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54. India/Jammu and Kashmir (1947-present)

 

Crisis Phase (August 15, 1947-December 31, 1948):  British India formally achieved its independence from Britain on August 15, 1947, but Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir delayed making a decision regarding whether to join India or Pakistan.  Mehr Chand Mahajan of the Indian National Congress (INC) served as prime minister in the state of Jammu and Kashmir from October 15, 1947 to March 5, 1948.  After Pashtun tribesmen (Muslims) from neighboring Waziristan, Pakistan invaded Jammu and Kashmir beginning on October 20, 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh requested military assistance from the government of India.  Pakistani government troops provide support for the Pashtun tribesment beginning on October 23, 1947.  Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession with the Indian government on October 26, 1947, and Indian troops entered Jammu and Kashmir on October 27, 1947.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was appointed as Emergency Administrator of the state of Jammu and Kashmir by Maharaja Hari Singh on October 30, 1947.  India referred the Jammu and Kashmir dispute to the United Nations Security Council on January 1, 1948.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was appointed as prime minister of an interim government in the state of Jammu and Kashmir by Maharaja Hari Singh on March 5, 1948.  The UN Security Council mediated a ceasefire agreement that went into effect on December 31, 1948.  Some 8,000 individuals were killed, and some 1.5 million individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 1, 1949-May 28, 1977):  Maharaja Hari Singh abdicated as head of state in favor of his son, Dr. Yuvraj Karan Singh, on June 20, 1949.  On May 1, 1951, Dr. Yuvraj Karan Singh issued a proclamation  for the elections of a Constituent Assembly in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in August and September 1951, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 75 out of 75 seats in the Constituent Assembly.  The Praja Parishad boycotted the elections.  The Constituent Assembly convened on October 31, 1951.  On August 8, 1953, Prime Minister Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was dismissed by Dr. Yuvraj Karan Singh, the head of state of Jammu and Kashmir.  Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed was appointed as prime minister on August 9, 1953.  That same day, Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was arrested and imprisoned.  Some 70 individuals were killed in protests following the arrest of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah.  On February 6, 1954, the Constituent Assembly voted to ratify the state of Jammu and Kashmir’s accession to India.  The Constitution of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir was formally adopted by a Constituent Assembly on November 17, 1956, and the Constitution entered into force on January 26, 1957.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on from February 24 to March 25, 1957, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 68 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Praja Parishad won five seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was released from prison on January 8, 1958, but he was re-arrested by government police on April 29, 1958.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on February 17-18, 1962, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 70 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Prime Minister Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed resigned on October 4, 1963, and Khwaja Shamsuddin of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a government as prime minister on October 12, 1963.  Prime Minister Khwaja Shamsuddin resigned on February 29, 1964, and Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as prime minister.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was released from prison on April 8, 1964.  On May 9, 1965, Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was arrested in New Delhi after returning a trip abroad.  As a result of an amendment to the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir that went into effect on May 30, 1965, the position of prime minister was changed to chief minister.  The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) merged with the Indian National Congress (INC) on June 6, 1965.

Crisis Phase (August 5, 1965-January 10, 1966):  Armed insurgents from Pakistan attacked government installations, government police, and government troops in the state of Jammu and Kashmir beginning on August 5, 1965.  Pakistani troops launched a military offensive within the state of Jammu and Kashmir on September 1, 1965.  Indian government troops launched a counter-offensive against Pakistani troops on September 5, 1965.  On September 19, 1965, China expressed support for the people of Kashmir in their struggle for self-determination.  The parties agreed to a ceasefire on September 22, 1965.  Representatives of the Indian government and Pakistan signed the Soviet Union-mediated Tashkent Declaration on January 10, 1966.  Some 20,000 individuals were killed, and some 40,000 individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 11, 1966-May 28, 1977):  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on March 5-6, 1967, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 61 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) faction headed by former Prime Minister Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed won eight seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah was released from prison on December 8, 1967.  Chief Minister Ghulam Mohammed Sadiq died on December 12, 1971, and Syed Mir Qasim of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on February 8, 1972, and the Indian National Congress (INC) won 58 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Jammu and Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami (JKJI) won five seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Representatives of Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi signed the Kashmir Accord on November 13, 1974.  With the support of the Indian National Congress (INC), Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah formed a government as Chief Minister on February 25, 1975.  The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) was re-established as an independent political party in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in July 1975.  The Indian National Congress (INC) withdrew its support for the government on March 16, 1977.  Chief Minister Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah resigned, and the state of Jammu and Kashmir was placed under presidential rule on March 17, 1977.

Crisis Phase (May 29, 1977-December 7, 1989): The Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) was established by Amanullah Khan and Maqbool Bhat in opposition to the Indian government on May 29, 1977.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on June 30, 1977, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 47 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Janata Party (JP) won 13 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a government as Chief Minister on July 9, 1977.  Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah, Chief Minister of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, died on September 8, 1982.  Dr. Farooq Abdullah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a government as Chief Minister on September 8, 1982.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on June 6, 1983, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 46 out of 75 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won 26 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Dr. Farooq Abdullah formed a new government as Chief Minister on June 12, 1983. Maqbool Bhat, one of the co-founders of the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), was executed by the Indian government in New Delhi on February 11, 1984.  Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah was dismissed on July 2, 1984, and Ghulam Mohammad Shah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a government as Chief Minister.  Chief Minister Ghulam Mohammad Shah was dismissed on March 6, 1986, and the state of Jammu and Kashmir was placed under presidential rule from March 6 to November 7, 1986.  Dr. Farooq Abdullah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a coalition government as Chief Minister on November 7, 1986.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on March 23, 1987, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 40 out of 76 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won 26 seats in the Legislative Assembly. The Jammu and Kashmir Muslim Conference (JKMC) was established on January 16, 1989.  Three government policemen were killed by Islamic militants in Srinagar on July 13, 1989.  The Hizbul-Mujahideen (HiM), the militant wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), was established in opposition to the government in September 1989.

Conflict Phase (December 8, 1989-present): Members of the JKLF launched an insurgency against the Indian government in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on December 8, 1989.  Chief Minister Farooq Abdullah resigned on January 18, 1990, and the Indian government placed the state of Jammu and Kashmir under presidential rule on January 19, 1990.  Indian government troops killed some 100 protesters at the Gawakadal bridge in Srinagar on January 20, 1990. The Indian government dissolved the Legislative Assembly on February 19, 1990, and some 125,000 government troops were deployed in the Jammu and Kashmir region. Government troops killed some 33 protesters in Srinagar on March 1, 1990.  Yasin Malik, commander of the JKLF, was arrested in Srinagar on August 6, 1990.  Islamic militants ambushed and killed one member of the Border Security Force (BSF) in Sopore on January 6, 1993, and BSF personnel responded by killed some 55 civilians in Sopore.  General K. V. Krishna Rao was appointed as Governor of the state of Jammu and Kashmir on March 12, 1993.  The All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference (APHC), a coalition of 23 secessionist groups in Jammu and Kashmir, was established on July 31, 1993.  Government troops killed 37 protesters in Bijbehara on October 22, 1993.  Yasin Malik, the former commander of the JFLK, was released from prison on May 17, 1994.  Yasin Malik, representing the JFLK, declared a unilateral ceasefire with the Indian government on May 21, 1994.  Government troops killed 19 Islamic militants on June 17, 1994.  Government troops laid siege to the  Hazrat Bal Shrine from July 29 to August 6, 1994.  Ten government soldiers were killed in a bombing by Islamic militants on December 24, 1994.  Some 1,300 civilians, 200 police personnel, and 1,600 Islamic militants were killed in political violence in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1994. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants on January 30, 1995, resulting in the deaths of nine individuals. Islamic militants ambushed government soldiers on July 22, 1995, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers and two militants.  Elections were  held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir from September 7 to September 30, 1996, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 57 out of 87 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won eight seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Some 567 individuals were killed in pre-election violence.  Presidential rule ended in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on October 9, 1996.  Dr. Farooq Abdullah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a government as Chief Minister on October 9, 1996. Islamic militants killed seven Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) in the village of Sangrampora on March 22, 1997.  Government troops killed 15 Islamic militants on May 14, 1997.  Three government soldiers were killed by a landmine on June 3, 1997.  Government troops killed some 13 Islamic militants on June 6, 1997.  Islamic militants killed one government soldier near the city of Jammu on October 23, 1997.  The same day, two individuals were killed in bombings near Srinagar.  Some 23 Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus), including nine women and four children, were killed by suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taibain the town of Wandhama on January 25, 1998.  On January 27, 1998, the U.S. government condemned the massacre of 23 Hindus in the town of Wandhama.  On February 17, 1998, the Indian government extended its ban on the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF).  Some 26 Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) were killed by Islamic militants in the villages of Prankote and Dakikote in Udhampur District on April 17, 1998.  Islamic militants killed some 25 Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) in the village of Chapnari in Doda District on June 19, 1998.  Some 15 Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) were killed by Islamic militants in Doda district on July 28, 1998.  The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) expressed support for Kashmiri “self-determination” on June 1, 1999. Suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, killed 36 Sikhs in Anantnag District on March 20, 2000.  The HiM declared a unilateral ceasefire on July 24, 2000.  Islamic militants killed some 30 individuals, mostly Hindu pilgrims, in the town of Pahalgam in Anantnag District on August 1, 2000.  The government ended the six-month ceasefire against Kashmir rebels on May 23, 2001.  Islamic militants bombed the state of Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly complex in Srinagar on October 1, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 38 individuals. On March 30, 2002, suicide bombers attacked the Raghunath Temple in Jammu, resulting in the deaths of 11 individuals.  Islamic militants killed 27 Hindus, including 13 women and one child, in Qasim Nagar on July 13, 2002.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir from September 16 to October 8, 2002, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 28 out of 87 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Indian National Congress (INC) won 20 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Some 580 individuals were killed in pre-election violence. The Indian government placed the state of Jammu and Kashmir under presidential rule from October 18 to November 2, 2002.  Mufti Mohammad Sayeed of the Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (JKPDP) formed a coalition government as Chief Minister on November 2, 2002.  Government police and Islamic militants clashed at the Raghunath and Panchvaktar temples in Jammu on November 24-25, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals. The U.S. condemned the Islamic militants on November 25, 2002.  Suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, killed 24 Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) in the village of Nadimarg in Pulwama District on March 23, 2003.  Government troops killed eight Islamic militants northwest of Srinagar on June 12, 2003.  Islamic militants attacked a government army camp on June 28, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 12 government soldiers and two militants.  Nine individuals were killed in clashes between Islamic militants and government troops on June 29, 2003.  Pakistan condemned the Islamic militants on June 30, 2003.  A suicide bomber attacked and killed four government soldiers in Srinagar on July 20, 2005.  Islamic militants killed two individuals in Srinagar on July 29, 2005.  Islamic militants assassinated Ghulam Nabi Lone, Education Minister in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, in Srinagar on October 18, 2005.  Ghulam Nabi Azad of the Indian National Congress (INC) formed a government as Chief Minister on November 2, 2005.  Islamic militants killed 35 Hindus in Dida and Udhampur districts on April 30, 2006.  Suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, killed eight individuals in Srinagar on July 11, 2006.  Two Islamic militants were killed by government troops in Sopore on January 1, 2007.  Four Islamic militants were killed by government police in Udhampur District on January 4, 2007.  Two government soldiers were killed in a grenade attack in the village of Kulgam on June 1, 2007.  Thirteen individuals, including 10 Islamic militants and two government soldiers, were killed in clashes in Kupwara District on June 28, 2007.  Two government soldiers and nine Islamic militants were killed in clashes in Tangmarg on October 2-3, 2007.  Five government soldiers and two civilians were killed in an explosion at a military camp in Pattan township on October 11, 2007.  The Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, claimed responsibility for the explosion.  The same day, Islamic militants ambushed and killed two government soldiers in Baramullah District.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Avantipora District on December 5, 2007, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers and two militants.  Islamic militants from the state of Jammu and Kashmir were suspected of killing seven government soldiers at a military camp in Rampur in the state of Uttar Pradesh on January 2, 2008.  On January 30, 2008, government troops killed four members of the Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.  Government troops killed four Islamic militants in the village of Saidapora in Shopian District on February 29, 2008.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Srinagar on March 23, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and one militant.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Samba District on May 11, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four civilians, one government soldier, and two militants.  Two Islamic militants were killed during clashes with government troops in the village of Chhotipora on June 2, 2008.  The same day, four Islamic militants were killed by government troops in the districts of Baramullah and Bandipora.  Islamic militants ambushed and killed five government soldiers in Kishtwar District on June 13, 2008.  The state of Jammu and Kashmir was placed under presidential rule on July 11, 2008. Government troops clashed with Islamic militants near the town of Sopore on July 16, 2008, resulting in the deaths of two militants and one government soldier.  Nine government soldiers were killed in a bus explosion near Srinagar on July 19, 2008.  The Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, claimed responsibility for the explosion.  Two civilians were killed in a grenade attack by suspected Islamic militants in Gulmarg on July 20, 2008.  The same day, two government soldiers were killed during clashes with Islamic militants in Rajouri.  A former member of a militant group and three members of his family were killed by Islamic militants in Doda District on July 23, 2008.  Five civilians, including one women and four children, were killed in a bombing by suspected Islamic militants in Srinagar on July 24, 2008.  Government police killed five Muslim demonstrators, including Sheikh Abdul Aziz – the leader of the All Party Hurriyat (Freedom) Conference (APHC) – in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on August 11, 2008.  Government police killed some 14 Muslim protesters in several locations in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on August 12, 2008.  Government police killed one Muslim protester in Srinagar on August 14, 2008.  Government troops launched an assault on Islamic militants holding nine individuals hostage in Jammu on August 27-27, 2008, resulting in the deaths of three of the hostages and three militants.  Two individuals were killed in clashes between government police and demonstrators in the towns on Shopian and Baramullah on September 12, 2008.  Two government soldiers were killed in clashes with Islamic militants in the Poonch region on September 22, 2008.  Government troops killed five members of the Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, in Kishtwar District on October 27, 2008.  Elections were held in the state of Jammu and Kashmir from November 17 to December 24, 2008, and the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) won 28 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  The Jammu and Kashmir People’s Democratic Party (JKPDP) won 21 seats in the Legislative Assembly.  Government police clashed with members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, in Doda District on December 18-19, 2008, resulting in the deaths of three militants and one government soldier.  Presidential rule in the state of Jammu and Kashmir ended on January 5, 2009.  Omar Abdullah of the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (JKNC) formed a coalition government as Chief Minister on January 5, 2009.  Some 25 individuals, including eight government soldiers and 17 militants, were killed in clashes between government troops and members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taibain Kupwara District on March 20-24, 2009.  Two members of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) were killed by suspected Islamic militants in Srinagar on August 31, 2009.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Poonch District on September 9, 2009, resulting in the deaths of two militants and one government soldier.  Two government policemen and one civilian were killed in a bombing in Srinagar on September 12, 2009.  Government troops killed two members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, in the village of Salwa in Poonch District on October 28-29, 2009.  Two government policemen were killed in an attack by suspected Islamic militants in Pampore township on December 22, 2009.  Four members of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) were killed by suspected Islamic militants near the town of Sopore on December 30, 2009.  Islamic militants attacked and killed two individuals, including one government policeman and one civilian, in Srinagar on January 6, 2010.  The next day, government security forces killed two Islamic militants in Srinagar.  Islamic militants attacked a government police station in Sopore on January 15, 2010, resulting in the deaths of one government policeman and one civilian.  Two government soldiers were killed during a clash with Islamic militants in Kishtwar District on January 28, 2010.  Three government soldiers were killed during clashes with Islamic militants in Sopore on February 23, 2010.  Government troops clashed with members of the Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, in the village of Dadasar on March 3-4, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four militants and one government soldier.  Two government soldiers were killed in clashes with Islamic militants in Bandipora District on May 4, 2010.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Baramullah District on May 6, 2010, resulting in the deaths of four militants and two government soldiers.  Government police killed three demonstrators in the town of Anantnag on June 29, 2010.  Government police killed three demonstrators in Srinagar on July 6, 2010.  Nine individuals were killed in clashes with government police in Srinagar and Pampore on August 1, 2010.  Four protesters were killed in clashes with government police in the towns of Sopore, Trehhgam, and Pattan on August 13, 2010.  Government troops clashed with suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, in Rajouri District on August 15, 2010, resulting in the deaths of two militants and one government soldier.  Nineteen individuals, including 18 civilians and one government policeman, were killed in clashes in the state of Jammu and Kashmi on September 13, 2010.  Government police killed four demonstrators in the town of Mendhar on September 15, 2010.  Government police killed three protesters in the towns of Shopian, Beerwah, and Pattan on September 17, 2010.  Government police killed two members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taibanear the town of Handwara on November 29, 2010.  Government troops killed three suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taiba, in Sopore on June 2, 2011.  Government troops killed three Islamic militants in the village of Maidanpora village in Kupwara District on July 15, 2011. Government troops killed two suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Lashkar-e-Taibain Kupwara and Poonch districts on August 7, 2011.  One government policeman was killed by an Islamic militant in Srinagar on April 19, 2012.  Islamic militants ambushed and killed one government soldier in Kishtwar District on May 2, 2012.  Two Islamic militants were killed by government troops in the town of Kangan on September 2, 2012.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in the town of Handwara on September 25, 2012, resulting in the deaths of one militant and one government soldier.  Government security forces killed Abu Hanzulah, a Lashkar-e-Taiba commander, in Kupwara District on August 3, 2012. Suspected members of the Islamic militant group, Hizbul-Mujahideen, attacked a Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) camp in Bemina District of Srinagar on March 13, 2013, resulting in the deaths of five CRPF personnel and two militants.  Islamic militants killed eight government soldiers in Srinagar on June 24, 2013.  Government policemen and Islamic militants clashed in the town of Tral on July 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of two militants and one government policeman.  Some 50,000 individuals, including more than 7,000 government security personnel and 20,000 militants, have been killed, and more than 100,000 individuals have been displaced during the conflict.

[Sources: Agence France Presse (AFP), October 24, 1997, January 26, 1998; Associated Press (AP), October 24, 1997, November 26, 1999, December 14, 1999, December 25, 1999, December 28, 1999, December 29, 1999, January 3, 2000, March 14, 2000, August 2, 2000, December 6, 2000, October 18, 2002, November 25, 2002; Brogan, 1992, 198-200; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), August 10, 2000, May 1, 2006, January 1, 2007, January 4, 2007, June 1, 2007, June 29, 2007, October 3, 2007, October 11, 2007, December 5, 2007, January 2, 2008, January 31, 2008, February 29, 2008, March 23, 2008, May 12, 2008, June 3, 2008, June 13, 2008, July 16, 2008, July 19, 2008, July 21, 2008, July 24, 2008, August 11, 2008, August 12, 2008, August 14, 2008, August 28, 2008, September 12, 2008, September 23, 2008, October 27, 2008, December 19, 2008, January 5, 2009, August 31, 2009, September 9, 2009, September 12, 2009, October 29, 2009, December 23, 2009, December 30, 2009, January 7, 2010, January 15, 2010, January 29, 2010, February 24, 2010, March 5, 2010, May 7, 2010, June 29, 2010, July 6, 2010, August 1, 2010, August 13, 2010, August 16, 2010, September 13, 2010, September 15, 2010, September 17, 2010, November 29, 2010, June 3, 2011, July 15, 2011, August 8, 2011, April 20, 2012, May 3, 2012, September 3, 2012, September 25, 2012, March 13, 2013, March 14, 2013, June 24, 2013, June 25, 2013, July 1, 2013; Clodfelter, 1992, 1111; New York Times (NYT), August 8, 1996; Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) press release, June 1, 1999; Reuters, May 15, 1997, June 4, 1997, June 7, 1997, June 21, 1997, May 9, 1999, May 12, 1999, June 10, 1999, November 26, 1999, November 27, 1999; December 4, 1999, December 13, 1999, December 25, 1999, December 28, 1999, December 29, 1999, January 1, 2000, January 3, 2000, January 11, 2000, January 13, 2000, January 19, 2000, January 21, 2000, January 25, 2000, January 30, 2000, February 4, 2000, February 16, 2000, March 4, 2000, April 1, 2000, April 9, 2000, April 16, 2000, April 20, 2000, May 16, 2000, May 22, 2000, May 24, 2000, May 27, 2000, June 15, 2000, June 19, 2000, June 20, 2000, June 21, 2000, July 9, 2000, July 28, 2000, August 2, 2000, August 8, 2000, August 13, 2000, August 19, 2000, August 26, 2000, August 28, 2000, September 3, 2000, September 16, 2000, September 27, 2000, October 30, 2000, April 15, 2001, May 20, 2001, May 26, 2001, June 19, 2001, July 10, 2001, September 2, 2001, September 3, 2001, September 5, 2001, September 7, 2001, October 4, 2001, October 30, 2001, November 11, 2001, November 16, 2001, November 29, 2001, April 6, 2002, April 27, 2002, August 11, 2002, October 1, 2002, October 8, 2002, June 12, 2003, June 28, 2003, June 29, 2003, June 30, 2003, November 21, 2008.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Cranna, Michael. 1994. “The Kashmir Conflict”, In The True Cost of Conflict: Seven Recent Wars and Their Effect on Society. New York, NY: The New Press, pp. 55-80.

Ganguly, Sumit. 1996a. “Conflict and Crisis in South and Southwest Asia”, In Michael E. Brown, editor, The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict, Cambridge, MA:  The MIT Press, pp. 141-172.

Ganguly, Sumit. 1996b. “Explaining the Kashmir Insurgency: Political Mobilization and Institutional Decay”, International Security, vol. 21 (2), pp. 76-107.

Varshney, Ashutosh. 1991, “India, Pakistan, and Kashmir: Antinomies of Nationalism”, Asian Survey, vol. 31 (11), pp. 997-1019.

Wirsing, Robert G. 1994. India, Pakistan, and The Kashmir Dispute: On Regional Conflict and its Resolution, New York, NY:  St. Martin’s Press.