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36. Cambodia (1954-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (December 29, 1954-March 31, 1966): Cambodia formally achieved its independence from France on December 29, 1954.  The International Commission for Supervision and Control (ICSC-Cambodia) chaired by India, which was established on August 11, 1954, continued to oversee and report on the implementation of the Geneva Accords.  The ICSC-Cambodia consisted of some 96 military and civilian personnel from Canada (32 personnel), India (32 personnel), and Poland (32 personnel).  Prime Minister Penn Nouth resigned on January 24, 1955, and Leng Ngeth formed a government as prime minister on January 26, 1955.  King Norodom Sihanouk’s rule was approved in a referendum on February 7-9, 1955. King Sihanouk abdicated in favor of his father, Norodom Suramarit, on March 2, 1955. Prince Norodom Sihanouk formed the Sangkum Reastr Niyum (Popular Socialist Community – PSC) on March 24, 1955.  The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the Cambodian government on May 16, 1955.  Parliamentary elections were held on September 11, 1955, and the PSC won 82 percent of the vote and 91 out of 91 seats in the National Assembly. The Democratic Party (DP) won 12 percent of the vote and no seats in the National Assembly.  Prince Sihanouk formed a government as prime minister on October 3, 1955.  Oun Cheeang Sun of the PSC formed a government as prime minister on January 4, 1956. Prince Sihanouk formed a government as prime minister on March 1, 1956, but resigned on March 30, 1956.  Khim Tit formed a government as prime minister on April 3, 1956.  The Chinese government provided economic assistance to the Cambodian government on April 21, 1956, and the U.S. government suspended military assistance to the government on April 24, 1956.  The government of the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on May 18, 1956. Prince Sihanouk formed a government as prime minister on September 15, 1956.  Sam Yun formed a government as prime minister on October 25, 1956.  The DP was dissolved in 1956.  The National Assembly dissolved the government of Prime Minister Sam Yut, and Prince Sihanouk of the PSC formed a government as prime minister on April 7, 1957.  Prime Minister Sihanouk resigned on June 21, 1957, and Sim Var formed a government as prime minister on July 26, 1957.  Prime Minister Sim Var resigned on November 20, 1957.  King Norodom Suramarit dissolved the National Assembly on January 8, 1958.  Ek Yi Oun formed a government as prime minister on January 11, 1958, and Penn Nouth formed a government as prime minister on January 17, 1958.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 23, 1958, and the PSC won 61 out of 61 contested seats in the National Assembly.  Sim Var formed a government as prime minister on April 24, 1958.  Prince Sihanouk formed a government as prime minister on July 10, 1958.  King Norodom Suramarit died on April 3, 1960, and a Council of Regency was established with Prince Sisovath Monireth as chairman on April 6, 1960.  Prime Minister Sihanouk resigned on April 11, 1960.  Pho Proeung, who resigned as a member of the Council of Regency, formed a government as prime minister on April 19, 1960.  Prince Sihanouk won a national vote of confidence in a referendum held on June 5, 1960.  On June 14, 1960, Prince Sihanouk was sworn in as head of state following constitutional amendments approved by the National Assembly on June 13, 1960.  Penn Nouth formed a government as prime minister on January 28, 1961.  Prince Sihanouk formed a government as prime minister on November 17, 1961.  On February 13, 1962, Nhiek Tioulong was appointed as Acting Prime Minister following the resignation of Prime Minister Sihanouk.  Parliamentary elections were held on June 10, 1962, and the PSC won 77 out of 77 seats in the National Assembly.  Chau Sen formed a government as prime minister on August 6, 1962.  Prince Norodom Kantol formed a government as prime minister on October 6, 1962.  The Cambodian government ended military assistance from the U.S. on November 21, 1963, and the Cambodian government received military assistance from China beginning in December 1963.  The French government agreed to provide military assistance (squadron of AMX-13 tanks) to the Cambodian government on January 5, 1964, and the military assistance was delivered on May 10, 1964.  The Cambodian government received military assistance (two MIG-17 fighter planes, 1276 artillery pieces, eight anti-aircraft guns) from the Soviet Union beginning on November 3, 1964.  Parliamentary elections were held on September 11, 1966.  General Lon Nol formed a government as prime minister on October 18, 1966.

Crisis Phase (April 1, 1967-November 8, 1970): The Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) headed by Saloth Sar (Pol Pot) initiated an insurgency against the government in the Samlaut District of Battambang Province beginning on April 1, 1967.  The National Assembly approved emergency powers for Prince Sihanouk on April 4, 1967.  Government troops suppressed the insurgency in the Samlaut District, resulting in the deaths of some 10,000 individuals.  Prime Minister Lon Nol resigned on April 30, 1967, and Penn Nouth formed a government as prime minister on May 3, 1967.  Members of the Revolutionary Army of Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) attacked a government post at Bay Bamram near Battambang City on January 17, 1968.  Penn Nouth formed a government as prime minister on January 31, 1968.  Minister Nouth resigned on August 1, 1969, and Lon Nol formed a government as prime minister on August 13, 1969. Prince Sihanouk permitted the deployment of some 40,000 North Vietnamese troops in Cambodia on October 8, 1969. The ICSC-Cambodia was disbanded on December 31, 1969.  The government requested the withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops on March 13, 1970. Prime Minister Lon Nol and the National Assembly deposed Prince Sihanouk on March 18, 1970. The National Assembly declared a state-of-emergency on March 19, 1970, and appointed Cheng Heng as head-of-state on March 21, 1970. Government troops suppressed demonstrations in support of Prince Sihanouk on March 26-30, 1970, resulting in the deaths of some 300 individuals. Troops loyal to Prince Sihanouk and North Vietnamese troops attacked government troops on March 31, 1970. Prime Minister Lon Nol requested military assistance from the US on April 14 and April 20, 1970. North Vietnam expressed its support of Prince Sihanouk on April 27, 1970. The U.S. government decided to deploy troops and military aircraft in support of the Cambodian government on April 28, 1970.  The government of South Vietnam decided to deploy troops in support of the Cambodian government on April 29, 1970. Some 43,000 South Vietnamese troops commanded by Lt. General Do Cao Tri and 31,000 US troops commanded by General Robert Shoemaker intervened in support of the Cambodian government beginning on April 29, 1970. Prince Sihanouk formed a government-in-exile in Peking on May 5, 1970. Prime Minister Lon Nol declared martial law on May 22, 1970. The U.S. government decided to provide military assistance to the Cambodian government on May 25, 1970.  U.S. troops completed their withdrawal from Cambodia on June 30, 1970, but U.S. military aircraft continued to bomb rebel positions in the country.  South Vietnamese troops ended their military offensive against communist rebels and North Vietnamese troops in Cambodia on July 22, 1970. Some 3,000 communist soldiers and 313 South Vietnamese soldiers were killed during the intervention.  The Chinese government agreed to provide military assistance to Prince Sihanouk’s government-in-exile on August 18, 1970. The Khmer Republic was proclaimed on October 9, 1970. Some 15,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (November 9, 1970-April 17, 1975): Troops loyal to Prince Sihanouk launched a military offensive against government troops on November 9, 1970.  The PSC was disbanded in February 1971.  Prime Minister Lon Nol was appointed as head-of-state on March 10, 1972, and he was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on June 4, 1972. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on April 30, 1972. Parliamentary elections were held on September 3, 1972, and the Social Republican Party (SRP) headed by Colonel Lon Non won 126 out of 126 seats in the National Assembly. Opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections. The government temporarily suspended military operations against communist rebels on January 29, 1973. President Lon Nol declared a state-of-emergency on March 17, 1973. The U.S. government ended its bombing of communist rebel positions in Cambodia on August 15, 1973. Long Baret formed a government as prime minister on December 26 1973. National United Front of Cambodia (NUFC) rebels launched a military offensive against government troops on January 1, 1975. The government of President Lon Nol was overthrown by NUFC rebels on April 17, 1975. Some 250,000 individuals, including some 50,000 government troops, were killed during the conflict. Some 2 million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict (April 18, 1975-December 2, 1978): Prince Sihanouk was named as head-of-state on April 25, 1975, and Penn Nouth formed a government as prime minister. A new constitution was promulgated, and the Democratic Kampuchea was proclaimed on January 5, 1976. Parliamentary elections were held on March 20, 1976. Prince Sihanouk resigned as head-of-state on April 2, 1976, and the People’s Representative Assembly named Khieu Samphan as head-of-state on April 11, 1976. Pol Pot of the Khmer Rouge formed a government as prime minister on April 11, 1976. Some 1.6 million individuals were killed, and some two million individuals were displaced during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (December 3, 1978-October 23, 1991): The Kampuchean National United Front for National Salvation (KNUFNS) was established in opposition to the Khmer Rouge government on December 3, 1978. Some 200,000 Vietnamese troops intervened in support of KNUFNS rebels on December 25, 1978. Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge government was overthrown by KNUFNS rebels and Vietnamese troops on January 7, 1979. The People’s Revolutionary Council headed by Heng Samrin took control of the government on January 8, 1979. The Khmer People’s National Liberation Front (KPNLF) was established by Son Sann in opposition to the government in March 1979. KPNLF received military assistance (weapons) from China and Singapore. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and the World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to Cambodian refugees in Vietnam (150,000 refugees from Cambodia) and Thailand. The National Liberation Movement of Kampuchea (NLMK) was established by Prince Sihanouk and Kong Sileah in opposition to the government in August 1979. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission of 100 personnel to provide humanitarian assistance to Cambodian refugees in Thailand beginning in 1979. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to Cambodian refugees in Thailand beginning in 1979. Britain imposed diplomatic sanctions (non-recognition) against the government on December 6, 1979.  Foreign Minister Huang Hua of China expressed support for the Khmer Rouge on March 19, 1980. India provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on July 7, 1980. The United Nations (UN) General Assembly approved a resolution sponsored by the Association for Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on October 23, 1980, which appealed for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Cambodia and called for an international conference to settled the Cambodian conflict. On January 22, 1981, Thailand accused Cambodia of using chemical weapons against Khmer Rouges rebels. UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim sent a four-member fact-finding mission headed by Major-General Ismat al-Ezz of Egypt to the region on October 31-November 7, 1981. Parliamentary elections were held on May 1, 1981, and the Kampuchean People’s Revolutionary Party (KPRP) won 117 out of 117 seats in the National Assembly. The National Assembly approved a new constitution, and elected Heng Samrin as head-of-state on June 27, 1981. Pen Sovan formed a government as prime minister on June 27, 1981. The UN fact-finding mission issued a report on November 25, 1981, which indicated that there was not enough evidence to confirm that chemical weapons had been used during the conflict in Cambodia.  The Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea (CGDK) was established by Prince Sihanouk (president), Khieu Samphan (vice-president), and Son Sann (prime minister) in opposition to the government on June 22, 1982.  Prime Minister Zhao Ziyang of China agreed to provide military assistance (ammunition) to the NLMK on February 7, 1983.  Chan Si, chairman of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) Council of Ministers, died of an illness in Moscow on December 26, 1984.  Hun Sen was appointed as chairman of the PRK Council of Ministers on January 14, 1985.  Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhaven of Thailand attempted to mediate negotiations between the parties beginning in May 1989.  The government of Indonesia and France convened an international peace conference on Cambodia in Paris on July 30, 1989, but the conference was suspended on August 30, 1989. Vietnamese troops completed their withdrawal from Cambodia on September 26, 1989. Some 23,000 Vietnamese soldiers were killed during the intervention. Prince Sihanouk and PRK government representatives signed an accord in Tokyo, Japan on June 6, 1990, which provided for the establishment of the Supreme National Council (SNC). The UN secretary-general, France, and Indonesia jointly appealed for a ceasefire on April 22, 1991. The parties agreed to a temporary ceasefire on May 1, 1991.  On October 16, 1991, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Advanced Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) to “assist the Cambodian parties to maintain their ceasefire.”  UNAMIC, which consisted of 116 military personnel and 150 staff personnel from 23 countries commanded by Brig. General Michel Loridon of France.  The Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) was established by Heng Samrin and Hun Sen in Phnom Penh on October 17-18, 1991. The parties signed the Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict in Paris on October 23, 1991, which provided for a permanent cessation of military hostilities between the parties. Some 200,000 individuals, including some 25,000 Vietnamese soldiers, were killed during the conflict. Some 365,000 Cambodians fled as refugees to Thailand, and some two million individuals were internally-displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 24, 1991-March 24, 1999): The UN Security Council authorized an additional 1,090 military personnel for UNAMIC on January 8, 1992. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Yasushi Akashi of Japan as special representative to Cambodia on January 9, 1992. On February 28, 1992, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC-military component) to verify the withdrawal of foreign military forces from Cambodia, monitor the ceasefire agreement, and verify the disarmament/demobilization of military forces in Cambodia.  The UNTAC-civilian component was responsible for several peacebuilding tasks, including mine-clearing training, human rights monitoring, civilian police monitoring/training, civil administration, and election/electoral process monitoring.  The UNTAC-military component, which consisted of 15,991 peacekeeping troops and military observers from 34 countries commanded by Lieutenant-General John Sanderson of Australia, was deployed on March 15, 1992.  The UNTAC-civilian police component consisted of 3,359 civilian police from 33 countries.  UNTAC also included 900 election monitors from 44 countries, 183 mine-clearing trainers, and 5,000 civilian staff personnel.  UNAMIC was disbanded on March 15, 1992. The UNHCR assisted with the repatriation of some 365,000 Cambodian refugees from Thailand between March 30, 1992 and April 30, 1993. The Khmer Rouge withdrew from the UN demobilization process, and the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (oil and trade embargo) against Khmer Rouge-controlled parts of Cambodia on November 30, 1992.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Khmer Rouge rebels in western Cambodia in January 1993. Some 20 political parties participated in an election campaign beginning on April 7, 1993. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on May 23-28, 1993, and the United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) headed by Prince Norodom Ranariddh won 58 out of 120 seats. The CPP headed by Hun Sen won 51 seats in the Constituent Assembly. The UN declared the parliamentary elections free and fair on June 10, 1993, and the UN Security Council endorsed the results of the elections on June 15, 1993. The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) sent six observers headed by Andrew Peacock of Australia to monitor the election process from May 16 to June 4, 1993. The Constituent Assembly declared Prince Norodom Sihanouk as head-of-state of Cambodia on June 14, 1993. The Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution on September 21, 1993, and Prince Norodom Sihanouk was recrowned as King on September 24, 1993. UNTAC was disbanded on September 24, 1993, and UN Special Representative Yasushi Akashi resigned on September 26, 1993.  FUNCINPEC and CPP formed a coalition government with Norodom Ranariddh as first prime minister and Hun Sen as second prime minister on October 23, 1993.  On November 15, 1993, the UN Security Council deployed the UN Military Liaison Team in Cambodia (UNMLT-Cambodia), which consisted of 20 military observers headed by Colonel Muniruz Zaman of Bangladesh, to monitor the situation in Cambodia following the withdrawal of UNTAC.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the government between January 13, 1994 and June 30, 2002.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Benny Widyono as special representative to Cambodia on March 29, 1994. The UNMLT-Cambodia was disbanded on May 15, 1994. The Khmer Rouge established a provisional government headed by Khieu Samphan in northern Cambodia on July 11, 1994. Thomas Hammarberg of Sweden was appointed as special representative of the UN secretary-general on human rights in Cambodia on May 1, 1996. Sixteen individuals were killed during demonstrations in Phnom Penh. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the attack against demonstrators in Phnom Penh on March 31, 1997. Lakhan Lal Mehrotra of India was appointed as personnel representative of the UN secretary-general to Cambodia on June 30, 1997.  First Prime Minister Norodom Ranariddh was overthrown in a rebellion by Second Prime Minister Hun Sen on July 5-6, 1997. The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on July 11, 1997. The governments of the U.S. and Germany imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Prime Minister Hun Sen. Some 60,000 Cambodians fled as refugees to Thailand in 1997. The UNHCR established a mission to provide repatriation assistance to Cambodian refugees in Thailand beginning in October 1997. The World Food Programme (WFP) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to 12,000 internally-displaced Cambodians beginning in May 1998.  Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for widespread intimidation of opposition political parties on July 24, 1998. Parliamentary elections were held on July 26, 1998, and the Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) led by Hun Sen won a plurality of some 41 percent of the votes or 64 out of 120 seats in the parliament. FUNCINPEC led by Ranariddh won some 32 percent of the votes or 43 seats. Ten individuals were killed in political violence in Anlong Veng on July 26, 1998. The UN established the Joint International Observer Group in Cambodia (JIOG-Cambodia) to monitor the parliamentary elections. JIOG-Cambodia, which consisted of a total of 350 observers, included 75 observers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 200 observers from the European Union (EU) headed by Sven Linder of Sweden, and 24 short-term election observers as a part of the joint Australia- New Zealand observer mission in Cambodia from July 14 to August 1, 1998. The International Republican Institute (IRI) and the National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 60 observers headed by James Lilley and Stephen Solarz of the US to jointly observe the parliamentary elections from July 25-28, 1998. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES) and Association of Asian Election Authorities (AAEA) sent 13 observers headed by Bishnu Pratap Shah of Nepal to jointly observe the election process from July 19-29, 1998. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent four observers from four countries headed by Louis-Marie Bastide of Mali to monitor the parliamentary elections from July 19-August 1, 1998. JIOG-Cambodia and ASEAN reported that the parliamentary elections were “sufficiently free and fair.” FUNCINPEC and other political parties rejected the official results of the election, claiming widespread election fraud. The National Assembly convened on November 25, 1998, and Hun Sen formed a coalition government as prime minister on November 30, 1998. Norodom Ranariddh was elected president of the National Assembly. Some 5,000 individuals were killed, and some 100,000 individuals were displaced in political violence between October 1991 and November 1998.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 1, 1998-present):  Some 40,000 refugees were repatriated to Cambodia in 1998, including some 10,000 refugees repatriated with the assistance of the UNHCR. Some 51,000 Cambodian refugees remained in Thailand and Vietnam, and some 22,000 Cambodians were internally-displaced in December 1998. The UNHCR completed the repatriation of Cambodian refugees from Thailand on March 24, 1999.  The Chinese government pledged $2.7 million in military assistance to the government on August 30, 2000.  Elections for the commune councils were held on February 3, 2002. The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 30 long-term observers, and 81 short-term observers headed by Carlos Costa Neves of Portugal to monitor the elections from December 17, 2001 to February 15, 2002.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 65 observers to monitor the commune council elections from December 2001 to February 15, 2002.  On June 6, 2003, the UN and Cambodian government signed an agreement to establish a war crimes tribunal to prosecute former leaders of the Khmer Rouge.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 27, 2003, and the Cambodia People’s Party (CPP) won 73 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly.  FUNCINPEC won 26 seats in the National Assembly.  The EU sent six election experts, 36 long-term observers, and 70 short-term observers headed by Robert Evans of Britain to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 11 to August 30, 2003.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 60 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections on July 25-28, 2003.  The Japan Center for Conflict Prevention (JCCP) sent six observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  The ANFREL sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections on July 20-31, 2003.  The U.S. government and The Asia Foundation (AF) established the Long Term International Group (LTIG) consisting of 15 observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from May 20 to August 15, 2003.  Thirty-three individuals were killed in political violence in 2003.  On June 30, 2004, the CPP and FUNCINPEC agreed to form a coalition government.  King Norodom Sihanouk formally re-appointed Hun Sen as prime minister on July 14, 2004.  King Norodon Sihanouk formally abdicated the throne on October 7, 2004, and Prince Norodom Sihamoni was named by the nine-member Royal Throne Council as the new king on October 14, 2004.  King Norodon Sihamoni was formally crowned in Phnom Penh on October 29, 2004.  The main opposition political party led by Sam Rainsy ended its six-month boycott of the National Assembly on August 22, 2005.  Sam Rainsy and Chea Poch fled the country in February after the National Assembly voted to remove their legal immunity.  The U.S. government provided military assistance to the Cambodian government beginning in 2005.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 27, 2008, and the CPP won 90 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly.  The Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) won 26 seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent 44 long-term observers and 86 short-term observers from 26 countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 13 to July 29, 2008.  The European Parliament (EP) sent seven observers from six countries and three staff members to monitor the parliamentary elections on July 24-29, 2008.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent eleven observers from eight countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from July 18 to July 30, 2008.  Opposition leader Sam Rainsy, who was in self-imposed exile in France, was convicted of altering public documents and misinformation and sentenced to ten years in prison on September 23, 2010.  The Chinese government provided military assistance (jeeps, trucks, and ambulances) to the Cambodian government in 2010.  The Chinese government agreed to provide military assistance ($195 million loan for the purchase of military helicopters) to the Cambodian government on August 22, 2011.  Chut Wutty, a leading Cambodian environmentalist, was killed by government police in Koh Kong province on April 26, 2012.  One individual was killed by Cambodian security forces during a land protest in Kratie province on May 16, 2012.  The Chinese government pledged to provide economic assistance ($500 million in loans and $48 million in grants) on April 10, 2013.  Former King Norodom Sihanouk dued in Beijing, China on October 15, 2012.  On July 19, 2013, opposition leader Sam Rainsy returned to Cambodia from France after being granted a royal pardon on July 12, 2013.  Parliamentary elections were held on July 28, 2013, and the CPP won 68 out of 123 seats in the National Assembly.  The Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) won 55 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition supporters clashed with government police in Phnom Penh on September 15, 2013, resulting in the death of one individual.  The CNRP accused the government of election fraud, and boycotted the opening of the National Assembly on September 23, 2013.  The National Assembly approved Hun Sen of the CPP for a five-year term as prime minister on September 24, 2013.  One individual was killed during clashes between government police and garment workers in Phnom Penh on November 12, 2013, and five individuals were killed during clashes between government police and garment workers in Phnom Penh on January 3, 2014.

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Selected Bibliography

Alagappa, Muthiah. 1993. “Regionalism and the Quest for Security: ASEAN and the Cambodian Conflict.” Journal of
International Affairs
46 (Winter): 439-467.

Chandler, David P. 1992. A History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO, San Francisco, CA, Oxford, UK: Westview Press.

Simon, Sheldon W. 1975. “The Role of Outsiders in the Cambodian Conflict.” Orbis 19 (Spring): 209-230.

Soon, Lau Teik. 1982. “ASEAN and the Cambodia Problem.” Asian Survey 22 (June): 548-560.

Williams, Brian. 1997. “Returning Home: The Repatriation of Cambodian Refugees.” In Michael W. Doyle, Ian Johnstone,
and Robert C. Orr, editors. Keeping the Peace: Multidimensional UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador. London
and New York: Cambridge University Press, 165-185.