35. France/Corsica (1967-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (January 1, 1967-May 4, 1976): The Action for a Rebirth of Corsica (ARC) was established by Max Simeoni and Edmond Simeoni in 1967.  Corsican separatists killed two French government policemen on August 22, 1975, and government policemen arrested Edmond Simoeni on August 22, 1975.  Corsican separatists killed two government policemen in Bastia on August 24, 1975, and the French government banned the ARC on August 25, 1975.  The French government deployed 500 additional policemen to Corsica.

Crisis Phase (May 5, 1976-November 14, 2003):  Corsican separatists established the Corsican National Liberation Front (Front de Liberation National de la Corse – FLNC) on May 5, 1976.  Corsican nationalists bombed a French military communications station in Corsica on March 25-26, 1977.  On July 11, 1979, seventeen members of the FLNC were convicted and sentenced to prison for their involvement in the bombings.  Corsican separatists killed three individuals near Ajaccio on January 6-12, 1980.  The FLNC announced a unilateral cessation of bombings on April 2, 1981.  The French government enacted legislation in January 1982, establishing an elected Corsican Assembly.  Assembly elections were held on August 8, 1982, and Prosper Alfonsi was elected president of the Assembly on August 20, 1982.  The FLNC resumed resumed their bombing campaign on August 25, 1982.  The French government banned the FLNC on January 5, 1983. The Confederation of Nationalist Committees (CCN) was banned by the French government on September 27, 1983, and the Corsican Movement for Self-Determination (MCA) was established as a political party on October 2, 1983.  Assembly elections were held on August 12, 1984, and the MCA won three seats in the assembly. Two individuals were killed in a bombing by Corsican separatists on March 13, 1986.  The MCA was banned by the French government on January 27, 1987.  The government and FLNC agreed to a cessation of political violence in June 1988.  The FNLC ended its truce with the government on November 15, 1990.  Corsican separatists bombed targets in Ajaccio and Bastia on January 2-3, 1991.  Three Corsican separatists were killed in two separate incidents on July 26, 1995.  One Corsican separatist was killed in Ajaccio on January 2, 1996.  Corsican separatists bombed targets in Ajaccio on November 19, 1996.  The FNLC announced a temporary cessation of political violence on June 17, 1997.  A radical faction of the FLNC announced an end to the truce on January 16, 1998.  Claude Erignac, the highest French official on Corsica, was killed by a Corsican separatist in Ajaccio on February 6, 1998.  Regional assembly elections were held on March 14, 1999. Corsica Nation (CN), the political wing of the FLNC, won 17 percent of the vote or 8 out of 51 seats in the regional assembly.  FLNC claimed responsibility for a bombing in Paris on October 28, 1999.  Prime Minister Lionel Jospin began negotiations with Corsican separatists on December 13, 1999, and four Corsican separatist groups declared a unilateral ceasefire on December 23, 1999.  Two individuals, including Jean MIchel Rossi, were killed by Corsican separatists in Ile-Rousse on August 7, 2000.  Francois Santoni, a former Corsican separatist leader, was killed in the village of Monaccia d’Aullene on August 17, 2001.  Two individuals were killed in political violence near Moriani in eastern Corsica on August 21, 2001.  The French parliament approved legislation on December 18, 2001, which provided partial autonomy to the island of Corsica.  Corsican separatists bombed several buildings across the island of Corsica on October 17-18, 2002.  A majority of Corsicans rejected a proposal for partial autonomy in a referendum held on the island of Corsica on July 6, 2003.  On July 11, 2003, eight Corsican separatists were sentenced to prison terms for their involvement in the assassination of Claude Erignac in February 1998.  The FNLC’s Combatants’ Union announced a suspension of political violence on November 14, 2003.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 15, 2003-present):  One Corsican separatist was killed in a bombing attempt in the town of Sollaro on January 3, 2007.  Several hundred individuals have been killed in political violence since August 1975.

[Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), February 8, 1998, January 2, 2010; Arnold et al., 1991, 97-100; Associated Press (AP), February 7, 1998, October 11, 1998, December 23, 1999; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), January 26, 1998, February 7, 1998, February 9, 1998, December 23, 1999, August 17, 2001, August 21, 2001, October 19, 2002, April 7, 2003, July 5, 2003, July 6, 2003, July 7, 2003, July 11, 2003, July 12, 2003, July 21, 2003, August 28, 2003, September 1, 2003, November 14, 2003, October 1, 2005, January 4, 2007; Clodfelter, 1992, 988; Degenhardt, 1988, 111-112; Facts on File, September 6, 1975, December 31, 2001; Keesing’s Record of World Events, January 9, 1976, December 3, 1976, February 17, 1978, June 5, 1981, January 1991; New York Times (NYT), January 15, 1997; Reuters, October 9, 1996, February 9, 1998, March 18, 1999, November 4, 1999, December 23, 1999; Seattle Times, February 8, 1998; The Guardian, July 3, 2003, July 6, 2003.]