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47. Bangladesh (1971-present)

 

Crisis Phase (December 17, 1971-November 27, 1979):  Bangladesh formally achieved its independence from West Pakistan on December 17, 1971.  The governments of East Germany and Bulgaria provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on January 11, 1972.  The governments of Poland and Mongolia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on January 12, 1972.  The government of Burma provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on January 13, 1972.  The government of Nepal provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on January 16, 1972.  The government of the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on January 24, 1972.

The British government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on February 4, 1972.  The Japanese provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on February 10, 1972.  The French government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on February 12, 1972.  The Canadian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on February 14, 1972.  The governments of Indonesia and Malaysia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on February 24, 1972.  Indian troops completed their withdrawal from Bangladesh on March 12, 1972. The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on April 4, 1972.  The Iraqi government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on July 8, 1972.  The government of Tanzania provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bangladesh on July 12, 1972. The UNHCR assisted with the repatriation of 4,500 Bengalis and 4,000 non-Bengalis from Pakistan and Bangladesh from September 19 to October 2, 1973.  Abu Sayeed Chowdhury was sworn in as president on January 12, 1972.  Shiekh Mujibur Rahman, leader of the Awami League (AL), formed a government as prime minister on January 13, 1972.  The governments of the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on January 24, 1972.  Government troops and Bihari Muslims clashed near Dhaka from January 29 to February 7, 1972, resulting in the deaths of 100 government soldiers, 250 Bengalis, and 46 Biharis. The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Bengladesh on April 4, 1972.  Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) on April 18, 1972.  A constitution was approved by the Constituent Assembly on November 4, 1972, and the constitution went into effect on December 16, 1972.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 7, 1973, and the Awami League (AL) won 292 out of 300 seats in the National Assembly.  Prime Minister Mujibur Rahman formed a new government on March 16, 1973. President Chowdhury was re-elected without opposition by the parliament on April 8, 1973. Some 2,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1973, and some 3,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1974. President Chowdhury resigned on December 24, 1974, and Mohammadullah, speaker of the National Assembly, was elected president by the National Assembly on December 24, 1974.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on December 28, 1974. The National Assembly approved an amendment to the constitution on January 25, 1975, which provided for a presidential form of government with Prime Minister Mujibur Rahman as president. The constitutional amendment also established a one-party political system. President Mujibur Rahman appointed Mansoor Ali as prime minister on January 26, 1975. President Mujibur Rahman formally abolished opposition political parties on February 24, 1975. Prime Minister Mujibir Rahman was killed during a military coup led by Major Shariful Huq on August 15, 1975, and Khandakar Mushtaque Ahmed took control of the government and declared martial law on August 16, 1975. Some 200 individuals were killed during the military coup. The government of Pakistan provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on August 16, 1975, and the British government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on August 18, 1975.  The government of India provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on August 27, 1975.  General Khalid Musharaf seized control of the government on November 3, 1975. President Moshtaque Ahmed was forced to resign on November 6, 1975, and Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was sworn in as president on November 6, 1975. General Khalid Musharaf was killed during a military rebellion in Dhaka on November 7, 1975. Some 50 military personnel were killed in political violence on November 7-19, 1975. Rebels led by Abdul Kader Siddiqui attacked government police stations in Durgapur and Kamalakanda on January 19, 1976. Rebels attacked a border post in Matirban in Sylhet district on May 18, 1976. Government troops and rebels clashed near Meghalaya on August 14, 1976, resulting in the deaths of five rebels. The government lifted the ban on political party activities on August 15, 1976. One individual was killed in political violence in Chittagong on November 5, 1976. General Ziaur Rahman was appointed as Chief Martial Law Administrator on November 30, 1976. President A. S. M. Sayem resigned on April 21, 1977, and General Ziaur Rahman became president on April 21, 1977. General Ziaur Rahman was confirmed as president in a referendum held on May 30, 1977. Government troops suppressed military rebellions in Bogra and Dhaka on September 30-October 2, 1977, resulting in the deaths of some 230 individuals. Some 92 individuals were later executed for their involvement in the military rebellions. General Ziaur Rahman banned three opposition political parties – the Centrist Democratic League (CDL), National Socialist Party (NSP), and Communist Party of Bangladesh (CPB) – on October 14, 1977. General Ziaur Rahman was elected president with 77 percent of the vote on June 3, 1978. Parliamentary elections were held on February 18, 1979, and President Ziaur Rahman’s Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) won 207 out of 300 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League (AL) won 39 seats in the National Assembly. Shah Azizur Rahman formed a government as prime minister on April 15, 1979. President Ziaur Rahman lifted martial law on November 27, 1979. Some 6,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 28, 1979-May 29, 1981): Seven individuals were killed in a bombing in Dhaka on May 23, 1980.

Crisis Phase (May 30, 1981-November 10, 1986):  President Ziaur Rahman and two guards were killed during a military rebellion led by Major-General Mohammad Abul Manzur in Chittagong on May 30-June 1, 1981. Some 100 individuals were killed during the military rebellion. Vice-President Abdus Sattar assumed the duties of acting-president on June 2, 1981. On September 23, 1981, twelve military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. Acting-President Abdus Sattar was elected president on November 15, 1981, but the AL claimed election fraud on November 16, 1981. President Sattar was deposed in a military coup led by General Hussain Mohammed Ershad on March 24, 1982. General Ershad declared marital law and suspended the constitution on March 24, 1982.  General Ershad appointed Abdul Fazal Mohammad Chowdhury as president on March 27, 1982, and General Ershad assumed the presidency on December 11, 1983. President Ershad lifted the ban on political parties, and established the Jatiya Party (JP) on January 1, 1986. Parliamentary elections were held on May 7, 1986, and the Jatiya Party (JP) won 183 out of 330 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League (AL) won 76 seats in the National Assembly, and the BNP boycotted the parliamentary elections.  The British government sent three observers to monitor the parliamentary elections on May 5-8, 1986. Some 12 individuals were killed in election-related violence. Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury formed a government as prime minister on July 9, 1986. Two individuals were killed in political violence in Dhaka on October 12, 1986.  President Ershad was re-elected with 84 percent of the vote on October 15, 1986. The Awami League (AL) and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) boycotted the presidential election. President Ershad lifted martial law, and restored the 1972 constitution on November 10, 1986.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 11, 1986-November 26, 1987): Seven individuals were killed during demonstrations in March 1987.  Eleven individuals were killed during demonstrations in Dhaka on July 22-24, 1987.  Anti-government demonstrations took place in Dhaka on November 10-12, 1987.  Opposition political party leaders, including Begum Khaleda Zia and Sheikh Hasina, were arrested by government police.

Crisis Phase (November 27, 1987-December 6, 1990):  On November 27, 1987, President Ershad declared a state-of-emergency during violent anti-government demonstrations. President Ershad dissolved the parliament on December 6, 1987. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Chittagong on January 24, 1988, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Local elections were held on February 10, 1988.  Some 85 to 150 individuals were killed during election-related violence.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 3, 1988, and the Jatiya Party (JP) won 251 out of 299 seats in the National Assembly.  Opposition political parties, including the Awami League (AL) and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Thirteen individuals were killed in election-related violence. Moudud Ahmed formed a government as prime minister on March 27, 1988. President Ershad lifted the state-of-emergency on April 12, 1988.  The National Assembly convened on April 25, 1988, and President Ershad called for making Islam the official state religion of Bangladesh.  On June 7, 1988, the National Assembly approved an amendment to the constitution making Islam the official state religion of Bangladesh.  Government police and anti-government demonstrators clashed in Dhaka on October 10-16, 1990, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. President Ershad declared a state-of-emergency on November 27, 1990.  Some 50 individuals were killed during political violence between October 10 and December 4, 1990.  President Ershad resigned on December 4, 1990, and Shahabbudin Ahmed was appointed as interim president on December 5, 1990.  President Ahmed lifted the state-of-emergency on December 6, 1990.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 7, 1990-May 4, 1994):  Parliamentary elections were held on February 27, 1991, and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) won 140 out of 330 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League (AL) won 84 seats in the National Assembly.  Fifteen individuals were killed in election-related violence. Begum Khaleda Zia, the widow of the former President, was appointed as prime minister on March 20, 1991. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent 21 observers observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  The government of Japan, Philippines, and the U.S. sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections. Abdur Rahman Biswas of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) was elected president by the parliament on October 8, 1991. Local elections were held on January 30-31, 1994. Nine individuals were killed in election-related violence in Dhaka. Three individuals were killed in political violence in Dhaka on April 7, 1994.  Eight opposition political parties, including the Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), established the Left Democratic Front (LDF) on April 18, 1994.

Crisis Phase (May 5, 1994-October 9, 1996):  Opposition political parties began a parliamentary boycott against the government of Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia on May 5, 1994. Sir Ninian Stephen, special envoy of the Commonwealth of Nations (CoN), mediated negotiations between the parties between October 15 to November 21, 1994. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Dhaka and other cities on November 12-29, 1994. Some 147 opposition members of parliament resigned on December 28, 1994, but the speaker of the parliament refused to accept most of the resignations on February 23, 1995. President Biswas dissolved parliament on November 24, 1995. Parliamentary elections were held on February 15, 1996, and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) headed by Prime Minister Zia won 212 out of 214 contested seats in the National Assembly. The parliamentary elections had been boycotted by opposition political parties. Opposition parties began a nationwide strike against the government on February 24, 1996. The European Union (EU) appealed for peaceful negotiations on March 5, 1996. Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia resigned on March 30, 1996.  President Biswas dissolved the parliament, and appointed Mohammad Habibur Rahman as interim prime minister on March 31, 1996. Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in May and June 1996. Parliamentary elections were held between June 12 and September 5, 1996. The Awami League (AL) won 146 out of 300 seats, and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) won 116 seats in the National Assembly.  Sheikh Hasina of the Awami League (AL) formed a coalition government as prime minister on June 23, 1996. The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent twelve observers headed by Tan Sri Ghazali Shafie of Malaysia, to monitor the parliamentary elections from June 10 to September 6, 1996. The European Union (EU) sent observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  Shahabuddin Ahmed was elected president by the parliament on July 23, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on October 9, 1996.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 10, 1996-February 13, 2001):  The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) boycotted the National Assembly from November 2, 1997 to March 9, 1998. Eight individuals were killed in a bombing in Jessore on March 6, 1999. Government police arrested some 40,000 suspected communists, including members of the Revolutionary Communist Party (RCP), in April and May 1999. Some 340 communist rebels surrendered to government troops under a general amnesty in Jessore and Jhenidah on June 7, 1999.  Government police and demonstrators clashed in Dhaka on November 25, 1999, resulting in the death of one individual. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Dhaka on December 4, 1999, resulting in the death of one individual. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Dhaka on February 2, 2000, resulting in the death of four individuals.  The BNP formed a political alliance with the Jatiya Party (JP), the Jamaat-e-Islami, and the Islami Oikya Jote on January 6, 2001.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Dhaka on January 20, 2001.  Four individuals were killed in political violence in Dhaka on February 13, 2001.

Crisis Phase (February 14, 2001-June 24, 2002):  The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) led a national strike against the government on February 14-15, 2001.  Government police and demonstrators clashed in Dhaka and other cities on April 1-3, 2001, resulting in the death of one individual.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Chittagong and Munshiganj on April 8-9, 2001. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina resigned on July 15, 2001, and Latifur Rahman formed an interim government as prime minister on July 16, 2001.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and Carter Center (CC) sent a five-member pre-election delegation to assess the situation in the country from July 30 to August 4, 2001.  Parliamentary elections were held on October 2, 2001, and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP)-led alliance won 214 out of 300 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League (AL) won 62 seats in the National Assembly.  Some 230 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 26 observers from 15 countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from September 28 to October 2, 2001. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent four observers to monitor the parliamentary elections. The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 32 long-term observers, and 34 short-term observers headed by Joaquim Antonio Miranda da Silva of Portugal  to monitor the parliamentary elections from August 21 to October 3, 2001.  Several countries sent election observers to monitor the parliamentary elections under the coordination of the United Nations Electoral Assistance Secretariat (UNEAS), including Canada (6), Japan (12), Nepal (10), Nigeria (6), Norway (8), Pakistan (2), Russia (1), Thailand (1), and the US (31).  Former Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, leader of the Awami League (AL), rejected the results of the parliamentary elections.  Three individuals were killed in political violence near Dhaka on October 4, 2001.  Several thousand Hindus and other religious minorities were displaced in post-election violence, including some 20,000 individuals who fled to India.  Begum Khaleda Zia, leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), formed a coalition government as prime minister on October 10, 2001. The Awami League (AL) boycotted the National Assembly beginning on October 30, 2001.   The Awami League (AL) ended its boycott of parliament on June 24, 2002.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 25, 2002-October 26, 2006):  Ten individuals were killed in bombings in Satkhira on September 28, 2002.  The government launched Operation Clean Heart between October 2002 and January 2003, resulting in the arrests of some 3,000 individuals and the deaths of some 40 individuals in military custody.  Seventeen individuals were killed in a bombing in the town of Mymensingh on December 7, 2002.  Seven individuals were killed in a bomb attack in Dariapur on January 17, 2003.  Local council elections were held between January 25 and March 16, 2003.  Some 80 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  One individual was killed in political violence in Sunamganj on June 21, 2004.  A leader of the Awami League (AL) was killed in the town of Sylhet on August 7, 2004.  Some nineteen individuals were killed in political violence on August 21-22, 2004.  The government banned two Islamic groups, Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) and Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh (JMJB), in February 2005.  Two individuals were killed in bombings claimed by Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) on August 17, 2005.  The government banned the Islamic group, Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami (HJI), on October 17, 2005.  Mizanur Rahman, a member of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), was killed in a bomb attack in Khulna on October 24, 2005.  Two government officials (judges) were killed in a bomb attack in Jhalalkati on November 14, 2005.  Seven individuals were killed in suicide bombings by members of the Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB) in the town of Gazipur on November  29, 2005.  The Awami League (AL) ended its year-long parliamentary boycott on February 5, 2006.  Two individuals, including one government policeman, were killed in political violence in Sonargaon and Dhaka on July 2, 2006.

Crisis Phase (October 27, 2006-December 17, 2008):  Prime Minister Khaleda Zia was scheduled to hand over power to a caretaker government on October 27, 2006, but former Chief Justice K. M. Hassan refused the position of head of the caretaker government on October 28, 2006.  Some eighteen individuals died in political violence on October 27-28, 2006 (and 45 individuals were killed in political violence between October and December 2006).  Fourteen opposition political parties, including the Awami League (AL), organized a nationwide road blockade beginning on October 28, 2006.  An interim government headed by President Iajuddin Ahmed took over power from Prime Minister Khaleda Zia on October 29, 2006.  Opposition political parties suspended their nationwide road blockade on November 23, 2006.  UN Special Envoy Craig Jenness held meetings with Bangladesh government officials and opposition political party leaders from November 29 to December 1, 2006.  UN Special Envoy Craig Jenness appealed for peaceful dialogue between the parties on December 1, 2006.  Opposition political parties demanded electoral reforms on December 21, 2006.  On December 24, 2006, opposition political parties called off their planned boycott of upcoming parliamentary elections after the interim government agreed to electoral reforms.  On January 3, 2007, the Awami League (AL) and other opposition parties announced a boycott of upcoming parliamentary elections.  President Iajuddin declared a state of emergency, postponed the upcoming parliamentary elections, and resigned as head of the interim government on January 11, 2007.  Fakhruddin Ahmed was appointed as head of an interim government on January 12, 2007.  One government policeman was killed in a bombing by Islamic militants in Gazipur District in Dhaka on January 31, 2007.  On March 30, 2007, Abdur Rahman, head of the banned Jama’atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), and five other Islamic militants were executed by the government for their involvement in bombings that occurred in 2005.  The Awami League (AL) and the Jatiya Party (JP) formed a coalition (“Grand Alliance”) on December 11, 2008.  The interim government lifted the state of emergency on December 17, 2008.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 18, 2008-present):  Parliamentary elections were held on December 29, 2008 and January 12, 2009, and the Awami League (AL) won 230 out of 300 seats in the National Assembly.  The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), which won 30 seats in the National Assembly, claimed election fraud.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) sent ten observers from ten countries headed by former President H. E. Cassam Uteem of Mauritius to monitor the parliamentary elections from December 22, 2008 to January 4, 2009.  The European Union (EU) sent 150 observers from 27 countries led by Alexander Graf Lambsdorff of Germany to monitor the parliamentary elections from November 7 to December 31, 2008.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 26 long-term observers and 20 short-term observers to monitor the parliamentary elections.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 20 long-term observers and 40 short-term observers to monitor the parliamentary elections from November 20 to December 31, 2008.  The Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA) sent three observers from three countries to monitor the parliamentary elections from December 26 to December 30, 2008.  The Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) sent 74 observers from 18 countries headed by Damaso G. Magbual of the Philippines to monitor the parliamentary elections from November 21, 2008 to January 6, 2009.  One individual was killed in political violence in Pabna District on December 30, 2008.  Sheikh Hasina of the Awami League (AL) was sworn in as prime minister on January 6, 2009.  Zillur Rahman of the Awami League (AL) was elected president by the National Assembly on February 11, 2009.  Government border guards mutinied at their headquarters in Dhaka on February 25-26, 2009, resulting in the deaths of 74 individuals.  On January 27, 2010, five former military officers were executed for their involvement in the killing of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975.  On March 25, 2010, the government established the three-judge International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) to prosecute individuals accused of committing war crimes during the 1971 war of independence.  The ICT was originally authorized by the International Crimes Tribunals Act approved by parliament in 1973 and amended by parliament on July 9, 2009.  The BNP and Jamaat-e-Islami party organized a general strike in opposition to the government on July 27, 2010, resulting in injuries to some 25 individuals and the arrests of some 150 individuals.  Left-wing extremists killed three government policemen in Pabna District on July 21, 2010.  On July 25, 2010, the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) indicted four leaders of the Jamaat-e-Islami party, including Motiur Rahman Nizami and Ali Ahsan Mohammad Mujahid, for alleged war crimes committed during the 1971 war of independence.  Three individuals were killed in demonstrations in Dhaka and Chittagong on December 12, 2010.  On December 15, 2010, government police arrested Salahuddin Quader Chowdhury, a senior official in the BNP, for instigating violence during the June 2010 general strike.  One individual was killed by government police during a demonstration against women’s rights in the town of Jessore on April 3, 2011.  On June 27, 2011, more than 650 government border guards were sentenced to prison terms by a special court for their involvement in the 2009 mutiny.  On January 11, 2012, Ghulam Azam, former leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was arrested on charges of masterminding war crimes committed during the 1971 war of independence.  Government troops prevented a planned military coup against the government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina on January 19, 2012.  The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) announced the formation of an 18-party coalition in opposition to the government on April 18, 2012.  Government police and supporters of the Jamaat-e-Islami party clashed in the city of Cox’s Bazar on February 15, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  Government police and Islamic protesters clashed in Dhaka on February 22, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  On February 28, 2013, Delwar Hossain Sayeedi, a leader in the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) in Dhaka for war crimes committed during the 1971 war of independence.  Some 60 individuals were killed in clashes between police and supporters of the Jamaat-e-Islami party in the week following the sentencing.  President Zillur Rahman died of an illness on March 20, 2013.  Government police clashed with Islamic protesters in Dhaka on May 5-6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 27 individuals.  On May 9, 2013, Muhammad Kamaruzzaman, a leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  On June 20, 2013, ten Islamic militants were sentenced to death for their involvement in the November 2005 suicide bombing in the town of Gazipur.  Ghulam Azam, former leader of the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to 90 years in prison by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) in Dhaka on July 15, 2013.  Two individuals were killed in protests in Satkhira District on July 16, 2013.  On July 17, 2013, Ali Ahsan Mohammad Mujahid, a leader in the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) in Dhaka for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  One individual was killed in clashes between Islamic protesters and government police in Dhaka on August 14, 2013.  On September 17, 2013, Abdul Kader Mullah, a leader in the Jamaat-e-Islami party, was sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) in Dhaka for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  Two individuals were killed in clashes between Islamic protesters and government police in southern Bangladesh on September 18-19, 2013.  On October 1, 2013, Salahuddin Quader Chowdhury, a BNP member of the parliament, was sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) in Dhaka for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  More than ten individuals were killed during a general strike organized by opposition political parties, including the BNP and the Jamaat-e-Islami party, on October 27-29, 2013.  On November 2, 2013, two individuals, Chowdhury Mueen-Uddin and Ashrafuzzaman Khanwas, were sentenced to death by the International Crimes Tribunal (ICT) for atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  On November 5, 2013, some 152 former border guards were sentenced to death for their involvement in the 2009 mutiny.  On November 25, 2013, the government announced the date of general elections to be held in January 2014, but the opposition rejected the date.  At least 15 individuals were killed in clashes with government police involving supporters of the  BNP and Jamaat-e-Islami party on November 25-27, 2013.  The United Nations, including UN envoy Oscar Fernandez-Taranco, mediated negotiations between the government and BNP opposition in Dhaka beginning on December 11, 2013.  On December 12, 2013, Islamist leader Abdul Kader Mullah was executed by the government for his involvement in atrocities committed during the 1971 war of independence.  Six individuals were killed during clashes between government police and supporters of the Jammat-e-Islami party in Dhaka on December 13-14, 2013.

[Sources: Arnold et al., 1991, 20-22; Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA) report, February 15, 2009; Asian Network for Free Elections (ANFREL) press release, October 1, 2001; Associated Press (AP), April 12, 1988, June 7, 1999, April 3, 2001, April 9, 2001, April 30, 2001, July 13, 2001, July 16, 2001, September 28, 2002, December 7, 2002, January 18, 2003, October 28, 2006; Banks and Muller, 1998, 70-79; Baxter 1997; Beigbeder, 1994, 245; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), September 30, 2001, June 21, 2004, August 22, 2004, August 18, 2005, October 17, 2005, October 24, 2005, November 14, 2005, November 29, 2005, February 5, 2006, April 23, 2006, October 26, 2006, October 27, 2006, October 28, 2006, November 23, 2006, December 4, 2006, December 7, 2006, December 10, 2006, December 11, 2006, December 21, 2006, December 24, 2006, January 3, 2007, January 7, 2007, January 11, 2007, January 12, 2007, January 31, 2007, February 9, 2007, March 30, 2007, November 20, 2008, December 17, 2008, December 30, 2008, January 6, 2009, February 11, 2009, February 25, 2009, February 26, 2009, March 2, 2009, January 27, 2010, June 27, 2010, July 21, 2010, July 26, 2010, December 12, 2010, December 16, 2010, April 3, 2011, June 27, 2011, June 30, 2011, November 20, 2011, January 11, 2012, January 19, 2012, April 18, 2012, December 4, 2012, December 11, 2012, January 21, 2013, February 15, 2013, February 22, 2013, February 28, 2013, March 3, 2013, March 20, 2013, May 5, 2013, May 6, 2013, May 9, 2013, June 20, 2013, July 15, 2013, July 16, 2013, July 17, 2013, August 14, 2013, September 17, 2013, September 18, 2013, September 19, 2013, October 1, 2013, October 27, 2013, October 28, 2013, November 3, 2013, November 5, 2013, November 26, 2013, November 28, 2013, December 12, 2013; Brogan, 1992, 140-144; Carter Center (CC) press release, July 27, 2001, August 7, 2001, September 22, 2001, October 5, 2001; Clodfelter, 1992, 1105; Commonwealth of Nations (CoN) press release, May 9, 1996, September 2, 1996, December 17, 2008; Commonwealth of Nations (CON) report, December 29, 2008; Degenhardt, 1988, 20-21; European Union (EU) press release, March 5, 1996, June 13, 2001; European Union (EU) report, March 24, 2009; European Union (EU) statement, December 31, 2008; Facts on File, January 9-15, 1972, January 23-29, 1972, March 12-18, 1972, December 31, 1974, March 1, 1975, August 23, 1975, September 6, 1975, November 8, 1975, November 29, 1975, December 11, 1976, October 8, 1977, October 22, 1977, June 9, 1978, October 1990; August 9, 2001, October 4, 2001; International Republican Institute (IRI) press release, December 23, 2008; Jessup, 1998, 56; Keesing’s Record of World Events, February 19-26, 1972, April 2-8, 1972, April 9-15, 1973, September 2-8, 1974, March 3-9, 1975, October 13-19, 1975, October 13-19, 1975, January 16, 1976, October 15, 1976, March 4, 1977, July 29, 1977, February 24, 1978, January 9, 1981, October 9, 1981, March 19, 1982, May 28, 1982, July 1986, December 1986, April 1988, November 1990, December 1990, February 1991, May 1993, January 1994, April 1994, October 1994, November 1994, November 1995, February 1996, June 1996, November 1997, March 1998, March 1999; Khan and Zafarullah, 1979, 1023-1036; Maniruzzaman, 1992, 203-224; National Democratic Institute (NDI) press release, August 4, 2001; National Democratic Institute (NDI) statement, December 31, 2008; New York Times (NYT), August 22, 2004, November 3, 2013; Reuters, November 25, 1999, December 4, 1999, February 2, 2000, April 3, 2001, April 6, 2001, April 8, 2001, October 5, 2001, December 8, 2002, February 1, 2003, February 16, 2003, February 24, 2003, June 22, 2003, July 2, 2006, November 21, 2006, June 27, 2010, October 28, 2013, November 5, 2013, December 13, 2013; United Nations (UN) press release, October 1, 2001, October 9, 2001; Washington Post (WP), January 11, 2007; Xinhua News Agency, December 1, 2006, December 12, 2006.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Baxter, Craig. 1997. Bangladesh: From a Nation to a State. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Gupta, Jyoti Sen. 1974. History of Freedom Movement in Bangladesh, 1943-1973. Calcutta: Naya Prokash.

Jackson, Robert. 1975. South Asian Crisis: India-Pakistan-Bangladesh. London: Chatto & Windus.

Khan, Mohammad Mohabbat and Habib Mohammad Zafarullah. 1979. “The 1979 Elections in Bangladesh.” Asian Survey
19 (October): 1023-1036.

Maniruzzaman, Talukder. 1992. “The Fall of the Military Dictator: 1991 Elections and the Prospect of Civilian Rule in
Bangladesh.” Pacific Affairs 65 (Summer): 203-224.