NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) UPDATES

Masks are required as the campus is at red status.

38. India/Mizos (1961-present)

 

Crisis Phase (October 22, 1961-February 27, 1966): Mizo nationalists, who were mostly Christians, established the Mizo National Front (MNF) in opposition to the Indian government in the state of Assam on October 22, 1961.  On December 21, 1961, the MNF announced its objective to unify Mizos under a single administration.  The government of Pakistan provided military assistance (weapons and training) to the MNF beginning in November 1964.  The Indian government rejected MNF’s demand for independence in October 1965.

Conflict Phase (February 28, 1966-July 1, 1976):  The MNF launched a rebellion against the Indian government on February 28, 1966, and declared the independence of the district of Mizoram from India on March 1, 1966.  The Indian Air Force (IAF) bombed the town of Aizawl (Aijal) on March 4-5, 1966.  Government troops captured the town of Aizawl (Aijal) on March 6-7, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 20 rebels. The Indian government outlawed the MNF on March 6, 1966.  Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on the Aijal-Silchar road on March 30, 1966, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers.  Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed near Demagiri on May 16-17, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels.  Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed near Toipui on July 4-7, 1966, resulting in the deaths of seven rebels.  The government accused Pakistan of providing military assistance to the Mizo rebels, and President Ayub Khan of Pakistan denied the accusation on August 5, 1966. Government troops and Mizon rebels clashed in Aizawl (Aijal) District on September 5, 1966, resulting in the deaths of 32 rebels. Mizo rebels attacked the police station in Jairampunji in Cachar district on September 26-27, 1966, resulting in the deaths of three government policemen. Seven Mizos were killed in clashes with villagers in the Lungleh area on November 14-16, 1966. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed in Aizawl (Aijal) District on November 18, 1966, resulting in the deaths of eight rebels. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed near Kawlkulh on December 16, 1966, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers.  Government troops relocated some 50,000 Mizos to 18 “protected and progressive villages” between January 4 and February 25, 1967. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on February 12, 1967, resulting in the deaths of 12 government soldiers. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on March 6, 1967, resulting in the deaths of nine rebels.  Mizo rebels attacked government troops near Bilkhawthlir on May 23, 1967, resulting in the deaths of 15 government soldiers. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on the Imphal-Tamenglong road on July 24-26, 1967, resulting in the deaths of 20 government soldiers. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on December 27, 1967, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers. Some 490 Mizo rebels and 68 government soldiers were killed during the conflict between March 1, 1966 and December 31, 1967. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed on March 20, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 15 rebels and nine government soldiers. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed near Imphal on March 23, 1968, resulting in the deaths of some 20 government soldiers and 12 rebels. Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed near Lungleh on June 7, 1968, resulting in the deaths of nine rebels. Some 90 rebels were killed in clashed with government troops between July 7 and October 7, 1968. Some 58,000 Mizos were relocated in January 1969. Mizo rebels attacked government troops in the Marpara area on February 16, 1970, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers. Mizo rebels attacked three villages in the state of Tripura on July 2, 1970, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  Government troops and Mizo rebels clashed in August 1970, resulting in the deaths of six rebels. Government and MNF representatives began negotiations in January 1971. China provided military assistance to the MNF between 1972 and 1974. The government permitted the Mizo Hill District to become a Union Territory (Mizoram) on January 21, 1972.  Legislative elections were held on April 18, 1972, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won six out of 30 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Independents won 24 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Mizoram Legislative Assembly convened on May 10, 1972.  MNF rebels killed three government policemen in Aizawl (Aijal) on January 14, 1975. MNF rebels killed one government policeman in Aizawl (Aijal) on April 4, 1975. Government police and MNF rebels clashed in Aizawl (Aijal) on August 29, 1975, resulting in the death of one government policeman and one rebel. Government and Mizo representatives held negotiations in New Delhi beginning on February 18, 1976, and signed a ceasefire agreement on July 1, 1976. Some 1,400 individuals were killed, and some 140,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 2, 1976-June 12, 1979): Government and MNF representatives held negotiations beginning in August 1977, but the government broke off negotiations with the MNF on March 20, 1978.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in May 1978, and the Mizoram People’s Conference (MPC) won 22 out of 30 seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Mizoram Legislative Assembly convened on June 21, 1978, but was dissolved on November 11, 1978.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram on April 24-27, 1979, and the MPC won 18 out of 30 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won five seats in the Legislative Assembly.

Conflict Phase (June 13, 1979-August 1, 1980): Mizo rebels resumed military hostilities against the government on June 13, 1979. The government declared the MNF an “unlawful organization” on July 7, 1979. Mizo rebels killed seven civilians near Silchar on August 7, 1979. Mizo rebels attacked government troops near Kawnpui on February 27, 1980, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers. Mizo rebels killed four individuals on March 20, 1980. Government and MNF representatives began negotiations in April 1980. Mizo rebels killed three government officials near Lunglei on June 13, 1980, and Mizo rebels killed three civilians near Silchar on June 18, 1980.  Mizo rebels attacked government troops near Bilkhawtlir on June 21, 1980, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  The parties agreed to a cessation of military hostilities on August 1, 1980. Some 100 individuals were killed, and some 10,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict between June 1979 and August 1980.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 2, 1980-June 30, 1986): Government and Mizo National Front (MNF) negotiations ended on January 12, 1982, and the government formally banned the MNF on January 20, 1982.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in 1984, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 20 out of 30 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Mizoram People’s Conference (MPC) won eight seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Government and MNF representative resumed negotiations in October 1984.  Government and MNF representatives signed a peace agreement, the Mizoram Act, 1986, Memorandum of Settlement, on June 30, 1986.  The agreement required members of the MNF to hand over all arms, ammunition, and military equipment to the Indian central government.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1986-present):  The government lifted the ban on the Mizo National Front (MNF) on August 18, 1986. The leader of the MNF formed a coalition government in the state of Mizoram on August 21, 1986.  Mizoram formally became an Indian state on February 20, 1987.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in 1987, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 13 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Independents, including many members of the MNF, won 24 seats in the Legislative Assembly. Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in 1989, and the INC won 23 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The MNF won 14 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in 1993, and the INC won 16 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The MNF won 14 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in December 1993, and the INC won 16 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The MNF won 14 seats in the Legislative Assembly.   Legislative elections were held in Mizoram on November 25, 1998, and the MNF won 21 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Mizoram People’s Conference (MPC) won 12 seats in the Legislative Assembly.   Zoramthanga was sworn in as Chief Minister in December 1998.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram on November 20, 2003, and the MNF won 21 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The INC won 12 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram in December 2008, and the INC won 32 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The MNF won three seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Lal Thanhawla of the INC was sworn in as Chief Minister on December 11, 2008.  Legislative elections were held in Mizoram on November 25, 2013, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 34 out of 40 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The MNF won five seats in the Legislative Assembly.

[Sources: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), November 18, 2003, December 2, 2003, December 4, 2003; Brogan, 1992, 190-191; Butterworth, 1976, 194-196; Clodfelter, 1992, 1094; Facts on File, March 17-23, 1966, February 22, 1975; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 23-30, 1966, March 29-April 5, 1969, March 11-18, 1972, September 2-9, 1972, December 10-16, 1973, February 27, 1976, September 10, 1976, December 7, 1979, July 4, 1980, November 21, 1980, September 10, 1982, January 1986, October 1986; Nibedon 1980; Ray 1982.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Nibedon, Nirmal. 1980. Mizoram: The Dagger Brigade. New Delhi: Lancers Publishers.

Ray, Animesh. 1982. Mizoram: Dynamics of Change. Calcutta: Pearl Publishers.