15. Philippines (1946-present)

 

Crisis Phase (July 4, 1946-August 23, 1946): The Republic  of the Philippines formally achieved its independence from the U.S. on July 4, 1946, and Manuel Acuña Roxas of the Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) became the first president.

Conflict Phase (August 24, 1946-December 19, 1955):  The Hukbalahap Movement (Huks) headed by Luis Taruc rebelled against the government beginning on August 24, 1946.  President Manuel Acuña Roxas survived an attempted assassination in Manila on March 10, 1947. The U.S. government provided military assistance (weapons, equipment, 58 military advisors) to the government of the Philippines beginning on March 14, 1947.  President Roxas declared the Hukbalahap Movement as a “subversive organization” on March 6, 1948.  President Roxas died on April 16, 1948, and Vice-President Elpidio Rivera Quirino of the Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) was sworn in as president on April 17, 1948.  President Quirino granted a general amnesty to Huk rebels from June 21 to August 15, 1948, during which government and Hukbalahap Movement representatives held negotiations in Manila. Twelve individuals, including the widow of former President Manuel Acuña Roxas, were killed by Huk rebels north of Manila on April 28, 1949.  Legislative elections were held on November 8, 1949, and the PLP won 60 out of 100 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Quirino of the PLP was re-elected with 51 percent of the vote on November 8, 1949, and he was inaugurated for a four-year term on December 30, 1949.  Some 34 individuals were killed in election-related violence. The government suppressed a Nacionalistas rebellion led by General Medrano in the Batangas province between November 19, 1949 and January 4, 1950.  Huk rebels attacked targets near Manila on March 29-April 3, 1950.  Government troops and Huk rebels clashed north of Manila on April 14-15, 1950, resulting in the deaths of some 320 rebels.  Huk rebels attacked Camp Macabulos-Tarlac on August 26, 1950, resulting in the deaths of twenty-five government soldiers and several civilians. Some 300 Huk rebels led by Pedro Caguin attacked targets near Manila on August 26, 1950, resulting in the deaths of 15 rebels and three government soldiers.  Some 1,268 Huk rebels were killed by government troops between April and December 1950. The Philippines government signed a mutual defense agreement with the U.S. government on August 30, 1951.  Some 2,000 Huk rebels were killed by government troops in 1951.  William Pomeroy, one of the leaders of the Huk rebellion, was captured by government soldiers on March 14, 1952, and he was sentenced to life imprisonment on June 18, 1952.  Government troops and Huk rebels clashed north of Manila on December 8, 1952, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  Carlos Romulo established the Democratic Party (DP) on May 29, 1953.  Legislative elections were held on November 10, 1953, and the PLP won 59 out of 102 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista – PN) won 31 seats in the House of Representatives.  Ramon Magsaysay of the PN-DP coalition was elected president on November 10, 1953.  Some 20 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Luis Taruc surrendered to government troops on May 17, 1954.  Government troops finally suppressed the Huk rebellion on December 19, 1955.  Some 11,300 individuals, including 9,700 rebels and 1,600 government soldiers, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 20, 1955-March 28, 1969): President Magsaysay was killed in an airplane crash on March 17, 1957, and Vice-President Carlos Garcia of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista – PN) was sworn in as president on March 18, 1957.  Legislative elections were held on November 12, 1957, and the PN won 82 out of 102 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) won 19 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Garcia was re-elected with 41 percent of the vote on November 12, 1957, and he was inaugurated for a four-year term on December 30, 1957.  Legislative elections were held on November 14, 1961, and the PN won 74 out of 102 seats in the House of Representatives.  The PLP won 29 seats in the House of Representatives.  Diosdado Macapagal of the PLP was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on November 14, 1961, and he was inaugurated as president on December 30, 1961. Eighteen individuals were killed in election-related violence in 1961.  Legislative elections were held on November 9, 1965, and the PLP won 61 out of 104 seats in the House of Representatives.  The PN won 38 seats in the House of Representatives.  Ferdinand Marcos of the PN was elected president with 52 percent of the vote on November 9, 1965.  Forty-eight individuals were killed in political violence between October 1 and November 9, 1965. The Communist Party of the Philippines – Marxist-Leninst (CPP-ML) was established by Jose Maria Sison in opposition to the government on December 26, 1968. Government troops and communist rebels clashed in Bataan province on January 9-10, 1969, resulting in the deaths of 17 rebels and one government soldier. Government troops and communist rebels clashed near Santa Rosa on January 12, 1969, resulting in the deaths of four rebels.  Some 500 individuals were killed in political violence between December 1955 and March 1969.

Conflict Phase (March 29, 1969-December 10, 1986):  The military wing of the CPP-ML, the New People’s Army (NPA), was established on March 29, 1969.  NPA rebels killed five individuals in Angeles on May 21, 1969. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed north of Manila on June 3, 1969, resulting in the deaths of six rebels. Government police and NPA rebels clashed in Cadiz on August 1, 1969, resulting in the death of one rebel. Government troops launched a military offensive against NPA rebels near Manila on August 22, 1969.  Legislative elections were held on November 11, 1969, and the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista – PN) own 88 out of 110 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) won 18 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Ferdinand Marcos of the PN was re-elected with 61 percent of the vote on November 11, 1969. Sergio Osmena, the opposition presidential candidate, claimed election fraud. Fifty-nine individuals were killed in election-related violence between September 15 and November 11, 1969.  NPA rebels killed seven individuals in Porac on November 17, 1969. Government police suppressed anti-government demonstrations in Manila on January 26-30, 1970, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Government troops captured Faustino del Mundo, a leader of the communist rebels, on September 16, 1970.  NPA rebels killed 14 individuals in San Marcelino on September 19, 1970.  Pedro Taruc, leader of the Huk rebels, was killed by government troops near Angeles on October 16, 1970. Government police fired on demonstrators in Manila on January 30, 1971, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Government police fired on demonstrators in Manila on February 2, 1971, resulting in the deaths of three individuals. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in Osabela province on May 5, 1971, resulting in the deaths of six rebels. Ten individuals were killed in the bombing of a Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) meeting in Manila on August 21, 1971. President Marcos suspended civil rights on August 23, 1971. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed near San Agustin on September 7, 1971, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers. President Marcos lifted the suspension of civil rights on September 18, 1971. Provincial and local elections were held on November 8, 1971. Some 200 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Government troops launched a military offensive against NPA rebels in the Palanan region on July 9, 1972. President Marcos declared martial law throughout the country on September 23, 1972. President Marcos dissolved the Congress, suspended the constitution, and arrested opposition political leaders. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed north of Manila on October 5, 1972, resulting in the deaths of three rebels.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed on Mindanao island on October 21-22, 1972, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and 49 rebels. The Constitutional Convention approved a new constitution on November 29, 1972, and President Marcos proclaimed the new constitution on January 17, 1973.  The National Democratic Front (NDF) was established by the CPP and other leftist organizations on April 24, 1973.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) established a three-member fact-finding mission (Canada, New Zealand, U.S.) in May 1975, and the ICJ fact-finding mission issued a report in June 1977. A continuation of martial law was approved in a referendum on February 27, 1975. Bernabe Buscayno and Victor Corpuz, leaders of the NPA, were captured by government troops on August 26, 1976. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Manila on October 10, 1976, resulting in the deaths of two individuals. A continuation of martial law was approved in a referendum on October 16-17, 1976. Six individuals, including two government soldiers, were killed in political violence on October 17, 1976. Roman Catholic bishops criticized the government on February 6, 1977. Jose Maria Sison was captured in La Union province on November 8, 1977. A continuation of martial law was approved in a referendum on December 18, 1977.  Legislative  elections were held on April 7, 1978, and the New Society Movement Party (Kilusang Bagong Lipunan – KBL) headed by President Marcos won 137 out of 165 elected seats in the interim National Assembly.  President Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981. President Marcos was re-elected with some 88 percent of the vote on June 16, 1981, and he was inaugurated for a six-year term on June 30, 1981. The United Democratic Organization (UNIDO) was established in opposition to the government on April 23, 1982. Cardinal Jaime Sin called for the resignation of President Marcos on July 20, 1982. Opposition leader, Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., was assassinated in Manila on August 27, 1983. President Marcos was implicated in the assassination of Senator Aquino, and Cardinal Jaime Sin called for the resignation of President Marcos. NPA rebels attacked government troops on Mindanao island on April 17, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 18 rebels and five government soldiers.  Legislative elections were held on May 14, 1984, andthe KBL won 110 out of 183 seats in the National Assembly.  The UNIDO-led opposition coalition won 61 seats in the National Assembly.  Some 100 individuals, including 60 government soldiers, were killed in election-related violence. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in northern Luzon on June 27-July 1, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 53 rebels. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed on Negros island on June 29, 1984, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers. Sal Legaspi, mayor of Libacao, and ten government soldiers were killed by NPA rebels on Mindanao island on August 26, 1984. NPA rebels killed 11 individuals on Mindanao island on September 10, 1984. The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government for “widespread human rights abuses” on September 19, 1984. NPA rebels killed nine government policemen on Mindanao island on October 17, 1984. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed on Mindanao island on February 26, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 33 rebels. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed on Mindanao island on March 17, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 59 rebels and eight government soldiers. Government troops fired on demonstrators near Escalante on Negro island on September 20, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 27 individuals. On January 6, 1986, the CPP announced its boycott of the upcoming presidential election. Presidential elections were held on February 7, 1986, and President Marcos was declared the winner. Some 77 individuals were killed in election-related violence, including 26 individuals killed on February 7, 1986. Opposition candidate, Corazon Aquino, accused the government of election fraud. The U.S. government sent 20 observers headed by Senator Richard Lugar to monitor the presidential election on February 5-8, 1986.  U.S. President Ronald Reagan appointed Philip Habib as special envoy to the Philippines on February 11, 1986, and Ambassador Habib conducted a fact-finding mission in the Philippines from February 16-23, 1986.  Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Lt. General Fidel Ramos led a military rebellion against the government beginning on February 22, 1986, and President Marcos declared a state-of-emergency on February 24, 1986.  President Marcos fled to Honolulu, Hawaii, and Corazon Aquino was sworn in as president on February 25, 1986.  President Aquino ordered the release of Jose Maria Sison and Bernabe Buscayno from prison on March 5, 1986.  President Aquino appointed a 50-member Constitutional Commission on May 25, 1986.  The Constitutional Commission approved a draft constitution on October 12, 1986. The government suppressed rebellions on July 6-8, 1986 and November 23, 1986.  The government and NPA agreed to a cessation of military hostilities on December 10, 1986. More than 15,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 11, 1986-February 7, 1987): Government troops fired on demonstrators in Manila on January 22, 1987, resulting in the deaths of 20 individuals. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Manila on January 27-29, 1987, resulting in the death of one rebel. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on February 2, 1987, and the constitution went into effect on February 11, 1987.

Conflict Phase (February 8, 1987-present): Government troops and NPA rebels resumed military hostilities on February 8, 1987.  Legislative elections were held on May 11, 1987, and Lakas ng Bansa (Christian Muslim Democrats-CMD) won 24 out of 200 seats in the House of Representatives. The Philippines Democratic Party-People’s Power (Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan – PDP LABAN) won 22 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Congress of the Philippines convened in Manila on July 27, 1987. The government suppressed a military rebellion on July 13, 1987. Government troops suppressed a right-wing military rebellion of 1,350 soldiers led by Colonel Gregorio “Gringo” Honasan against the government on August 27-28, 1987, resulting in the deaths of 19 rebel soldiers, 12 government soldiers, and 22 civilians. The United States expressed support for the government on August 28, 1987. Local elections were held on January 18, 1988. Some 100 individuals were killed in election-related violence. On May 10, 1988, thirty-nine military personnel were convicted and sentenced to prison for their involvement in the August 1987 rebellion. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Manila on December 1-11, 1989, resulting in the deaths of some 120 individuals. U.S. military aircraft were mobilized in support of the government, and U.S. President George H. W. Bush expressed support for the government on December 1, 1989. President Aquino proclaimed a state-of-emergency on December 6, 1989. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by supporters of Governor Rodolfo Aguinaldo of Cagayan Provinve on March 4, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 20 individuals. President Aquino lifted the state-of-emergency on June 7, 1990.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Alexander Noble on the island of Mindanao on October 4-6, 1990. Government troops and communist rebels clashed near Jones on April 10-11, 1993, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels and two government soldiers.  Legislative elections were held on May 11, 1992, and the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino-LDP (Struggle/Fight of Democratic Filipinos) won 86 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives.  Lakas ng Bansa (Christian Muslim Democrats-CMD) won 40 seats in the House of Representatives.  Fidel Ramos of the National Union of Christian Democrats (NUCD) was elected president with 24 percent of the vote on May 11, 1992, and he was inaugurated as president on June 30, 1992. Some 100 individuals were killed in election-related violence. The government of the Netherlands facilitated negotiations between government and National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP) representatives beginning on August 31, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on May 8, 1995, and Lakas ng Bansa (Christian Muslim Democrats-CMD) won 100 out of 204 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC) won 22 seats in the House of Representatives. Belgium facilitated negotiations between government and NDFP representatives from June 26, 1995 to June 18, 1996.  Government troops resumed military hostilities against NPA rebels on April 6, 1997. Representatives of the government and the NDFP signed a human rights accord in The Hague, Netherlands on March 16, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on May 11, 1998, and the CMD won 111 out of 206 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino-LMMP (Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses) won 40 seats in the House of Representatives.  Joseph Estrada of the LMMP was elected president on May 11, 1998, and he was inaugurated as president on June 30, 1998. Some 40 individuals were killed in election-related violence. President Estrada suspended negotiations with the NDFP following the abduction of two military personnel by communist rebels on February 17, 1999 (the military personnel were released by the NPA on April 16, 1999). On May 27, 1999, the NDFP broke off negotiations with the government after the Philippines Senate ratified an agreement permitting joint U.S.-Philippines military exercises.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in Calinan and Paquibato districts on June 16, 1999, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers and six rebels. NPA rebels killed three civilians in Barangay Pawa on November 1, 1999. NPA rebels killed three government soldiers near the town of Sariaya, Quezon province on November 8, 1999. Communist rebels killed ten government soldiers on March 2, 2000. Communist rebels killed 13 government soldiers near the town of Jones in northern Isabela province on June 27, 2000. Government troops and communist rebels clashed in southern Philippines on October 1, 2000, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and five civilians. Some 75,000 individuals demonstrated against President Estrada on January 20, 2001. The government of President Estrada collapsed on January 19, 2001, and the Philippines Supreme Court ruled that the presidency was vacant on January 20, 2001. Vice-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as president on January 20, 2001. Norway facilitated negotiations between government and NDFP representatives in Oslo, Norway beginning on April 27, 2001. Government police and supporters of former President Estrada clashed in Manila on May 1, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen and two civilians. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a state-of-rebellion in Manilla on May 1, 2001, but she lifted the state-of-rebellion on May 6, 2001.  Legislative elections were held on May 14, 2001, and the CMD won 73 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC) won 40 seats in the House of Representatives.  Some 116 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Government and NDFP representatives held a second round of negotiations in Oslo, Norway on June 10-16, 2001. Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in southern Philippines on November 17, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 18 government soldiers and 10 rebels. Local elections were held on July 15, 2002. Some 90 individuals were killed in election-related violence. NPA rebels killed three government policemen in Kalinga province on August 8, 2002.  The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (assets freeze) against the NPA on August 12, 2002.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels near Manila on March 30, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 20 rebels, one government soldier, and three government policemen.  NPA rebels killed seventeen individuals on Samar island on June 26, 2003.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels on Mindanao island on June 30, 2003, resulting in the deaths of thirteen government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels in Luzon province on July 14, 2003, resulting in the deaths of eight government soldiers.  Some 300 military personnel staged an unsuccessful mutiny against the government on July 27, 2003.  Legislative elections were held on May 10, 2004, and the CMD won 92 out of 209 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC) won 53 seats in the House of Representatives.  Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was re-elected as president on May 10, 2004, and she was inaugurated as president on June 30, 2004.  Some 100 individuals were killed in election-related violence between December 2003 and May 2004.  On February 24, 2006, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo declared a state-of-emergency following reports of a foiled military coup.  President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo lifted the state-of-emergency on March 3, 2006. Nine individuals were killed in a suspected Abu Sayyaf militant bombing in the town of Jolo on March 27, 2006.  Five individuals were killed in a suspected Jemaah Islamiah bombing in the town of Shariff Aguad on June 23, 2006.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed near Besao on July 9, 2006, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and two rebels.  Government troops clashed with Au Sayyaf rebels on the island of Jolo on August 1-2, 2006.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in Davao province on August 4, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three rebels.  Government troops clashed with Abu Sayyaf militants on the island of Jolo on August 22, 2006.  Government troops and Abu Sayyaf militants clashed on the island of Jolo on September 3-4, 2006, resulting in the deaths of at least five government soldiers.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Makilala on the island of Mindanao on October 10, 2006.  Six individuals were killed in two separate bombings on the island of Mindanao on January 10, 2007.  Nine government soldiers were killed by an attack against a military base on the island of Jolo on April 8, 2007.  Some eight individuals were killed in a suspected Jemaah Islamiah bombing in the city of Tacurong on the island of Mindanao on May 8, 2007.  Five police officers were killed in a suspected NPA ambush near the town of San Jose in western Philippines on May 10, 2007.  Legislative elections were held on May 14, 2007, and the CMD won 89 out of 218 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Kampi political party won 44 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s political coalition, TEAM UNITY (which included both Lakas and Kampi) won a total of 142 out of 218 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Bangkok-based Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 21 observers from six countries to monitor the legislative and local elections on the island of Mindanao on May 5-17, 2007.  Government troops and Islamic militants clashed on the island of Basilan on July 10, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 14 military personnel and at least four militants.  Government troops and Abu Sayyaf militants clashed on the island of Basilan on August 18, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 13 government soldiers and at least two militants.  Four government naval personnel and at least six suspected Abu Sayyaf militants were killed in clashes on the island of Lanhil on October 2, 2007.  Eight individuals were killed in a bomb attack in Manila on October 19, 2007.  Government troops suppressed a military mutiny on Manila on November 29, 2007.  NPA rebels killed one government policeman in Samar province on December 23, 2007.  Government troops clashed with suspect Abu Sayyaf militants on the island of Jolo on February 3, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers and three militants.  NPA rebels attacked and killed two security guards at a gold processing plant in southern Philippines on February 5, 2008.  Three individuals were killed in a suspected Abu Sayyaf militant bombing at an Air Force Base in the city of Zamboanga on May 29, 2008.  NPA rebels attacked and killed two police officers on Siargao island on June 28, 2008.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed on the island of Siargao on June 28-29, 2008, resulting in the deaths of  nine rebels.  Three individuals were killed in a grenade attack in the town of Nabunturan on the island of Mindanao on July 3 2008.  NPA rebels ambushed a military vehicle in Surigao del Norte Province on December 3, 2008, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers.  Government troops and NPA rebels clashed in Bukidnon Province on the island of Mindanao on February 24, 2009, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and at least eleven rebels.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing on the island of Jolo on July 7, 2009.  Government troops and Abu Sayyaf militants clashed on the island of Basilan on August 13, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 23 government soldiers and 20 militants.  Fifty-seven individuals were killed in political violence in Maguindanao Province on the island of Mindanao on November 23, 2009.  President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo imposed martial law in the province on December 5, 2009, and lifted martial law in the province on December 12, 2009.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels near the town of Valencia in Bukidnon Province on the island of Mindanao on December 15, 2009, resulting in the deaths of nine rebels and one government soldier.  Government troops attacked an Abu Sayyaf militant camp on the island of Jolo on February 21, 2010, resulting in the deaths of six militants and one government military personnel.  NPA rebels ambushed a military patrol on the island of Mindoro on March 6, 2010, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent a pre-election assessment mission consisting of five individuals (and three support staff members) on March 6-13, 2010.  Government troops attacked an Abu Sayyaf militant camp on the island on Siasi on March 7, 2010, resulting in the deaths of seven militants.  Nine individuals, including one policeman, three government military personnel, four civilians, and one militant, were killed in a suspected Abu Sayyaf militant attack in the city of Isabel on the island of Basilan on April 13, 2010.  Benigno Aquino of the Liberal Party of the Philippines (Partido Liberal ng Pilipinas-PLP) was elected president with 42 percent of the vote on May 10, 2010, and he was inaugurated as president on June 30, 2010.  Legislative elections were held on May 10, 2010, and the Lakas-Kampi political coalition won won 107 out of 286 seats in the House of Representatives.  The PLP won 47 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Bangkok-based Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent five long-term observers and 34 short-term observers from 13 countries headed by Hassan Ariff from Bangladesh to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 15 to May 14, 2010.  The Carter Center (CC) sent six short-term observers and seven support staff members to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Representatives of the government and the National Democratic Front (NDF) held preliminary peace negotiations in Hong Kong, China on December 1-2, 2010.  Five individuals were killed in a suspected Islamic militant bus bombing in Manila on January 25, 2011.  Peace negotiations between representatives of the government and the NDF resumed in Oslo, Norway on February 15, 2011.  Government troops clashes with Islamic militants in the town of Talipao on the island of Jolo on September 25, 2011, resulting in the deaths of two government military personnel and 13 militants.  Government troops killed 15 Islamic militants in the town of Parang on the island of Jolo on February 2, 2012.  NPA rebels ambushed and killed ten government soldiers and one civilian in Ifugao Province in northern Philippines on April 25, 2012.  On July 25, 2012, former President Gloria Arroyo was released from a military hospital where she had been detained for eight months.  Government troops clashed with Abu Sayyaf militants in Basilan Province on July 26, 2012, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and nine militants.  On October 4, 2012, former President Gloria Arroyo was arrested on corruption charges.  The government declared a unilateral ceasefire with NPA rebels from December 16, 2012 to January 2, 2013.  Representatives of the government and the National Democratic Front (NDF) held negotiations in the Netherlands on December 17-18, 2012 and February 25-26, 2013.  The government ended negotiations with the NDF on April 26, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Abu Sayyaf militants near the town of Patikul in Sulu Province on May 25, 2013, resulting in the deaths of seven government military personnel and five militants.  NPA rebels ambushed government policemen in the town of Allacapan in the province of Cagayan on May 27, 2013, resulting in the deaths of eight policemen.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels in Juban in the province of Sorsogon on July 4, 2013, resulting in the deaths of eight rebels.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels in the province of Tarlac on July 30-31, 2013, resulting in the deaths of six rebels.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels near the city of Tabuk in northern Philippines on August 29, 2013, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers.  Government policemen clashed with NPA rebels near the town on Sagada in northern Philippines on August 29-30, 2013.  NPA rebels ambushed and killed nine government soldiers near the town of Kidapawan on the island of Mindanao on October 21, 2013.  Government troops clashed with NPA rebels in the province of Bukidnon on November 3, 2013, resulting in the death of one government soldier.  More than 15,000 individuals have been killed during the conflict between the government and NPA rebels since 1987.

[Sources: Asia Week, May 2, 1997; Associated Press (AP), April 10, 1999, June 28, 2000, January 20, 2001, November 18, 2001, March 30, 2003, February 26, 2003; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), July 28, 2003, August 2, 2003, May 6, 2004, May 10, 2004, February 24, 2006, March 3, 2006, March 27, 2006,  June 23, 2006, August 1, 2006, August 2, 2006, August 23, 2006, September 4, 2006, October 10, 2006, January 10, 2007, April 8, 2007, May 9, 2007, May 10, 2007, July 11, 2007, October 2, 2007, October 19, 2007, November 29, 2007, November 30, 2007, February 4, 2008, May 29, 2008, July 3, 2008, December 3, 2008, February 24, 2009, July 7, 2009, July 9, 2007, August 13, 2009, November 23, 2009, November 24, 2009, December 5, 2009, December 12, 2009, December 15, 2009, February 9, 2010, February 21, 2010, March 6, 2010, March 7, 2010, April 13, 2010, May 10, 2010, June 8, 2010, June 30, 2010, December 2, 2010, December 3, 2010, January 25, 2011, January 26, 2011, February 15, 2011, September 25, 2011, February 2, 2012, April 25, 2012, July 25, 2012, October 4, 2012, May 25, 2013, May 27, 2013; Brogan, 1992, 230-243; Clodfelter, 1992, 1124; Degenhardt, 1988, 293-299; Facts on File, April 24-30, 1949, November 6-12, 1949, December 25-31, 1949, November 30-December 6, 1951, December 28-31, 1951, December 12-18, 1952, November 6-12, 1953, December 16-22, 1965, February 13-19, 1969, June 26-July 2, 1969, October 9-15, 1969, November 13-19, 1969, November 20-26, 1969, January 29-February 4, 1970, October 1-7, 1970, October 15-21, 1970, September 24-30, 1972, October 22-28, 1972, August 28, 1976, February 12, 1977, January 25, 2001, May 3, 2001, May 31, 2001; International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) report, August 1977; Jessup, 1998, 289-290, 585-586; Joes, 1992, 53-83; Keesing’s Record of World Events, March 29-April 5, 1947, June 10-17, 1950, July 5-12, 1952, May 1-8, 1971, September 25-October 2, 1971, November 18-25, 1972, March 5-11, 1973, September 17-23, 1973, April 14-20, 1975, December 17, 1976, November 3, 1978, December 29, 1978, July 11, 1980, March 13, 1981, October 16, 1981, November 1983, June 1984, September 1984, April 1985, April 1986, July 1986, January 1987, August 1987, February 1988, December 1989, March 1990, October 1990, May 1992, June 1992, April 1993, May 1998; Langer, 1972, 1353-1354; National Democratic Institute (NDI) statement, March 13, 2010; New York Times (NYT), May 11, 2004; Philippines Daily Enquirer (PDE), June 20, 1999, November 10, 1999; Reuters, April 16, 1999, May 27, 1999, March 2, 2000, June 27, 2000, April 26, 2001, April 27, 2001, May 1, 2001, June 8, 2001, July 11, 2002, July 16, 2002, August 7, 2002, August 8, 2002, August 11, 2002, January 27, 2003, February 20, 2003, June 30, 2003, July 14, 2003, August 18, 2007, December 23, 2007, February 5, 2008, June 29, 2008, June 30, 2008, December 15, 2012; The Times of India, October 2, 2000; Washington Post, October 2, 2005; Xinhua News Agency, July 9, 2006, August 4, 2006.]

 

Selected Bibliography:

Ghosh, S. K. 1978. “Insurgent Movements in Southeast Asia.” India Quarterly 34 (July-September): 290-312.

Goldstone, Jack A., Ted Robert Gurr, and Farrokh Moshiri. 1991. Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century. Boulder, CO:
Westview Press.

Kaul, Man Mohini. 1978. “The Marcos Regime in the Philippines.” India Quarterly 34 (July-September): 313-327.

Kerkvliet, Benedict J. 1977. The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press.

Lachica, Eduardo. 1971. The Huks: Philippine Agrarian Society in Revolt. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Wurfel, David. 1977. “Martial Law in the Philippines: The Methods of Regime Survival.” Pacific Affairs 50 (Spring): 5-29.