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66. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1992-2006)

Pre-Crisis Phase (April 27, 1992-March 11, 2003):  The Federal Assembly adopted a constitution for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on April 27, 1992.  Parliamentary elections were held in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on May 31, 1992, and Dobrosav “Dobrica” Ćosić was elected president by the Federal Assembly on June 15, 1992.  Opposition political parties boycotted the elections.  The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), which did not monitor the parliamentary elections, suggested that the conditions for free and fair elections did not exist at the time of the elections.  Milan Panić was appointed as prime minister of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on July 14, 1992.

Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on December 20, 1992, and the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) won 101 out of 250 seats in the Serbian Chamber of Citizens.  Slobodan Milošević of the SPS was elected president of Serbia with some 56 percent of the vote on December 20, 1992.  Parliamentary elections were held in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on December 20, 1992, and the SPS won 47 out of 138 seats in the Yugoslav Chamber of Citizens.  The OSCE Parliamentary Assembly (PA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) established an election observation mission consisting of 100 observers from 20 countries to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections.  The OSCE/ODIHR mission reported that the elections were not free and fair.  Prime Minister Milan Panić resigned, and Radoje Kontić was appointed as prime minister of Yugoslavia on February 9, 1993.  President Dobrosav “Dobrica” Ćosić resigned on June 1, 1993, and the Federal Assembly elected Zoran Lilić as president of Yugoslavia on June 25, 1993.  Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on December 19, 1993, and the SPS won 123 out of 250 seats in the Serbian Assembly.  Mirko Marjanovic was appointed as prime minister of Serbia on February 22, 1994.  Parliamentary elections were held in Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on November 3, 1996, and Slobodan Milošević’s political coalition won 64 out of 138 seats in the federal parliament.  Municipal elections were held in Serbia on November 17, 1996, and the Zajedino coalition won majorities in 14 of Serbia’s 18 largest cities.  The Serbian government nullified the results of the municipal elections because of alleged election irregularities. Several thousand individuals demonstrated against the Serbian government beginning on November 18, 1996. President Slobodan Milošević of Serbia was forced to confirm the municipal election results on February 11, 1997.  Slobodan Milošević of Serbia was elected president of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) by the Federal Assembly on July 15, 1997, and he was inaugurated as president on July 23, 1997.  Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on September 21, 1997, and the SPS coalition won 110 out of 250 seats in the National Assembly.  Presidential elections were held in Serbia on September 21 and October 5, 1997, but the elections were declared invalid since less than 50 percent of the electorate participated.  Milan Milutinović of the SPS defeated Vojislav Seselj in a runoff presidential election in Serbia on December 21, 1997.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of 30 long-term observers and 156 short-term observers from 22 countries headed by Anthony Welch of Britain and Kare Vollan of Norway to monitor the presidential elections in Serbia from August 27-December 31, 1997.  The OSCE mission reported that the elections in Serbia were “fundamentally flawed.”  The BHHRG sent observers to monitor the elections in Serbia from September 19 to December 8, 1997.  Milo Djukanovic was elected president of Montenegro in the runoff election with some 50 percent of the vote on October 19, 1997.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of seven long-term observers and 49 long-term observers from 23 countries headed by Jan Edoy of Norway to monitor the presidential elections in Montenegro from October 4 to October 21, 1997.  The European Union (EU) sent five observers from the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) to monitor the presidential elections.  The British Helsinki Human Rights Group (BHHRG) sent observers to monitor the presidential election in Montenegro from October 4-20, 1997.  On February 16, 1998, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the Yugoslav government for attempts to restrict the independent media in the country.  Prime Minister Mirko Marjanovic formed a new government in Serbia on March 24, 1998.  Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on May 31, 1998, and President Djukanovic’s political coalition won some 50 percent of the vote.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an election observation mission consisting of 21 long-term observers and 117 short-term observers from 26 countries headed by Javier Ruperez of Spain and Kare Vollan of Norway to monitor the parliamentary elections in Montenegro from April 10-June 1, 1998.  The BHHRG sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections in Montenegro beginning on May 30, 1998, and the BHHRG mission issued a preliminary report on June 18, 1998.  Felipe Gonzalez of Spain was appointed as EU Special Representative on June 8, 1998, and he served as EU Special Representative until October 11, 1999.  President Slobodan Milošević of Yugoslavia and President Milan Milutinović of Serbia were indicted for war crimes committed in the Kosovo province by the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia on May 27, 1999.  Municipal elections were held in Podgoorica and Herceg Novi, Montenegro on June 11, 2000.  The OSCE/ODIHR established an electoral observation mission consisting of nine long-term observers and 54 short-term observers from 24 countries headed by Julian Peel Yates to monitor the municipal elections beginning on May 8, 2000.  The OSCE/ODIHR issued its final report on the municipal elections in Montenegro on August 18, 2000.  Vojislav Koštunica of the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) was elected president on September 24, 2000, but President Slobodan Milošević refused to concede defeat in the presidential election.  The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Several hundred thousand individuals demonstrated against the government of President Slobodan Milošević on October 5, 2000, and President Milošević conceded defeat in the presidential election on October 6, 2000.  President Vladimir Putin offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on October 5, 2000.  Vojislav Koštunica was sworn in as president of Yugoslavia on October 7, 2000.  Prime Minister Momir Bulatovic, head of the federal Yugoslav government, resigned on October 9, 2000.  The government of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) re-applied for membership in the United Nations (UN) on October 27, 2000, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) was admitted as a member of the UN on November 1, 2000.  Zoran Žižić became prime minister of the federal Yugoslav government on November 4, 2000.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 23, 2000.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 24 long-term observers and 310 short-term observers from 14 countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from November 28-December 24, 2000.  The Council of Europe (COE) Parliamentary Assembly sent 12 observers from nine countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from December 21-24, 2000.  The OSCE Permanent Council established the OSCE Mission to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia on January 11, 2001.  The OSCE mission, which consisted of 30 observers headed by Stefano Sannino of Italy, was established to promote democratization and human rights.  Zoran Đinđić was elected prime minister by the Serbian parliament on January 25, 2001.  Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on April 22, 2001.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 160 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from March 28 to April 23, 2001.  The COE Parliamentary Assembly sent six observers from five countries to monitor the parliamentary elections on April 19-23, 2001.  The British Helsinki Human Rights Group (BHHRG) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  Serbian government officials turned over former President Slobodan Milošević to the United Nations (UN) war crimes tribunal in The Hague, Netherlands on June 28, 2001.  In protest over the extradition of former President Slobodan Milošević to the United Nations (UN) war crimes tribunal, Prime Minister Zoran Žižić resigned on June 29, 2001.  Dragiša Pešić was elected as prime minister of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) on July 24, 2001.  Municipal elections were held in Montenegro on May 15, 2002.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 114 short-term observers and 18 long-term observers headed by Nikolai Vulchanov of Bulgaria to monitor the municipal elections from April 22 to May 16, 2002.  Municipal elections were held in southern Serbia (Bujanovac, Medvedja, and Presevo) on July 28, 2002.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 80 observers headed by Nikolai Vulchanov of Bulgaria to monitor the municipal elections on July 10-29, 2002.  Presidential elections were held in Serbia on September 29 and October 13, 2002, and Vojislav Koštunica of the Democratic Party of Serbia (Demokratska Stranka Srbije – DSS) won 68.4 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections.  However, the results of the second round of presidential elections were invalidated since less than 50 percent of the electorate voted.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent some 250 observers headed by Nikolai Vulchanov of Bulgaria to monitor the presidential elections in Serbia. Parliamentary elections were held in Montenegro on October 20, 2002.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent observers headed by Nikolai Vulchanov of Bulgaria to monitor the parliamentary elections.  Presidential elections were held on December 8, 2002, but the results were invalidated for a second time since less than 50 percent of the electorate voted.  Presidential elections were held in Montenegro on December 22, 2002.  Natasa Micic, president of the Serbian National Assembly, became acting president of Serbia on December 30, 2002.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent 18 long-term observers and 50 short-term observers headed by Nikolai Vulchanov of Bulgaria.  On February 4, 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was dissolved when Serbia and Montenegro formed the State Union of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro.  Svetozar Marović was sworn in as president of the State Union of the Republics of Serbia and Monetenegro on March 7, 2003.

Crisis Phase (March 12, 2003-April 22, 2003):  Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Đinđić was killed in an assassination planned by Milorad Ulemek, a former commander in the Yugoslav Special Operations Unit, in Belgrade on March 12, 2003.  Natasa Micic, president of the Serbian National Assembly and acting prime minister of Serbia, declared a state of emergency in the Republic of Serbia on March 12, 2003.  Some 4,500 individuals were detained by the government, and some 3,700 individuals were charged for murder, abduction, and drug trafficking.  Zoran Živković was elected as prime minister of Serbia on March 18, 2003.  The Serbian government lifted the state of emergency in the Republic of Serbia on April 22, 2003.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 23, 2003-present):  Prime Minister Zoran Živković resigned, and Vojislav Koštunica was elected as prime minister of Serbia on March 3, 2004.  Former President Slobodan Milošević died of a heart attack at a detention center in The Hague, Netherlands on March 11, 2006.  Some 56 percent of voters in Montenegro voted in favor of independence in a referendum held on May 21, 2006.  The OSCE/ODIHR sent observers to monitor the referendum.  The Council of Europe (COE) sent observers to monitor the referendum.  The State Union of the Republics of Serbia and Montenegro was formally dissolved on June 3, 2006.

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), May 27, 1999, October 6, 2000, October 9, 2000, June 29, 2001; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), July 2, 2001, March 12, 2003; Council of Europe (COE) press release, December 18, 2000, April 19, 2001, April 23, 2001, October 21, 2002; Keesing’s Record of World Events, December 1993, February 1994, July 1997, September 1997, October 1997, December 1997; Los Angeles Times (LAT), June 29, 2001; New York Times (NYT), September 29, 2002, October 14, 2002, December 8, 2002, April 23, 2003; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) newsletter, September 1997, October 1997, May 1998; OSCE Permanent Council press release, August 28, 1997, January 11, 2001; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Parliamentary Assembly (PA)/Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) press release, May 15, 2000, June 12, 2000, November 28, 2000, December 14, 2000, March 28, 2001, April 17, 2001, April 22, 2002, May 16, 2002, July 10, 2002, September 30, 2002, December 2, 2002; OSCE/ODIHR report, August 18, 2000; OSCE/ODIHR statement, June 11, 2000; Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL), December 3, 1996, December 16, 1996, December 18, 1996, January 29, 1997, February 12, 1997, August 28, 1997, October 21, 1997, October 5, 2000, October 6, 2000, December 22, 2000, June 29, 2001, July 23, 2002, March 12, 2003; Reuters, December 8, 2002.]