17. India/Nagas (1947-present)

 

Crisis Phase (August 14, 1947-March 21, 1956): The Naga National Council (NNC), which was established by Naga nationalists in the state of Assam in northeastern India in 1946, declared Nagaland’s independence from India on August 14, 1947. Angami Zapu Phizo was elected president of the NNC on December 28, 1950.  Angami Zapu Phizo called for a plebiscite on the question of Naga independence, but this proposal was rejected by the Indian government. The NNC held a plebiscite on self-determination on May 16, 1951, but the results were not recognized by the Indian government.

Conflict Phase (March 22, 1956-September 5, 1964): The Naga National Council (NNC) established the Naga Federal Government (NFG) headed by President Scatu Swu and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) on March 22, 1956.  The Indian government deployed military forces in the region in April 1956.  Angami Zapu Phizo dissolved the Naga National Council (NNC) in May 1956, and he fled to East Pakistan in December 1956.  Pakistan provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to Naga militants between January 1957 and December 1971.  The Naga People’s Convention (NPC) was convened in Kohima on August 22-26, 1957, in Mokokchung District on May 21-23, 1958, and in Mokokchung on October 22-26, 1959.  Angami Zapu Phizo fled into exile to London on June 12, 1960.  Indian Prime Minister Nehru and Imkongliba Ao, head of the Naga People’s Convention (NPC), agreed to the establishment of a Naga state within the Indian Union on July 30, 1960.  A 42-member interim governing assembly headed by Imkongliba Ao was established on February 18, 1961.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed in the state of Manipur on March 1, 1961, resulting in the deaths of 26 Naga militants.  Imkongliba Ao was shot in Mokokchung on August 22, 1961, and died from his wounds on August 24, 1961.  Angami Zapu Phizo accused the government of India of genocide, and referred the matter to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) on February 11, 1962.  Naga militants killed five government soldiers in the Ukhrul region on May 7, 1962.  The Indian parliament approved legislation on August 21, 1962, which provided for the establishment of Nagaland as a state in the Indian Union on September 4, 1962.  Reverand Michael Scott of the World Peace Brigade (WPB) attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning in 1963.  The State of Nagaland was formally established by the Indian government on December 1, 1963.  P. Shilu Ao of the Naga Nationalist Organization (NNO) formed a government as Chief Minister on December 1, 1963.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on January 10-16, 1964, and the Naga Nationalist Organization (NNO) won 33 out of 46 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The National Democratic Party (NDP) won 11 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Government and Naga representatives signed a ceasefire agreement (Agreement for Suspension of Operations-AGSOP) on May 24, 1964, and the ceasefire went into effect on September 5, 1964.  Some 4,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 6, 1964-August 31, 1972): Government and Naga representatives held peace negotiations in Chedema and Khensa between September 23, 1964 and April 1965.  In 1964, the Legislative Assembly approved a resolution urging the Indian government to integrate all Naga-populated areas throughout the region, including Naga areas within the neighboring states of Assam and Manipur, into the state of Nagaland (similar resolutions were also adopted by the Legislative Assembly of Nagaland in 1970, 1994, and 2003).  On April 16, 1965, India accused Pakistan of providing military assistance to Naga militants, but Pakistan denied the accusation on April 17, 1965.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed between December 28, 1965 and February 19, 1966, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Naga representatives held six rounds of peace negotiations in New Delhi between January 17, 1966 and October 6, 1967.  Naga militants bombed a train between Furkating and Kamarband in Sibsagar District on February 16, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 43 individuals.  Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi held negotiations with Naga representatives in New Delhi on February 18-19, 1966.  Naga militants bombed the railroad station in Lumding on April 20, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 56 individuals.  Naga militants bombed the railroad station in Diphu on April 23, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 40 individuals.  Reverand Michael Scott of the WPB was expelled from India on May 3, 1966.  T. N. Angami of the Naga Nationalist Organization (NNO) formed a government as Chief Minister on August 14, 1966.  China provided military assistance (military training) to Naga militants in Yunnan province in China beginning on January 27, 1967 (through at least 1976).  Naga militants killed three government police and two civilians near Chobama on March 9, 1968.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed near Jotsoma on June 7, 1968, resulting in the deaths of some 100 Naga militants and 50 government soldiers.  The Indian government accused China of providing military assistance to Naga militants on June 19, 1968, and China did not deny providing military assistance to Naga militants.  Kaito Sema, commander of the Naga militants, was fatally shot in Kohima on August 3, 1968.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed near Mezoma on December 2, 1968.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 6-10, 1969, and the NNO won 22 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The United Democratic Front (UDF) won ten seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Hokishe Sema of the Naga Nationalist Organization (NNO) formed a government as Chief Minister on February 22, 1969.  General Mowu Angami, commander of the Naga militants, was captured by government troops on March 16, 1969.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed near Jotsama on June 7, 1969, resulting in the deaths of some 100 Naga militants and 29 Indian soldiers.  Naga militants killed ten government policemen near Kohima and Tseminyu on August 1-4, 1969.  Naga militants killed eight government soldiers near Kohima on April 26, 1970.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed near Kohima on June 20, 1971, resulting in the deaths of eight government soldiers and three Naga militants.  General Thinusillie Keyho, commander of the Naga militants, surrendered to government troops on December 22, 1971.  Naga militants killed two government soldiers near Kohima on December 29, 1971.  Naga militants unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Chief Minister Hokishe Sema near Kohima on August 8, 1972.  Three individuals were killed in the assassination attempt.  Some 4,000 individuals were killed in political violence between September 1964 and August 1972.

Conflict Phase (September 1, 1972-April 28, 2001): The government unilaterally ended the ceasefire on September 1, 1972.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed on November 22, 1972, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed on February 3, 1973, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers.  Government troops and Naga militants clashed between July 1 and August 3, 1973, resulting in the deaths of 17 government soldiers and two civilians.  Naga militants killed nine government policemen on February 6, 1974.  Naga militants killed four government soldiers and three civilians on February 14, 1974.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 12-16, 1974, and the United Democratic Front (UDF) won 25 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Naga Nationalist Organization (NNO) won 23 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Vizol Angami of the United Democratic Front (UDF) formed a government as Chief Minister on February 26, 1974.  Chief Minister Vizol Angami resigned on March 9, 1975, and John Bosco Jasokie of the Naga National Democratic Party (NNDP) formed a government as Chief Minister on March 10, 1975.  The Indian government imposed presidential rule in Nagaland on March 22, 1975, and the Nagaland Legislative Assembly was dissolved on May 20, 1975.  The Indian government and a Naga National Council (NNC) faction Kevi Yalay Phizo signed the Shillong Accord on November 11, 1975, which provided for limited autonomy for the Naga region within India.  Angami Zapu Phizo repudiated the Shillong Accord in London on December 1, 1975.  Some 45 government soldiers and 27 civilians were killed during the conflict in 1975.  Indian Prime Minister Morarji Desai and Angami Zapu Phizo held talks in London in June 1977, but the talks did not result in an agreement.  Naga militants resumed their rebellion in July 1977.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on November 18, 1977, and the United Democratic Front (UDF) won 35 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won 15 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Vizol Angami of the United Democratic Front (UDF) formed a government as Chief Minister.  Naga militants killed some 50 individuals in Assam state on January 5, 1979.  Seven government soldiers were killed in a Naga militant attack on March 27, 1979.  Following a split in the Naga National Council (NNC), Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu established the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) on January 31, 1980.  Chief Minister Vizol Angami resigned, and S. C. Jamir of the United Democratic Front (UDF) formed a government as Chief Minister on April 18, 1980.  Chief Minister S. C. Jamir resigned, and John Bosco Kasokie of the Naga National Democratic Party (NNDP) formed a government as Chief Minister on June 5, 1980.  Naga militants killed three government soldiers on December 18, 1980.  Naga militants killed seven government soldiers in Tuengsang District on May 12, 1981.  Naga militants killed 22 government soldiers in February 1982.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on November 10, 1982, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 24 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Naga National Democratic Party (NNDP) also won 24 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  S. C. Jamir of the United Democratic Front (UDF) formed a government as Chief Minister on November 18, 1982.  Naga militants killed four government soldiers in the state of Manipur on December 8, 1984, and Naga militants killed thirteen government soldiers in Ukhrul District of the state of Manipur on February 18, 1985.  Naga militants killed seven government soldiers in Ukhrul District of the state of Manipur on August 13, 1985.  Chief Minister S. C. Jamir resigned on October 27, 1986, and Hokishe Sema of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister on October 29, 1986.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on November 18, 1987, and the Indian National Congress ((INC) won 34 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Naga National Democratic Party (NNDP) won 18 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Naga militants killed ten government soldiers in March 1988.  The Khaplang faction of the NSCN was established on April 30, 1988.  The Indian government dissolved the Nagaland Legislative Assembly and imposed presidential rule in the state of Nagaland on August 7, 1988.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on January 21, 1989, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 36 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Nagaland People’s Council (NPC) won 24 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  S. C. Jamir of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister on January 25, 1989.  Naga militants killed 24 individuals in Tengatol on April 7, 1989. Seven government soldiers and two Naga militants were killed in a clash on September 1, 1989.  Angami Zapu Phizo, president of the Naga National Council (NNC), died while living in exile in London on April 30, 1990.  K. L. Chishi of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister on May 16, 1990.  Vamuzo Phesao of the Nagaland People’s Council (NPC) formed a government as Chief Minister on June 19, 1990.  Naga militants killed one government policeman in the state of Nagaland on November 6, 1990.  Chief Minister Vamuzo Phesao won a vote of no-confidence in the Legislative Assembly on December 18, 1990.  NSCN militants killed ten government policemen in the state of Nagaland on August 14, 1991.  Naga militants ambushed and killed eleven individuals, including ten government security personnel and one civilian, in the state of Nagaland on December 10, 1991.  Naga militants killed five government policemen in the state of Nagaland on December 15, 1991.  The Nagaland Legislative Assembly was dissolved on March 27, 1992, and the Indian government imposed presidential rule in the state of Nagaland on April 2, 1992.  Naga militants killed four government policemen in Mokukchung on May 8, 1992. Naga militants ambushed and killed 13 government soldiers in the state of Nagaland on June 12, 1992.  Naga militants killed 13 individuals, all members of the Naga National Council (NNC), in the state of Nagaland on August 13, 1992.  Naga militants killed six government policemen near the village of Sailen in the state of Manipur on August 20, 1992.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed six government soldiers in Senapati in the state of Manipur on February 1, 1993.  Two NSCN militants were also killed in the incident.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 15, 1993, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 35 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Nagaland People’s Council (NPC) won 17 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed five government soldiers and six civilians in Tuensang District on February 16, 1993.  S. C. Jamir of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister on February 22, 1993.  NSCN militants attacked the village of Tinghkai Knunu in the state of Manipur on April 2, 1993, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. Government police killed five NSCN militants in the state of Assam on May 3, 1993.  Some 86 individuals were killed in clashes between ethnic Kukis and Nagas in the state of Manipur on May 3-4, 1993.  Government troops killed two NSCN militants in Kobo District in the state of Manipur on May 21, 1993.  NSCN militants attacked a military convoy near the village of Sita in the state of Manipur on June 29, 1993, resulting in the deaths of 26 government soldiers, two NSCN militants, and two civilians.  NSCN militants killed at least 41 ethnic Kukis in the state of Manipur on August 6-8, 1993.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed six government soldiers and two civilians in the state of Manipur on August 13, 1993.  NSCN militants killed 17 individuals in the state of Manipur on September 13, 1993.    NSCN militants killed some 100 ethnic Kukis in the village of Zapati in the state of Manipur on September 14, 1993.  The leaders of the Kukis and Nagas tribes appealed for a cessation of violence on October 6, 1993.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed two government policemen in Tamenglong District in the state of Manipur on October 11, 1993.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed five government soldiers in Zunheboto District in the state of Nagaland on December 5, 1993.  NSCN militants clashed with government troops near the town of Mokokchung in the state of Nagaland on December 15, 1993, resulting in the deaths of 15 government soldiers and one militant.  Government troops killed five NSCN militants in Kohima District on January 19, 1994.  NSCN militants killed some 16 ethnic Kukis, mostly women and children, in the village of Sai Pimol in the state of Manipur on May 15, 1994.  Leaders of the Kukis and Nagas tribes signed a peace agreement in Kohima on May 16, 1994.  Government policemen raided a NSCN-IM camp near Imphal in the state of Manipur on July 28, 1994, resulting in the deaths of nine NSCN-IM militants and one government policeman.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed 23 government policemen in the state of Manipur on August 18, 1994.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed eight government soldiers in the state of Manipur on September 5, 1994.  NSCN militants killed nine ethnic Kukis in the state of Manipur on November 15, 1994.  NSCN militants killed some 25 ethnic Kukis in Chandel District in the state of Manipur on November 19, 1994.  Naga militants killed five ethnic Kukis in Senapati District in the state of Manipur on January 2, 1995.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed seven government soldiers in Bishenour District in the state of Manipur on January 24, 1995.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed five government soldiers in the state of Assam on May 4, 1995.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed six government soldiers in the state of Manipur on June 6, 1995.  Government troops killed eight NSCN-IM militants near Kohima in the state of Nagaland on August 4, 1995.  Naga militants ambushed and killed nine government soldiers in the state of Nagaland on December 4, 1995.  Naga militants ambushed and killed seven government policemen in the state of Assam on February 8, 1996.  NSCN militants ambushed and killed six government soldiers in the town of Vokha in the state of Nagaland on February 20, 1996.  On February 23, 1996, Indian Prime Minister Narasimha Rao offered to hold unconditional negotiations with Naga militants groups.  Naga militants ambushed and killed six government soldiers in the state of Nagaland on May 23, 1996.  Naga militants ambushed and killed 29 bus passengers in Dimapur in the state of Nagaland on December 9, 1996. Indian Prime Minister H. D. Deve Gowda and NSCN leaders held preliminary talks in Geneva, Switzerland on February 3, 1997.  On May 19, 1997, Indian Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral offered to hold unconditional negotiations with Naga militant groups.  On July 25, 1997, the government and the NSCN-Isak Muivah (NSCN-IM) faction agreed to a cessation of military hostilities, which went into effect on August 1, 1997.  The Baptist Group of America (BGA) facilitated negotiations involving Chief Minister S. C. Jamir and representatives of two Naga groups (NSCN-K and NNC) in Atlanta, Georgia from July 28 to September 10, 1997.  Chief Minister S. C. Jamir survived an assassination attempt in Kohima on September 29, 1997.  Some 120 individuals were killed in violence in the state of Nagaland from August 1 to October 31, 1997.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 23, 1998, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 53 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Most opposition political parties boycotted the elections. NSCN-K militants killed eight government soldiers in the state of Nagaland on April 19, 1998.  Representatives of the Indian government and NSCN-IM held talks in Bangkok, Thailand in June 1998.  On August 31, 1998, the Indian government and NSCN-IM agreed to extend their ceasefire agreement by one year.  Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee held talks with the leaders of the NSCN-IM, Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu, in Paris, France on October 4, 1998.  On May 18, 1999, the leaders of the NSCN-Isak Muivah (NSCN-IM) faction, Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu, visited the state of Nagaland after 33 years in exile.  Representatives of the Indian government and the NSCN-IM held talks in Amsterdam, Netherlands from March to July 1999.  The NSCN-Khaplang (NSCN-K) faction announced a six-month cessation of military hostilities against the Indian government on April 8, 2000, and the ceasefire was extended for another six months on October 10, 2000.  The Indian government and the NSCN-Khaplang (NSCN-K) faction agreed to a one-year ceasefire on April 28, 2001 (the ceasefire has been extended annually since that date).  Some 720 individuals, including 494 Naga militants, 60 government security personnel, and 166 civilians, were killed in violent incidents in the state of Nagaland between January 1997 and April 2001.  Some 17,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 29, 2001-present): Representatives of the Indian government and the NSCN-Khaplang (NSCN-K) faction began negotiations in Kohima, Nagaland on September 3, 2001.  Rival factions of the NSCN (NSCN-K and NSCN-IM) clashed in the state of Nagaland on November 16, 2001, resulting in the deaths of seven NSCN-K militants.  Indian Prime Minister Atal Berhari Vajpayee held talks with the leaders of the NSCN-IM, Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu, in Osaka, Japan in December 2001.  On November 26, 2002, the Indian government announced that it would not renew the ban on the NSCN.  The Indian government held talks with the leaders of the NSCN-IM, Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu, in New Delhi on January 9-10, 2003.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 26, 2003, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 21 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Nagaland People’s Front (NPF) won 19 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Four individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Neiphiu Rio of the Nagaland People’s Front (NPF) – and leader of the Democratic Alliance of Nagaland (DAN) consisting of 38 seats in the Legislative Assembly – formed a government as Chief Minister on March 6, 2003.  Burmese troops attacked the headquarters of the NSCN-K in western Myanmar (Burma) in July 2003.  Burmese troops launched a military offensive against NSCN-K bases in western Myanmar (Burma) on January 4-7, 2004, resulting in the deaths of 15 Burmese soldiers and three Naga militants.  During negotiations held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, representatives of the Indian government and NSCN-IM agreed to extend their ceasefire by another year on July 30, 2004.  More than 25 individuals, including women and children, were killed in two bombings in Dimapur District in the state of Nagaland on October 2, 2004.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed near the village of Yakor in Tuensang District on November 16, 2004, resulting in the deaths of three NSCN militants.  Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh held talks with the leaders of the NSCN-IM, Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chisi Swu, in New Delhi on December 7-13, 2004.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in the village of Surohuto in Zunheboto District on March 24, 2005, resulting in the deaths of at least ten individuals.  Four NSCN-K militants were killed by NSCN-IM militants in the village of Yakor in Tuensang District on March 29, 2005.  Burmese troops attacked bases of the NSCN-K in western Myanmar (Burma) in December 2005.  During talks in Bangkok, Thailand, the Indian government and NSCN-IM agreed to extend the ceasefire by another six months on January 31, 2006.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in the village of Nokyan in Mon District on January 8, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three NSCN militants.  Burmese government troops attacked NSCN-K bases in Chumsa and Tenuk, Myanmar on February 28-March 1, 2006, resulting in the deaths of 12 Burmese soldiers and five Naga militants. Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in the village of Hongphoi in Mon District on April 15, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three NSCN militants.  Three NSCN-IM militants were killed during attacks by NSCN-K militants in Phek District on September 5, 2006.  Five NSCN-IM militants were killed by NSCN-K militants in the village of Chalcot in Peren District on September 20, 2006.  Eight NSCN-K militants were killed by NSCN-IM militants in the village of Shoixe in Zunheboto District on October 9, 2006.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in Zunheboto District on October 27, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in the districts of Peren and Zunheboto on December 1, 2006, resulting in the deaths of three NSCN militants.  Burmese troops launched a major assault against NSCN-K bases in Burma on January 28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 12 Burmese soldiers and three Naga militants.  On February 11, 2007, Burmese troops resumed their military offensive against NSCN-K bases.  Rival Naga groups, including the NSCN-IM, clashed in the town of Pfutsero in Phek District on February 16, 2007, resulting in the deaths of three Naga militants.  Three NSCN-IM militants were killed by NSCN-K militants in Mon District on March 13, 2007.  Three NSCN-K militants were abducted and killed by NSCN-IM militants in Dimapur District on March 18, 2007.  Rival factions of the NSCN (NSCN-K and NSCN-IM) clashed in Mon District on March 25, 2007, resulting in the deaths of four NSCN-IM militants.  Rival factions of the NSCN (NSCN-K and NSCN-IM) clashed in Zunheboto District on April 15, 2007, resulting in the deaths of six NSCN-K militants.  Rival Naga groups clashed in the village of Khutsokhuno in Phek District on May 28, 2007, resulting in the deaths of five Naga militants.  Rival factions of the NSCN (NSCN-K and NSCN-IM) clashed in the village of Mekokla in Wokha District on June 12, 2007, resulting in the deaths of four NSCN-K militants.  Three NSCN-IM militants were killed by civilians in Tuensang District on August 18, 2007.  Naga militants ambushed and killed 12 ethnic Kukis in Ukhrul District in the state of Manipur on September 4, 2007.  Five NSCN-IM militants were killed by gunmen in Kohima District in the state of Nagaland on September 8, 2007.  Four NSCN-IM militants were killed by NSCN-K militants in Kohima District on October 3, 2007.  Four NSCN-K militants were ambushed and killed by rival NSCN-IM militants near Khuthur in Tuensang District on November 1, 2007.  Former Chief Minister S. C. Jamir, currently Governor of Gao, survived an assassination attempt near Mokokchung in the state of Nagaland on November 24, 2007.  Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio won a vote of no-confidence in the Legislative Assembly on December 13, 2007.  The Indian government imposed presidential rule in the state of Nagaland on January 3, 2008.  Three NSCN-K militants were killed by NSCN-IM militants in Mingkong in Mokokchung District on January 14, 2008.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on March 5, 2008, and the Nagaland People’s Front (NPF) won 26 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won 23 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Neiphiu Rio of the Nagaland People’s Front (NPF) formed a government as Chief Minister on March 12, 2008.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed near Khopanalalla in Dimapur District on April 22, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four NSCN militants.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in the village of Showuba in Dimapur District on May 1, 2008, resulting in the deaths of one NSCN militant and two civilians.  Rival factions of the NSCN (NSCN-K and NSCN-IM) clashed in the village of Seithekema in Dimapur District on May 16, 2008, resulting in the deaths of 14 Naga militants and two civilians.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed in Dimapur District on June 4, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 15 Naga militants.  Rival factions of the NSCN clashed near Vihokhu in Dimapur District on June 26, 2008, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Representatives of the NSCN-K, NSCN-IM, and Nagaland state government held negotiations in Chiang Mai, Thailand on June 1-8, 2009, and the representatives signed the Covenant of Reconciliation (CoR) on June 13, 2009.  Burmese troops attacked a base of the NSCN-K in western Myanmar (Burma) in November 2009.  Leaders of several Naga factions signed a peace accord in Kohima on September 18, 2010.  The NSCN-Khole-Kitovi (NSCN-KK) faction was established on June 7, 2011.  On February 11, 2012, NSCN-K militants killed one NSCN-KK militant in the village of Shotomi in Zunheboto District.  Three members of the NSCN-KK were killed by members of the NSCN-K in Mon District on March 14, 2012.  The government of Myanmar (Burma) and the NSCN-Khaplang (NSCN-K) faction agreed to a cessation of military hostilities on April 8, 2012.  The Indian government and the NSCN-Khole-Kitovi (NSCN-KK) faction signed a ceasefire agreement that went into effect on April 28, 2012.  On May 6, 2012, members of the NSCN-KK and NSCN-K factions clashed in the town of Dimapur in Dimapur District, resulting in the deaths of one Naga militant and one civilian.  Ten Naga militants were killed in clashes between two rival factions of the NSCN, including the NSCN-Khole-Kitovi (NSCN-KK) faction and the NSCN-K faciton, in the districts of Tuensang, Kiphire, Phek, and Dimapur between December 3 and December 16, 2012.  Elections were held in the state of Nagaland on February 23, 2013, and the Nagaland People’s Front (NPF) won 38 out of 60 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won eight seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Some 814 individuals, including 182 civilians, 15 government security personnel, and 617 Naga militants have been killed in political violence in the state of Nagaland since April 2000.

[Sources:  Agence France Presse (AFP), May 19, 1997, July 25, 1997; Arnold et al., 1991, 137-138; Associated Press (AP), May 12, 1992, April 8, 2000, January 9, 2003; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), June 6, 1995, February 8, 1996, February 23, 1996, November 13, 1997, June 26, 1998, August 20, 1999, March 10, 2001, June 14, 2001, July 12, 2001, November 16, 2001, December 9, 2001, March 14, 2002, April 26, 2002, November 26, 2002, January 9, 2003, January 10, 2003, March 6, 2003, May 2, 2003, July 7, 2003, January 5, 2004, January 7, 2004, July 30, 2004, October 2, 2004, October 22, 2004, December 7, 2004, December 14, 2004, March 24, 2005, July 31, 2005, August 10, 2005, December 9, 2005, January 31, 2006, July 31, 2007, September 4, 2007, May 16, 2008, June 4, 2008, November 6, 2009, June 11, 2012; Brogan, 1992, 189-190; Butterworth, 1976, 194-196; Clodfelter, 1992, 1089-1090; Degenhardt, 1988, 154-155; Facts on File, March 17-23, 1966, June 9-15, 1966, September 5-11, 1968, March 20-26, 1969, February 22, 1975, February 9, 1979; Keesing’s Record of World Events, September 28-October 5, 1957, November 30-December 7, 1957, January 9-16, 1960, August 6-13, 1960, March 11-18, 1961, December 16-23, 1961, February 16-23, 1963, March 7-14, 1964, June 11-18, 1966, March 29-April 5, 1969, March 11-18, 1972, October 7-14, 1972, December 10-16, 1973, April 22-28, 1974, February 27, 1976, January 29, 1982, January 1986, March 1988; New York Times (NYT), May 4, 1990; Reuters, July 28, 1994, August 19, 1994, November 15, 1994, November 19, 1994, May 4, 1995, August 4, 1995, December 4, 1995, December 10, 1996, April 9, 2000, July 31, 2000, August 5, 2003, June 14, 2010; Voice of America (VOA), January 28, 2007.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Anand, V. K. 1980. Conflict in Nagaland: A Study of Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency. Delhi: Chanakya Publications.

Jones, P. H. M. 1966. “India and the Nagas.” Far Eastern Economic Review (August 30): 389-394.

Means, Gordon P. and Ingunn N. Means. 1966-1967. “Nagaland – The Agony of Ending a Guerrilla War.” Pacific Affairs 39
(Fall-Winter): 290-313.

Nibedon, Nirmal. 1978. Nagaland: The Night of the Guerrillas. New Delhi: Lancers Publishers.

Patterson, George N. 1966. “Delhi and the Nagas.” Far Eastern Economic Review (May 19): 332-334.

Sema, Hokishe. 1986. Emergence of Nagaland: Socio-Economic and Political Transformation and the Future. Vikas
Publishing House, Ltd.

Singh, Chandrika. 1981. Political Evolution of Nagaland. New Delhi: Lancers Publishers.

Singh, Prakash. 1981. Nagaland. New Delhi: National Book Trust, India.