45. Moldova (1991-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (August 27, 1991-January 31, 1999): Moldova declared its independence from the Soviet Union on August 27, 1991. Mircea Snegur was elected president with some 98 percent of the vote on December 8, 1991. Prime Minister Valeriy Muravskiy resigned on June 9, 1992, and Andrei Sangheli formed a government as prime minister on July 1, 1992. Parliamentary elections were held on February 27, 1994, and the Agrarian Democratic Party (ADP) won 55 out of 104 seats in the parliament. The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (PA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) established an election observation mission to monitor the parliamentary elections. The Council of Europe (COE) Parliamentary Assembly sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections, and reported that the elections were free and fair. Some 95 percent of Moldovans voted for independence from Russia and Romania in a referendum on March 6, 1994. The Moldovan parliament approved a new constitution on July 28, 1994, and the constitution went into effect on August 27, 1994. Local referendum and elections were held on March 5 and April 16, 1995. The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission to monitor the local referendum and elections. Petru Lucinschi of the PDAM was elected president with some 54 percent of the vote in the runoff election on December 1, 1996. The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of seven long-term observers and 81 short-term observers from 21 countries headed by Kare Vollan of Norway to monitor the presidential elections beginning on October 17, 1996. On December 17, 1996, the OSCE/ODIHR mission reported that the elections were free and fair. Ion Ciubuc formed a government as prime minister on January 24, 1997. Parliamentary elections were held on March 22, 1998, and the Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) won 40 out of 101 seats in the parliament. The Democratic Convention of Moldova (DCM) won 26 seats in the parliament. The OSCE/ODIHR sent 14 long-term observers and 140 short-term observers from 30 countries headed by Markus Aaltonen of Finland and Kare Vollan of Norway to monitor the parliamentary elections from January 14 to March 23, 1998. The COE Parliamentary Assembly sent four observers headed by Dumeni Columberg of Switzerland to monitor the parliamentary elections beginning on March 19, 1998. On April 20, 1998, the COE mission reported that the elections “took place in a satisfactory way.”

Crisis Phase (February 1, 1999-present): Prime Minister Ion Ciubic resigned on February 1, 1999, and Ion Sturza formed a government as prime minister on March 12, 1999. The government of Prime Minister Sturza collapsed after a vote of no-confidence in the Moldovan parliament on November 9, 1999, and Dumitru Braghis formed a government as prime minister on December 21, 1999. Parliamentary elections were held on February 25, 2001, and the PCRM won 71 out of 101 seats in the parliament. The Christian Democratic People’s Party (CDPP) won 11 seats in the parliament. The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 100 observers headed by Charles Magee of the US to monitor the parliamentary elections from January 26 to February 26, 2001. The COE Parliamentary Assembly sent nine observers from seven countries headed by Bjorn von der Esch of Sweden to monitor the parliamentary elections on February 23-26, 2001. The parliament elected Vladimir Voronin of the PCRM was elected president of Moldova by the parliament on April 4, 2001. The CDPP headed by Iurie Rosca organized demonstrations against the government’s “Re-Russification of Moldova” policy beginning on January 9, 2002. The government suspended the CDPP for one month on January 22, 2002, and stripped the CDPP leadership of their parliamentary immunity on January 25, 2002. The government revoked the suspension of the CDPP on February 8, 2002. The CDPP organized demonstrations against the government in Chisinau on February 13-18, 2002. Vlad Cubreacov, vice-president of the CDPP, was abducted near his home in Chisinau on March 21, 2002. Some 50,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Chisinau beginning on March 31, 2002.  Local elections were held on May 25 and June 8, 2003.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 115 observers to monitor the local elections from April 25 to June 9, 2003.  The COE CLRA sent observers to monitor the local elections.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 6, 2005, and the PCRM won 56 out of 101 seats in the parliament.  The Party Alliance Our Moldova (Alianta Moldova Noastra-AMN) won 22 seats in the parliament.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 480 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from January 26 to March 7, 2005.  The COE Parliamentary Assembly sent 38 observers headed by Andre Kvakkestad of Norway to monitor the parliamentary elections on March 2-7, 2005.  The European Parliament sent fourteen observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), November 12, 1999; Banks and Muller, 1998, 612-617; Beigbeder, 1994, 263; Council of Europe (COE) press release, March 18, 1998, February 21, 2001, February 26, 2001, June 9, 2003, March 1, 2005; Keesing’s Record of World Events, April 1992, February 1994, March 1998, February 1999, March 1999; New York Times (NYT), March 7, 2005; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) newsletter, November 1996, December 1996, March 1998; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Parliamentary Assembly (PA)/Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) press release, January 26, 2001, February 26, 2001, March 7, 2005; OSCE/ODIHR statement, November 18, 1996, December 2, 1996, March 23, 1998, May 26, 2003, June 9, 2003, March 7, 2005; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), March 1, 1994, March 10, 1994, July 29, 1994, February 26, 2001, January 24, 2002, February 20, 2002, April 5, 2002; Reuters, November 9, 1999, December 20, 1999, April 4, 2001.]