60. Macedonia (1991-present)

 

Crisis Phase (September 8, 1991-February 15, 2001): A national referendum was held in Macedonia on the question of independence on September 8, 1991.  Ethnic-Serbians boycotted the referendum.  Macedonia seceded from Yugoslavia on September 8, 1991.  On September 12, 1991, Deputy Prime Minister Budimir Kosutic of Serbia vowed to protect the rights of ethnic-Serbians in Macedonia.  Macedonia’s new constitution took effect on November 20, 1991.  The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and opposition groups beginning on November 20, 1991.  Ethnic-Albanians voted in favor of territorial and political autonomy in a referendum held on January 11-12, 1992.  Bulgaria provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Macedonia on January 15, 1992.  Some 3,000 ethnic-Serbians demonstrated, including members of the Democratic Party of Serbs in Macedonia (DPS), against Macedonian independence in Skopje on February 9, 1992.  Some 40,000 ethnic-Albanians demonstrated in favor of ethnic-Albanian autonomy within Macedonia on March 31, 1992.  Russia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Macedonian government on August 5, 1992.  Branko Crvenkovski, chairman of the Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDSM), was elected prime minister by the parliament on September 5, 1992.

President Kiro Gligorov requested United Nations (UN) intervention in the country on November 1, 1992.  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians in Skopje on November 6, 1992, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  The the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje was formally established by the 16th Meeting of the Committee of Senior Officials (CSO) of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on September 18, 1992.  Ambassador Robert Frowick from the U.S. was appointed Head of Mission.  The OSCE mission originally consisted of eight personnel to monitor the Macedonia-Yugoslavia (Serbia & Montenegro) border region.  On December 11, 1992, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR – Macedonia) to prevent the outbreak of violence between ethnic groups with Macedonia.  UNPROFOR – Macedonia consisted of some 1,100 peacekeeping troops, 25 military observers, and 25 civilian police personnel commanded by Brigadier-General Tryggve Tellefsen of Norway.  Belgium, Germany, and Italy provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on April 15, 1993.  Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the government for its treatment of ethnic-Serbians and other minorities on January 12, 1994.  The Democratic Alliance of Serbs in Macedonia (DAS) was established on January 31, 1994.  The Greek government imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against Macedonia on February 17, 1994.  The Albanian Party of Democratic Prosperity (APDP) began a boycott of the parliament on July 3, 1994.  The government conducted a population census from June 21 to July 10, 1994, and the census results indicated that 67 percent of the population were ethnic-Macedonians and 23 percent were ethnic-Albanians.  Ethnic-Albanians boycotted the census, and disputed the results announced by the government on November 15, 1994.  The European Union (EU) sent observers to monitor the census.  The UN secretary-general sent a special representative to the country to facilitate negotiations between the groups.  On October 10, 1994, Yugoslavia warned the government of Macedonia to respect the rights of ethnic-Serbians.  Parliamentary elections were held on October 16-November 13, 1994, and the SDSM-Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM)-Liberal Party (LP) coalition won 95 out of 120 seats in the National Assembly (Sobranje).  President Gligorov of the SDSM was re-elected with some 52 percent of the vote on November 13, 1994.  Opposition parties boycotted the second round of the presidential and parliamentary elections after claiming election fraud in the first round.  The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (PA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) established an election observation mission to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections.  Prime Minister Crvenkovski formed a new coalition government on December 20, 1994.  All 19 ethnic-Albanian members of the parliament withdrew from the body in protest on February 27, 1995.  UNPROFOR – Macedonia was disbanded on March 31, 1995.  On March 31, 1995, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) to “monitor and report any developments in the border areas which could undermine confidence and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and threaten its territory.”  UNPREDEP consisted of a maximum of 1,049 peacekeeping troops, 35 military observers, and 26 civilian police personnel from 27 countries commanded by Brig.-General Juha Engström of Finland.  UNPREDEP also included some 73 international civilian staff members.  Henryk Sokalski of Poland served as UN Special Representative in Macedonia from July 5, 1995 to September 18, 1998.  President Gligorov was seriously injured in an assassination attempt in Skopje on October 3, 1995, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  Greece lifted economic sanctions (trade embargo) against Macedonia on October 15, 1995.  Macedonia joined the Council of Europe (COE) on November 9, 1995.  Stojan Andov, speaker of the parliament, served as acting president until January 1996.  Some 3,000 ethnic-Albanians demonstrated against the government in Skopje on July 24, 1996.  Municipal elections were held between November 17, 1996, and the SDSM won a plurality of the municipal council seats.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of 66 observers from 24 countries headed by Bernard Owen of France to monitor the municipal elections on November 15-19, 1996.  The CoE Parliamentary Assembly sent 12 observers to monitor the municipal elections.  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians in Gostivar on July 9, 1997, resulting in the deaths of three ethnic-Albanians.  The European Community deployed the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) in Macedonia on March 24, 1998.  Parliamentary elections were held on October 18 and November 1, 1998, and the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (Vnatresna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija – Demokratska Partijaza za Makedonsko Nacionalno Edinstvo – VMRO-DPMNE) coalition won 62 out of 120 seats in the parliament.  The SDSM won 27 seats in the parliament.  The Council of Europe (COE) Parliamentary Assembly sent eleven observers from eleven countries headed by Henning Gjellerod of Denmark to monitor the parliamentary elections beginning on October 15, 1998.  The COE mission issued a report on November 3, 1998.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of 14 long-term observers and 179 short-term observers from 23 countries headed by Tekin Enerim of Turkey and Mark Power-Stevens of Britain to monitor the parliamentary elections from September 17 to November 4, 1998.  The British Helsinki Human Rights Group (BHHRG) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from October 17 to November 2, 1998. The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent observers headed by Kent Patton to monitor the parliamentary elections.  Ljubco Georgievski, leader of the IMRO/DPMNU coalition, was chosen as prime minister on November 30, 1998.  Fernando Valenzuela-Marzo of Spain was appointed UN Special Representative in Macedonia on December 18, 1998.  On February 25, 1999, China vetoed a UN Security Council resolution extending the mandate of UNPREDEP after February 28, 1999.  Four UNPREDEP military and civilian personnel were killed during the mission.  Boris Trajkovsky of the VMRO-DPMNE was elected president after two rounds of presidential elections on October 31 and November 14, 1999 (and a re-run of second round elections in 230 locations on December 6, 1999).  The SDSM claimed election fraud on November 14, 1999.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of 11 long-term observers and 155 short-term observers from 27 countries headed by Mark Stevens of Britain to monitor the presidential elections beginning on September 20, 1999.  The COE Parliamentary Assembly sent six observers from six countries headed by Henning Gjellerod of Denmark to monitor the first round of presidential elections from October 28 to November 2, 1999.  Boris Trajkovsky was inaugurated as president on December 15, 1999.  The OSCE/ODIHR issued its final report on January 31, 2000.  Municipal elections were held on September 10 and September 24, 2000.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an electoral observation mission consisting of 17 long-term observers and 130 short-term observers from 22 countries headed by Charles Magee of the U.S. to monitor the municipal elections beginning on August 14, 2000.  The COE Congress of Local and Regional Authorities (CLRA) sent twelve observers from nine countries headed by Claude Casagrande of France to monitor the municipal elections.  The OSCE/ODIHR issued its final report on the municipal elections on November 17, 2000.  The EU lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on November 20, 2000.  One government policeman was killed by ethnic-Albanians in the village of Tearce on January 26, 2001.

Conflict Phase (February 16, 2001-August 13, 2001): Government police and ethnic-Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) rebels engaged in military hostilities near the village of Tanusevci beginning on February 16, 2001. Secretary-General George Robertson of NATO condemned the NLA on March 2, 2001. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals adversely affected by the military hostilities. NLA rebels killed three government policemen near Tanusevci on March 4, 2001. President Rexhep Meidani condemned the NLA on March 5, 2001. The U.S. Department of State condemned ethnic-Albanian “extremists who are seeking to undermine the stability of Macedonia” on March 5, 2001.  The UN Security Council condemned the NLA on March 8, 2001. KLA rebels killed one government policeman on March 8, 2001. The ethnic-Albanian National Democratic Party (NDP) was established on March 11, 2001.  The foreign minister of Russia expressed support for the government on March 16, 2001. Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer of Germany condemned the NLA on March 18, 2001. The Council of Europe (COE) committee of ministers and the UN Security Council condemned the NLA on March 21, 2001. Government troops launched a military offensive against NLA rebels near Tetovo on March 22, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two rebels. President George W. Bush of the U.S. expressed support for the government on March 23, 2001, and offered military assistance to the government on March 24, 2001.  The OSCE Permanent Council increased the size of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje to sixteen personnel.  Secretary-of-State Colin Powell of the U.S. expressed support for the Macedonian government on April 20, 2001.  The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights (IHFHR) conducted fact-finding missions in the country on April 22-27, 2001 and May 19-23, 2001. NLA rebels attacked government policemen near Tetovo on April 28, 2001, resulting in the deaths of eight police officers.  Secretary-General George Robertson of NATO, Javier Solana of the EU, Foreign Secretary Robin Cook of Britain, the U.S. Department of State, and the foreign minister of Russia condemned the NLA on April 29, 2001. Prime Minister Ilir Meta of Albania condemned the NLA on April 30, 2001. During a visit by President Trajkovski to Washington DC, U.S. Secretary-of-State Colin Powell reaffirmed US support for the Macedonian government on May 1, 2001.  Government troops launched a military offensive against NLA rebels near Vakcince on May 3, 2001. On May 3, 2001, the U.S. Department of State condemned the NLA following a NLA ambush that killed two government soldiers.  The OSCE Permanent Council condemned the NLA on May 11, 2001. Government troops and NLA rebels clashed near Slupcane and Vakcince on May 12, 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 30 rebels. Prime Minister Georgievski formed a government of national unity on May 13, 2001. Secretary-General George Robertson of NATO condemned the NLA on May 24, 2001 and May 31, 2001.  NLA rebels killed five government soldiers near Tetovo on June 5-6, 2001.  The OSCE Permanent Council increased the size of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje to 26 personnel.  The U.S. State Department condemned the NLA on June 11, 2001. European Union (EU) foreign ministers condemned the NLA on June 11, 2001. Government troops launched a military offensive against NLA rebels near Aracinovo on June 22-24, 2001. The EU appointed Francois Leotard of France as special envoy to Macedonia on June 25, 2001.  James Pardew began work as special envoy for the U.S. on July 2, 2001.  NLA rebels killed one government soldier near Tanusevci on July 3, 2001.  NATO Special Envoy Peter Feith mediated a ceasefire agreement between the parties on July 5, 2001.   Two members of the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM), formerly known as the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM), were killed by a landmine on July 20, 2001 (a translator for the EUMM was also killed).  NLA rebels killed ten government soldiers near the village of Grupcin on August 8, 2001.  Eight government soldiers were killed by a landmine near the village of Ljubanci on August 10, 2001.  On August 13, 2001, representatives of the government and ethnic-Albanians signed the Ohrid Framework Agreement in Skopje, which was mediated by U.S. Special Envoy James Pardew and EU Special Representative Francois Leotard.  Some 230 individuals, including 75 government soldiers, 86 NLA rebels, and 70 civilians were killed during the conflict.  Some 140,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict, including 74,000 individuals who were internally displaced.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 14, 2001-December 14, 2005):  One government policeman was killed by ethnic-Albanians in the town of Tetovo on August 16, 2001.  On August 20, 2001, Ambassador Craig Jenness of Canada replaced Ambassador Carlo Ungaro of Italy as Head of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje.  NATO deployed a peacekeeping mission (Operation Essential Harvest) on August 22, 2001. The NATO mission, which consisted of 3,500 troops commanded by Brig. General Barney White-Spunner of Britain and Major General Gunnar Lange of Denmark, monitored the disarmament of NLA rebels.  One member of the NATO peacekeeping mission (Operation Essential Harvest) was killed on August 27, 2001.  The OSCE Permanent Council increased the size of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje to 51 personnel.  NATO’s peacekeeping mission Operation Essential Harvest ended on September 26, 2001, and NATO launched Operation Amber Fox/Task Force Fox on September 27, 2001.  NATO’s Operation Amber Fox/Task Force Fox, which consisted of 700 troops commanded by Brigadier General Heinz-Georg Keerl of Germany, provided security for EU and OSCE monitors overseeing the implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement.  The NLA was formally disbanded on September 27, 2001.  The OSCE Permanent Council increased the size of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje to 200 personnel, including 72 confidence-building monitors, 60 police advisers, and 17 police trainers.  Ten international staff members were also approved by the OSCE Permanent Council to deal with administrative and support matters.  Alain Le Roy of France was appointed as EU Special Representative on October 29, 2001.  Three government policemen were killed by ethnic-Albanians in the village of Trebos on November 11, 2001.  The parliament approved 15 constitutional amendments increasing the rights of ethnic-Albanians on November 16, 2001.  Government police killed seven ethnic-Albanians near Skopje on March 2, 2002.  The parliament formally adopted an amnesty bill on March 8, 2002.  A police officer was shot and killed in the village of Volkovija on March 9, 2002.  Members of the former NLA established the Democratic Union for Integration (DUI) headed by Ali Ahmeti on June 5, 2002.  The CoE and OSCE sent a nine-member joint pre-election assessment mission (Azerbaijan, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Germany, Latvia, Norway, Switzerland) to assess preparations for upcoming parliamentary elections on August 26-28, 2002.  Two policemen were shot and killed near the town of Gostivar on August 26, 2002.  A policeman was shot and killed in the village of Bogovinje on September 12, 2002.  Police killed an ethnic-Albanian near the town of Tetovo on September 14, 2002.  Parliamentary elections were held on September 15, 2002, and the Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia (SDAM) won 60 out of 120 seats in the parliament.  Four individuals, including three government policemen, were killed in political violence in the three weeks prior to the election.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 50 long-term election observers and 750 short-term election observers headed by Julian Peel Yates of Britain to monitor the parliamentary elections between July 22 and September 16, 2002.  The EU sent 100 observers to monitor the elections.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections. On September 19, 2002, President Trijkovski requested a NATO peacekeeping mission to protect EUMM and OSCE monitors.  On September 26, 2002, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1371, which authorized the establishment of a multinational force for Macedonia.  Alexis Brouhns of Belgium was appointed as EU Special Representative on September 30, 2002.  The government of Prime Minister Branko Crvenkovski, leader of the SDAM, was approved by the parliament on November 1, 2002.  NATO’s Operation Amber Fox/Task Force Fox ended on December 15, 2002, and NATO launched Operation Allied Harmony on December 16, 2002.  NATO’s Operation Allied Harmony, which consisted of 450 peacekeeping troops commanded by Lt. General Gaetano Cigna of Italy, provided security for EU and OSCE monitors overseeing the implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement.  One individual was killed in a bombing in the city of Kumanovo on December 25, 2002.  Two NATO Operation Allied Harmony peacekeeping soldiers were killed by a landmine on March 4, 2003.  NATO’s Operation Allied Harmony ended on March 31, 2003, and the EU approved Operation Concordia to provide security for EU and OSCE monitors overseeing the implementation of the Ohrid Framework Agreement.  The European Union Military Force in Macedonia (EUFOR-Macedonia), also known as Operation Concordia, was deployed on March 31, 2003.  EUFOR-Macedonia consisted of a total of 357 military personnel (308 military personnel from 13 EU countries and 49 military personnel from 14 non-EU countries) commanded by Admiral Rainer Feist of Germany (Operation Commander, March 2003-December 2003), Brig. General P. Maral of France (Force Commander, March 2003-October 2003), and Major-General Luis Nelson Ferreira dos Santos of Portugal (Force Commander, October 2003-December 2003).  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians near the village of Brest on September 7, 2003, resulting in the deaths of three ethnic-Albanians.  On December 1, 2003, Ambassador Carlos Pais of Portugal replaced Ambassador Craig Jenness of Canada as Head of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje.  EUFOR-Macedonia (Operation Concordia) was ended on December 15, 2003.  The EU deployed a police monitoring and advisory mission (EUPM-Macedonia), also known as Operation Proxima, on December 15, 2003.  EUPM-Macedonia consisted of some 150 civilian police personnel and 50 international civilian staff from 32 countries headed by Police Commissioner Bart D’Hooge of Belgium (December 2003-December 2004) and Brig. General Juergen Scholz of Germany (December 2004-December 2005).  Soren Jessen-Petersen of Denmark was appointed as EU Special Representative on January 26, 2004.  President Boris Trajkovski and eight other individuals were killed in a plane crash near the town of Stolac, Bosnia-Herzegovina on February 26, 2004.  Branko Crvenkovski of the Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija-SDSM) was elected president with 60.6 percent of the vote on April 28, 2004, and he was inaugurated as president on May 12, 2004.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 30 long-term observers from 18 countries headed by Ambassador Friedrich Bauer of Austria, as well as 280 short-term observers, to monitor the presidential elections from March 22 to May 4, 2004.  Radmila Šekerinska Jankovska of the SDSM served as Acting Prime Minister from May 12 to June 2, 2004.  Hari Kostov was elected as prime minister by the parliament on May 31, 2004, and he took office on June 2, 2004.  Michael Sahlin of Sweden was appointed as EU Special Representative to Macedonia on July 12, 2004.  On November 7, 2004, Macedonian voters rejected a measure in a referendum which would have prevented the government from implementing certain provisions of the Ohrid Framework Agreement. The OSCE/ODIHR sent eight election experts, 12 long-term observers, and 155 short-term observers from 28 countries headed by Ambassador Friedrich Bauer of Austria to monitor the referendum from October 11 to November 12, 2004.  The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (CoE) and the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) sent eight observers headed by Zereriya Akcam of Turkey and Sean O’Brien of Ireland to monitor the referendum.  Prime Minister Hari Kostov resigned on November 18, 2004, and Radmila Šekerinska Jankovska of the SDSM served as Acting Prime Minister from November 18 to December 15, 2004.  Vlado Bučkovski of the SDSM was elected by the parliament on December 15, 2004.  Erwan Fouere of Ireland was appointed as EU Special Representative in Macedonia on October 17, 2005.  The EUPM-Macedonia (Operation Proxima) ended on December 14, 2005.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 15, 2005-present):  The EU established the European Union Police Advisory Team (EUPAT) on December 15, 2005.  EUPAT consisted of 30 police advisers headed by Brig. General Jurgen Scholz of Germany.  EUPAT was disbanded on May 15, 2006.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 5, 2006, and the VMRO-DPMNE won 45 out of 120 seats in the parliament.  The SDSM won 32 seats in the parliament.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 400 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 30 to July 6, 2006.  The CoE Parliamentary Assembly sent 18 observers headed by Mevlut Cavusoglu of Turkey to monitor the parliamentary elections.  Nikola Gruevski of the VMRO-DPMNE formed a government as prime minister on August 27, 2006.  In December 2006, Ambassador Giorgio Radicati of Italy replaced Ambassador Carlos Pais of Portugal as Head of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje.  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians in the village of Vaksince on September 10, 2007, resulting in the deaths of one police officer and one militant.  The EUMM-Macedonia was ended on December 31, 2007.  Parliamentary elections were held on June 1, 2008, and the VMRO-DPMNE won 63 out of 120 seats in the parliament.  The SDSM won 27 seats in the parliament.  One individual was killed in election-related violence in the village of Aracinovo.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 13 election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 181 short-term observers from 42 countries headed by Ambassador Robert Barry of the U.S. to monitor the parliamentary elections from April 30 to June 2, 2008.  The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (CoE) sent 13 short-term observers headed by Mevlut Cavusoglu of Turkey to monitor the parliamentary elections.  For parliamentary election re-runs held on June 15, 2008, the OSCE/ODIHR sent 72 short-term observers to monitor the elections.  On January 12, 2009, Ambassador Jose-Lius Herrero of Spain replaced Ambassador Giorgio Radicati of Italy as Head of the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje.  Gjorge Ivanov of the VMRO/DPMNE was elected president with 63 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on April 5, 2009.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 16 election experts, 23 long-term observers, and 245 short-term observers headed by Peter Eicher of the U.S. to monitor the presidential election from February 13 to April 6, 2009.  The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (CoE) sent 13 short-term observers headed by Marietta de Pourbaix-Lundin of Sweden to monitor the first round of presidential elections from March 20-23, 2009.  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians near the village of Radusa in northern Macedonia on May 12, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four ethnic-Albanians.  On December 16, 2010, the OSCE Spillover Monitor Mission to Skopje was renamed the OSCE Mission to Skopje.  Parliament was dissolved on April 14, 2011.  On May 16, 2011, Ambassador Ralf Breth of Germany replaced Ambassador Jose-Luis Herrero of Spain as Head of the OSCE Mission to Skopje.  Parliamentary elections were held on June 5, 2011, and the VMRO/DPMNE won 56 out of 120 seats in the parliament.  The SDSM won 42 seats in the parliament.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 12 election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 141 short-term observers from 41 countries headed by Julian Peel Yates of Britain to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 6 to June 6, 2011.  The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (CoE) sent 13 observers headed by Jean-Charles Gardetto of Monaco to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 3-6, 2011.  Government police killed two ethnic-Albanians during clashes in Gostivar on February 28, 2012.  Five ethnic-Macedonians were found dead from gunshot wounds near Skopje on April 12, 2012, and government police arrested 20 ethnic-Albanians in Skopje in connection to the murders on May 1, 2012.  Local elections were held on March 24 and April 7, 2013.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent eleven election experts, 16 long-term observers, and 200 short-term observers from 30 countries headed by Ambassador Geert-Hinrich Ahrens of Germany to monitor the local elections from February 25 to April 12, 2013.  The Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe (CLRAE) of the Council of Europe (CoE) sent fifteen observers to monitor the local elections.  Government police clashed with ethnic-Albanians in Skopje on March 2, 2013.  Twenty individuals were injured and 12 individuals were arrested during the clashes.

[Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), July 20, 2001, August 15, 2001, March 8, 2002, September 29, 2003; Associated Press (AP), December 15, 1999, March 5, 2001, March 9, 2001, March 16, 2001, March 24, 2001, June 11, 2001, March 31, 2003, September 7, 2003; Banks and Muller, 1998, 561-565; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), May 3, 2001, May 12, 2001, June 7, 2001, July 6, 2001, July 25, 2001, August 8, 2001, August 10, 2001, August 13, 2001, August 16, 2001, August 17, 2001, November 12, 2001, November 16, 2001, March 2, 2002, March 10, 2002, August 27, 2002, September 12, 2002, September 14, 2002, September 16, 2002, December 25, 2002, March 31, 2003, September 7, 2003, September 29, 2003, December 15, 2003, February 26, 2004, April 15, 2004, April 29, 2004, May 12, 2004, November 15, 2004, March 13, 2005, June 26, 2006, July 6, 2006, September 10, 2007, June 1, 2008, June 2, 2008, April 5, 2009, June 6, 2011, April 13, 2012, May 1, 2012; Cable News Network (CNN), June 29, 2001, July 22, 2001, August 18, 2001; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), June 6, 2001; Council of Europe (CoE) press release, October 13, 1998, October 19, 1998, October 26, 1999, November 2, 1999, September 12, 2000, March 21, 2001, August 28, 2002, September 16, 2002; European Report, September 4, 2002, 503; Facts on File, March 8, 2001, March 22, 2001, May 17, 2001, June 14, 2001, June 28, 2001, July 12, 2001, August 9, 2001, August 16, 2001, November 29, 2001; International Republican Institute (IRI) press release, October 19, 1998; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 1994, October 1994, November 1994, October 1995, November 1998, December 1998, November 1999; Kyodo News Service (KNS), February 25, 1999; New York Times (NYT), October 16, 1995, November 7, 2004; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) press release, March 2, 2001, May 24, 2001, July 20, 2001, August 27, 2001, September 27, 2001, December 7, 2001, May 21, 2002; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) newsletter, November 1996; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) press release, July 20, 2001, August 22, 2001, January 12, 2009; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Parliamentary Assembly (PA)/Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) press release, November 1, 1999, November 15, 1999, August 15, 2000, September 11, 2000, September 29, 2000, July 4, 2002, July 22, 2002, September 16, 2002, May 31, 2006, July 6, 2006; OSCE/ODIHR report, January 31, 2000, November 17, 2000, July 13, 2004, February 2, 2005, August 20, 2008, June 30, 2009, October 6, 2011; OSCE/ODIHR statement, November 19, 1996, October 19, 1998, November 2, 1998, November 15, 1999, December 6, 1999, July 6, 2006, April 8, 2013; OSCE Permanent Council, May 11, 2001, September 6, 2001; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), November 5, 1998, March 7, 2001, March 8, 2001, March 9, 2001, June 26, 2001, June 27, 2001, July 5, 2001, July 6, 2001, November 16, 2001, June 6, 2002; Reuters, November 1, 1999, November 14, 1999, November 15, 1999, December 15, 1999, March 5, 2001, March 9, 2001, March 15, 2001, March 16, 2001, March 18, 2001, March 23, 2001, April 28, 2001, April 29, 2001, April 30, 2001, May 31, 2001, June 6, 2001, June 9, 2001, June 11, 2001, July 3, 2001, September 6, 2001, November 16, 2001, September 16, 2002, November 1, 2002, March 18, 2003, September 7, 2003, March 22, 2009, May 10, 2010, June 5, 2011, December 29, 2012, March 2, 2013, March 24, 2013; The Guardian (UK), July 5, 2001, July 21, 2001, August 14, 2001, September 28, 2001, November 13, 2001, November 17, 2001, March 31, 2003; US Department of State press release, June 11, 2001; Washington Post, July 21, 2001.]