendum restored the monarchy in Spain (although temporarily without a monarch), and a regency council was established. Some 100,000 individuals were killed in political violence between April 1939 and July 1947.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 7, 1947-March 11, 1951): Prime Minister Llopis resigned on August 6, 1947, and Alvaro de Albornoz became prime minister of the republican government-in-exile on August 27, 1947. The UN General Assembly lifted diplomatic sanctions against Spain on November 4, 1950.

Crisis Phase (March 12, 1951-November 22, 1975):  Some 250,000 workers went on strike to protest policies of the government on March 12, 1951. Sixteen individuals were sentenced to death for anti-government activities on February 7-11, 1952, and five of the individuals were executed on March 14, 1952. Britain lifted military sanctions against the government on July 4, 1952 (Britain had imposed the military sanctions on August 15, 1936). Some 60,000 workers went on strike in protest of government policies on April 7-17, 1956. The Spanish Union (SU) was established in opposition to the government on February 1, 1959. The Christian Democratic Left Party (CDLP) was established on May 14, 1959. Two individuals were sentenced to death for bombings in Madrid on August 13, 1963, and the individuals were executed on August 17, 1963. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on December 14, 1964. The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) was established in opposition to the government in January 1965. Prince Juan Carlos de Bourbon was named by General Franco as his successor and heir to the Spanish throne on July 22, 1969.  The Revolutionary Anti-Fascist and Patriotic Front (Frente Revolucionario Anti-fascista y Patriotico – FRAP) was established in opposition to the government of General Franco in 1973. General Franco resigned as prime minister on June 8, 1973, and Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco formed a government as prime minister on June 11, 1973. Carlos Arias Navarro formed a government as prime minister on January 2, 1974. Prince Juan Carlos became provisional head-of-state on July 19, 1974, and General Franco resumed his powers on September 1, 1974. On September 12, 1975, three FRAP rebels were sentenced to death for the murder of a government policeman in Madrid on July 14, 1975. On September 18, 1975, five FRAP rebels were sentenced to death for the murder of a civil guard on August 16, 1975. Three FRAF rebels were executed near Madrid on September 27, 1975. Britain and the Vatican condemned the executions on September 27, 1975. FRAF rebels killed three government policemen in Madrid on October 1, 1975. East Germany imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on October 3, 1975. Government police and FRAF rebels clashed in Barcelona on October 8, 1975, resulting in the deaths of three civilians and two government policemen. Prince Juan Carlos became provisional head-of-state on October 30, 1975. General Franco died on November 20, 1975, and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned as King Juan Carlos I on November 22, 1975.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 23, 1975-present): Carlos Arias Navarro formed a government as prime minister on December 13, 1975. Prime Minister Arias Navarro resigned on July 1, 1976, and Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez formed a government as prime minister on July 8, 1976. Political reforms were approved in a national referendum in December 1976. The government legalized the CDU, Socialist Party (SP), and Popular Socialist Party (PSP) on February 218, 1977. The government legalized the Communist Party of Spain (CPS) on April 9, 1977. Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez and Interior Minister Martin Villa established the Union of the Democratic Center (UDC) on May 3, 1977. Parliamentary elections were held on June 15, 1977, and the UDC won 165 out of 350 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (SSWP) won 118 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and the CPS won 20 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. A new constitution establishing a constitutional monarchy was approved by the parliament on October 31, 1978, and the constitution was approved in a referendum on December 6, 1978.

[Sources: Brecher and Wilkenfeld, 1997, 261-267; Clodfelter, 1992, 587, 591-592, 593-610; Degenhardt, 1988, 337-342; Facts on File, November 3-November 9, 1950, February 15-21, 1952, March 14-20, 1952, July 4-10, 1952, April 11-17, 1956, October 4, 1975, October 11, 1975, December 27, 1975, April 16, 1977, June 18, 1977; Jackson 1965; Jellinek 1969; Jessup, 1998, 684-687; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 25-February 1, 1947, February 8-15, 1947, September 13-20, 1947, June 25-July 1, 1973, December 17-23, 1973, October 21-27, 1974, March 31-April 6, 1975, November 24-30, 1975, January 16, 1976, July 30, 1976, February 16, 1979; Langer, 1972, 694-698, 991-995, 1185-1186; Payne 1970; Peers 1936; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 221, 1931, 527, 1933, 600, 1936, 957-961, 1937 (vol. 2), 397-404, 1938, 710-711; Thomas 1961; Walters, 1952, 721-730.]