10. Nicaragua (1909-present)

 

Crisis Phase (October 10, 1909-October 27, 1910): General Juan Estrada led a Conservative rebellion against the Liberal government of President Jose Santos Zelaya beginning on October 10, 1909. On December 1, 1909, the US imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government after the execution of two US citizens, Lee Roy Cannon and Leonard Groce, serving as engineers for General Estrada. President Zelaya resigned on December 16, 1909, and Jose Madriz became president by the Congress on December 21, 1909. Manuel Morales, president of the Central American Court of Justice (CACJ), offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on April 27, 1910, but the mediation offer was rejected by General Estrada and President Madriz. Some 100 US peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain order in Bluefields beginning on May 19, 1910. Manuel Morales repeated his offer to mediate negotiations between the parties on June 23, 1910, but General Estrada rejected the mediation offer on July 24, 1910. On August 20, 1910, President Madriz resigned after the defeat of government troops near Tipitapa on August 18, 1910. General Juan Estrada was appointed as provisional president on August 23, 1910, and rebel troops entered Managua on August 28, 1910. US peacekeeping troops were withdrawn from Bluefields on September 4, 1910. Ambassador Thomas Dawson of the US facilitated negotiations between President Estrada, General Emiliano Chamorro, General Luis Mena, and Adolfo Diaz beginning on October 19, 1910. The parties signed an agreement in Managua on October 27, 1910. The agreement provided for elections for the Constituent Assembly. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 28, 1910-May 7, 1911): Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on November 27-28, 1910. Juan Estrada was elected president by the Constituent Assembly on December 31, 1910, and he was inaugurated on January 1, 1911. The US government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Estrada on January 1, 1911. President Estrada dissolved the Constituent Assembly on April 4, 1911.

Crisis Phase (May 8, 1911-July 28, 1912): President Estrada ordered the arrest of General Mena, the Minister of War, on May 8, 1911. On May 9, 1911, President Estrada resigned after an unsuccessful attempt to seize control of the government, and Vice-President Adolfo Diaz assumed the presidency on May 10, 1911. Liberal rebels bombed Fort Loma near Managua on May 31, 1911, resulting in the deaths of some 60 individuals. A new constitution went into effect on November 10, 1911. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (July 29, 1912-October 9, 1912): General Mena led a Liberal rebellion against the government, and President Diaz requested military assistance from the US on July 29, 1912. The CACJ established a three-member conciliation commission (Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Honduras) on August 5, 1912. President Howard Taft of the US agreed to intervene in support of the government on August 5, 1912, and some 2,600 US troops commanded by Rear Admiral William Southerland and Colonel Joseph Pendleton were deployed in support of the government in Corinto beginning on August 6, 1912. Some 132 individuals were killed during a rebel bombardment of Managua on August 11-14, 1912. US troops killed 68 rebels near Masaya on September 19-20, 1912. General Mena surrendered to US troops on September 25, 1912. US troops clashed with Liberal rebels in Masaya on October 4, 1912, resulting in the deaths of four US soldiers and 60 rebels. US troops took control of Leon on October 6, 1912, resulting in the deaths of three US soldiers. The CACJ conciliation commission issued a report on October 6, 1912, which accused the Nicaraguan government of disregarding the commission’s attempts to mediate negotiations. Government troops suppressed the rebellion on October 9, 1912. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 10, 1912-October 24, 1925): Adolfo Diaz of the Conservative faction was elected president on November 2, 1912, and he was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1913. US personnel supervised the election. The Liberal faction boycotted the presidential election. Most of the US troops were withdrawn from the country on January 9, 1913, although some 100 troops commanded by Captain Edward Greene remained to guard the US legation in Managua. General Emiliano Chamorro of the Conservative faction was elected president without opposition in October 1916, and he was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1917. Five individuals were killed in election-related violence. Diego Manuel Chamorro of the Conservative faction was elected president on October 4, 1920, and he was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1921. The Liberal faction claimed election fraud. US troops and government police clashed in December 1921, resulting in the deaths of five government policemen and one US soldier. Some 150 US troops were deployed to reinforce the legation guard in Managua between January 25 and February 11, 1922. Government police arrested some 40 individuals for plotting against the government in April 1922. Congressional and municipal elections were held in 1922, and the Conservative faction won a majority of seats in the Congress and municipal councils. President Chamorro died on October 12, 1923, and Vice-President Bartolome Martinez assumed the presidency on October 13, 1923. Carlos Solorzano of the Conservative faction was elected president and Juan Bautista Sacasa of the Liberal faction was elected vice-president on October 5, 1924. Carlos Solorzano was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1925. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Solorzano on January 7, 1925. US troops were withdrawn from Nicaragua on August 5, 1925. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between October 1912 and October 1925.

Conflict Phase (October 25, 1925-December 31, 1932): General Emiliano Chamorro led a Conservative rebellion against the government at Fort Loma near Managua beginning on October 25, 1925. Government police and Conservative rebels clashed in Managua on October 25, 1925, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen and 15 rebels. President Solorzano appointed General Chamorro as commander-in-chief of the military, and dismissed Liberal members of the cabinet on October 26, 1925. Vice-President Sacasa fled the country in November 1925. Congress impeached Vice-President Sacasa on January 12, 1926. President Solorzano resigned on January 16, 1926, and General Chamorro temporarily assumed control of the government on January 17, 1926. Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and the US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government of General Chamorro on January 17, 1926. General Agustino Cesar Sandino of the Liberal faction began a rebellion against the government of General Chamorro in Bluefields on May 2, 1926. The Congress declared the country to be in a state-of-war on May 4, 1926.  US peacekeeping troops commanded by Lt. Charles Finch were deployed to maintain a neutral zone in Bluefields from May 7 to June 5, 1926. Nicaragua accused Mexico of providing military assistance to the rebels on August 17, 1926 (Mexico provided military assistance to the rebels beginning in February 1926). Nicaragua referred the matter to the League of Nations (LON) secretary-general on August 27, 1926, and the LON secretary-general sent a fact-finding mission to Nicaragua. Mexico denied the accusation on August 30, 1926. Some 5,365 US peacekeeping troops commanded by General Logan Feland were deployed to maintain neutral zones in Bluefields and Corinto between August 27 and October 27, 1926. The US government deployed 14 warships and 465 naval personnel to the region. The US government facilitated negotiations between representatives of the Conservative and Liberal factions beginning on September 12, 1926, and the factions agreed to a ceasefire on September 23, 1926. President Calvin Coolidge of the US imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and Liberal rebels on September 15, 1926. [Note: these military sanctions are intermediary since they were imposed against both the government and rebels.] Government troops and Liberal rebels clashed near Sonata on October 15, 1926, resulting in the deaths of 17 rebels. Lawrence Dennis of the US facilitated negotiations between Conservative and Liberal representatives in Corinto on October 16-24, 1926. General Chamorro resigned as president on October 30, 1926, and Sebastian Uriza was appointed as provisional president. Government troops and Liberal rebels resumed military hostilities on October 30, 1926. Adolfo Diaz of the Conservative faction was elected provisional president by the Nicaraguan Congress on November 11, 1926, and he was inaugurated as president on November 14, 1926. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Diaz on November 17, 1926. Former Vice-President Sacasa of the Liberal faction opposed the government of President Diaz, and he established a rebel government in Puerto Cabezas on December 2, 1926. Mexico provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the rebel government on December 7, 1926, and continued to provide military assistance to the rebels. General Chamorro resigned as commander-in-chief of the military on December 8, 1926. Guatemala offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on December 8, 1926, but the government rejected the mediation offer on December 19, 1926. President Diaz requested military assistance from the US on December 23, 1926, and US peacekeeping troops established neutral zones in Rio Grande Bar and Puerto Cabezas beginning on December 23, 1926. The US lifted military sanctions against the government on January 5, 1927. The US established additional neutral zones in Rama and Corinto on January 10-24, 1927.  Costa Rica and Guatemala offered to mediate negotiations between the parties on January 16, 1927, but the government rejected the mediation offer on January 22, 1927. Government troops and Liberal rebels clashed near Chinandega in February 1927, resulting in the deaths or wounding of some 1,000 individuals. The US deployed some 1,600 troops in support of the government in Corinto on March 7, 1927. Government troops and Liberal rebels clashed near San Geronimo on March 14, 1927, resulting in the deaths of some 130 individuals. President Calvin Coolidge of the US appointed Henry Stimson as special representative to Nicaragua on March 31, 1927.  US troops were attacked by rebel troops near La Paz on May 1, 1927, resulting in the deaths of two US soldiers. Henry Stimson facilitated the signing of a ceasefire agreement on May 12, 1927, but 200 Liberal rebels commanded by General Sandino did not abide by the ceasefire agreement. On May 15, 1927, President Diaz asked the US government to supervise the upcoming presidential elections, and President Coolidge agreed to the request on June 10, 1927. Some 300 rebel troops attacked US troops in La Paz on May 16, 1927, resulting in the deaths of two US soldiers and 14 rebels. Some 400 rebels led by General Sandino attacked government troops and US troops in El Ocotal on July 16, 1927, resulting in the deaths of some 60 rebels and one US soldier.  US troops attacked rebels near San Fernando on July 25, 1927, resulting in the deaths of eleven rebels.  US troops were largely withdrawn from the country on August 27, 1927, except for 1,200 troops commanded by Colonel L. M. Gulick.  US troops and rebel troops clashed near Telpaneca on September 19, 1927, resulting in the deaths of two US S soldiers and 25 rebels. Municipal elections were held on November 6, 1927.  US government observers observed the municipal elections.  US troops were attacked by rebel troops between Matagalpa and Quilali on December 30, 1927, resulting in the deaths of five US soldiers and two Nicaraguan government soldier. The US deployed some 5,800 troops in support of the government beginning on January 3, 1928. The Nicaraguan Supreme Court appointed General Frank McCoy of the US as chairman of the National Board of Elections on March 17, 1928.  General McCoy established the US Electoral Mission to Nicaragua, which consisted of 352 US chairmen of the electoral precincts and 2,500 US soldiers, to supervise and provide security for the presidential election process between March 28, 1928 and December 15, 1928.  US troops and Liberal rebels clashed on May 13, 1928, resulting in the deaths of two US soldiers. Government troops, US troops, and Liberal rebels clashed on July 16-26, 1928, resulting in the deaths of some 300 rebels.  More than 1,000 Liberal rebels took advantage of an amnesty offer between August and December 1928. General Jose Maria Moncada of the Liberal faction was elected president on November 4, 1928, and he was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1929. General Sandino and 25 rebels fled to Mexico on June 29, 1929, but he returned to the country in May 1930. Government troops and Liberal rebels clashed on several occasions between January 1 and September 15, 1930, resulting in the deaths of some 125 individuals. Congressional elections were held on November 2, 1930, and the Liberal faction won a majority of the votes. Captain A. W. Johnson of the US, chairman of the National Board of Elections, and 649 US military personnel supervised the congressional elections from May 12 to November 2, 1930. Eight US soldiers were killed by rebels in Ocotal in February 1931.  General Sandino resumed military hostilities against the government on January 17, 1931. Municipal elections were held in November 1931. Major Charles Price of the US observed the election process from July to November 1931. Juan Sacasa of the Liberal faction was elected president and Rodolfo Espinoza was elected vice-president on November 6, 1932, and they were inaugurated on January 1, 1933. Admiral Clark Howell Woodward of the US, chairman of the National Board of Elections, and 400 personnel supervised the presidential elections beginning in June 1932. Government troops suppressed General Sandino’s rebellion against the government in December 1932. Some 3,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 1, 1933-June 2, 1936): US troops completed their withdrawal from Nicaragua on January 3, 1933. General Sandino signed a peace agreement with representatives of the Conservative and Liberal factions in Managua on February 3, 1933. Mexico provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government on February 4, 1933. President Sacasa was deposed in a military coup led by General Anastasio Somoza on June 2, 1936, and Brenes Jarquin was appointed as provisional president on June 9, 1936. General Somoza of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was elected president on December 8, 1936. The Constituent Assembly approved a new constitution on March 23, 1939.

Post-Crisis Phase (March 24, 1939-May 25, 1947): Leonardo Arguella of the PL was elected president on February 2, 1947, and he was inaugurated as president on May 1, 1947. The opposition political candidate claimed election fraud.

Crisis Phase (May 25, 1947-October 11, 1977): President Arguella was deposed in a military coup led by General Somoza on May 26, 1947, and Benjamin Lescayo Sacasa was appointed as provisional president on May 27, 1947. El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government on June 3, 1947. The US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government on June 5, 1947. Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Mexico imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition) against the government on June 7, 1947. President Lescayo Sacasa dissolved the parliament on June 10, 1947. Victor Romain Reyes was elected president in September 1947. The National Assembly approved a new constitution on January 23, 1948, which outlawed the communist party. General Emiliano Chamorro, leader of the Conservative Party (CP), announced the formation of a campaign on December 4, 1949, which would promote the holding of free elections supervised by the Organization of American States (OAS). President Reyes died on May 6, 1950, and General Somoza was elected provisional president by the Congress by May 21, 1950. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government on April 23, 1954. President Somoza was assassinated on September 29, 1956, and Luis Somoza Debayle took control of the government on September 30, 1956. President Luis Somoza Debayle declared a state-of-siege on September 30, 1956. President Luis Somoza Debayle of the PL was re-elected in May 1957. The government suppressed a military rebellion led by General Ramon Raudales in northern Nicaragua on September 30-October 17, 1958. Some 110 Nicaraguan rebels invaded Nicaragua from Punta Llorona, Costa Rica on May 31, 1959. Nicaragua referred the matter to the OAS Council on June 2, 1959. On June 4, 1959, the OAS Council established a four-member commission of inquiry (Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, US) to investigate the dispute. The OAS commission of inquiry, which was chaired by Julio Lacarte of Uruguay, issued a report on July 16, 1959. The report indicated that the exile invasion was organized in Costa Rica, but without the knowledge of the Costa Rican government. Some 90 individuals were killed during the rebel invasion. Nine individuals were killed during a student demonstration in Leon on July 23, 1959. Government troops killed seven rebels near the Honduran border on February 29, 1960. Government troops and rebel troops clashed near the Costa Rican border on November 9-13, 1960. The Nicaraguan government requested military assistance. US warships were deployed in the Caribbean in support of the government from November 17 to December 7, 1960. President Luis Somoza Debayle rejected a demand by the CP in December 1960 that he request OAS supervision of the 1963 elections.  The Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) was established by Carlos Fonseca Amador, Silvio Mayorga, and Tomas Borge Martinez in opposition to the government on July 23, 1961. The Soviet Union, Cuba, Libya, and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) provided military assistance to the FSLN. Rene Schick Gutierrez of the PL was elected president on February 3, 1963, and he was inaugurated as president on May 1, 1963. The OAS sent three observers to monitor the presidential election. Four individuals were killed in election-related violence. President Schick Gutierrez died on August 3, 1966, and Lorenzo Guerrero Gutierrez was elected as provisional president by the Congress on August 4, 1966. Government troops suppressed anti-government demonstrations in Managua on January 22, 1967, resulting in the deaths of some 40 demonstrators and three government soldiers. Msgr. Dante Portalupi, the papal nuncio, mediated a ceasefire agreement between the parties on January 23, 1967.  General Anastasio Somoza Debayle was elected president on February 5, 1967, and he was inaugurated as president on June 1, 1967. President Anastasio Somoza Debayle dissolved the Congress, and abrogated the constitution on August 31, 1971. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on February 6, 1972, and the National Liberation Party (Partido Liberacion National – PLN) headed by President Somoza Debayle won 60 out of 100 seats in the assembly. The OAS sent 12 observers to monitor the elections. President Somoza Debayle resigned on May 1, 1972, and a three-member council (General Robert Martinez Lacayo, Alfonso Lobo Cordero, and Fernando Aguero Rocha) took control of the government on May 2, 1972. Parliamentary elections were held on September 1, 1974. General Somoza Debayle was elected president on September 1, 1974, and he was inaugurated as president on December 1, 1974. FSLN rebels took 13 hostages in Managua on December 27, 1974. President Somoza Debayle declared martial law on December 28, 1974. The FSLN split into three factions following the death of Carlos Fonseca Amador on November 7, 1976: the Proletarios, the Guerra Popular Prolongada, and the Terceristas. President Somoza Debayle lifted martial law on September 19, 1977.  Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (October 12, 1977-July 20, 1979): FSLN rebels launched a military offensive against government troops on October 12, 1977. Pedro Joaquin Chamorro Cardenal, editor of the newspaper La Prensa, was assassinated on January 10, 1978. Municipal elections were held on February 5, 1978. Government troops clashed with demonstrators in Masaya on February 22-23, 1972, resulting in the deaths of eight individuals. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Masaya and Diriamba on February 26, 1972, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals. Eden Pastora (Commandante Cero) and 25 FSLN rebels seized the National Palace and took some 1,500 hostages in Managua on August 22, 1978. The hostages were released a couple days later after the government paid a ransom to the rebels. FSLN rebels attacked the town of Penas Blancas from bases in Costa Rica on September 10, 1978. President Somoza Debayle declared a state-of-emergency on September 11, 1978. Government military aircraft and troops attacked FSLN bases in Costa Rica from September 12 to November 21, 1978.  The US mobilized naval ships in the area between September 20, 1978 and October 1, 1978.  The OAS Council established a three-member conciliation commission (Dominican Republic, Guatemala, US), which attempted to mediate a resolution of the dispute from October 5, 1978 to January 15, 1979. The OAS Inter-American Commission on Human Rights sent a six-member fact-finding commission to Nicaragua on October 3, 1978. The OAS IACHR issued a report on November 17, 1978, which suggested that the Nicaragua government had violated human rights in a “grave, persistent, and generalized manner.” On December 15, 1978, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly condemned the government for human rights violations. FSLN factions united and formed a nine-member directorate in January 1979. FSLN rebels killed 55 government soldiers in northern Nicaragua on January 3-5, 1979. The US imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government on February 8, 1979. The three factions of the FSLN re-united and formed a nine-member directorate on March 7, 1979. FSLN rebels launched a military offensive against government troops on May 28, 1979, and President Somoza Debayle declared a state-of-siege on June 6, 1979. On June 23, 1979, the OAS Council called for the “immediate and definite replacement” of the Somoza government. President Somoza Debayle resigned on July 17, 1979, and Sandinista rebels took control of Managua on July 19, 1979. A five-member junta, including Daniel Ortega Saavedra and Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, took control of the government on July 20, 1979. Some 40,000 individuals were killed during the conflict, and some 500,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 20, 1979-August 10, 1981): President Somoza Debayle resigned on July 17, 1979, and a five-member junta, including Daniel Ortega Saavedra and Violeta Chamorro de Barrios, took control of the government on July 20, 1979. The Sandinista government declared a state-of-emergency on July 24, 1979. The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance (urban reconstruction and industrial rehabilitation credit) to the government between January 4, 1980 and March 31, 1984.  Cuba provided military assistance (3,500 military advisers) in support of the Sandinista government beginning in 1980. The Soviet Union provided economic assistance to the Sandinista government beginning in 1980. The US imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the Sandinista government on January 19, 1981 (the US terminated economic assistance on April 1, 1981).

Conflict Phase (August 11, 1981-April 1, 1988): The Nicaraguan Democratic Forces (FDN), headed by Colonel Enrique Bermudez Varela, was established in opposition to the Sandinista government on August 11, 1981. Argentina, Honduras, and the US provided military assistance to FDN rebels beginning in November 1981. The Sandinista government declared a state-of-emergency on March 15, 1982. The US mobilized naval ships and some 100 troops in the area as a show of force against the Sandinista government between June 14, 1983 and September 15, 1983.  Peace Brigades International (PBI) established a mission consisting of 10 personnel to deter military hostilities in Jalapa, Nicaragua in September 1983. The US ended military assistance to FDN rebels in May 1984. Saudi Arabia agreed to provide $12 million annually in military assistance to FDN rebels. The Soviet Union provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Sandinista government beginning in 1984. Parliamentary elections were held on November 4, 1984, and the Sandinista National Liberation Front (SNLF) won 61 out of 96 seats in the National Assembly. Daniel Ortega of the SNLF was elected president with 67 percent of the vote on November 4, 1984. The US imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo) against the Sandinista government on May 1, 1985. The US provided military assistance to FDN rebels between June 1986 and February 1988.  The government lifted the state-of-emergency on January 19, 1988.  Government and FDN representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on March 23, 1988, and a ceasefire formally went into effect on April 1, 1988. Some 30,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 2, 1988-January 10, 1997):  The government imposed a state-of-emergency from October 20 to November 15, 1988.  On March 3, 1989, the government invited the Organization of American States (OAS) and the UN to monitor the upcoming presidential election. On August 25, 1989, the UN and OAS jointly established the International Commission for Support and Verification (CIAV) to facilitate the demobilization and resettlement of Contra rebels in Nicaragua.  On July 27, 1989, the UN Security Council authorized the establishment of the United Nations Observer Mission to Verify the Electoral Process in Nicaragua (ONUVEN).  ONUVEN, which consisted of 237 election observers and 34 staff personnel headed by Elliott Richardson of the US, monitored the election process between August 25, 1989 and February 28, 1990.  On April 20, 1990, the UN Security Council expanded the mandate of the United Nations Observers Group in Central America (ONUCA) to monitor the ceasefire agreement and verify the disarmament/demobilization process in Nicaragua.  ONUCA-Nicaragua consisted of 800 peacekeeping troops and 260 military observers from 11 countries commanded by Major-General Agustin Quesada Gomez of Spain.  Violetta Chamorro of the National Opposition Union (UNO) was elected president with 55 percent of the vote on February 25, 1990.  Parliamentary elections were held on February 25, 1990, and the UNO won 52 out of 91 seats in the National Assembly. The OAS sent 433 observers to monitor the election process from August 4, 1989 to March 20, 1990. The Carter Center/Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government (CC/CFEHG) sent 78 observers to monitored the presidential election.  The Center for Democracy (CFD) sent 20 observers to monitor the elections.  The US lifted economic sanctions against the government on March 13, 1990. CIAV-UN was disbanded on June 30, 1990, and ONUCA-Nicaragua completed its mission on July 5, 1990.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance (economic recovery credits and social investment funds) to the government between September 26, 1991 and December 13, 1997.  Government troops clashed with Re-Contras (former Contra rebels) in northern Nicaragua between December 22, 1992 and January 18, 1993, resulting in the deaths of 36 individuals.  Government troops clashed with Recompas (former Sandinista soldiers) in northern Nicaragua on July 21-22, 1993, resulting in the deaths of 45 individuals. Some 1,500 individuals were killed in political violence between 1990 and 1994. Parliamentary elections were held on October 20, 1996, and the LA won 42 out of 93 seats in the National Assembly. The FSLN won 36 seats in the National Assembly. Arnoldo Aleman Lacayo of the Liberal Constitutionalist Party (Partido Liberal Constitucionalista – PLC) and Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (Alianza Liberal Nicaraguense – ALN)  was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on October 20, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on January 10, 1997. Daniel Ortega of the FSLN claimed election irregularities. The OAS sent 98 observers to monitor the election process from April 16 to October 31, 1996, and the OAS mission reported that the elections had been free and fair. The European Union (EU) sent 81 observers to monitor the elections. The Carter Center (CC) sent 47 observers headed by Jimmy Carter of the US and Oscar Arias of Costa Rica to monitor the elections beginning on October 17, 1996, and the CC mission issued a statement on the elections on December 6, 1996. The National Democratic Institute (NDI), International Republican Institute (IRI), and the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent observers to monitor the elections. The Center for Democracy (CFD) sent 20 observers to monitor the elections. Some 1,500 individuals were killed in political violence between April 1988 and January 1997.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 11, 1997-present): CIAV-OAS was disbanded on June 30, 1997. The EU sent a fact-finding mission to investigate political conditions on June 24-July 7, 2001. Parliamentary elections were held on November 4, 2001, and the PLC won 47 out of 90 seats in the National Assembly. The FSLN won 43 seats in the National Assembly. Enrique Bolanos Geyer of the PLC was elected president with 56 percent of the vote on November 4, 2001. The EU sent six election experts, eight long-term observers, and 108 short-term observers headed by Jannis Sakellariou of Germany to monitor the elections from September 25 to November 22, 2001. The OAS sent 78 observers headed by Santiago Murray of Argentina to monitor the elections beginning in August 2001. The CC sent observers headed by Jimmy Carter of the US and Oscar Arias of Costa Rica to monitor the elections.  Daniel Ortega of the FSLN was elected president with 38 percent of the vote on November 5, 2006.  Parliamentary elections were held on November 5, 2006, and the FSLN won 38 out of 92 seats in the National Assembly.  The PLC won 25 seats, and the ALN won 23 seats in the National Assembly.  The OAS sent 183 observers headed by Gustava Fernandez Saavedra of Bolivia to monitor the elections.  The European Union (EU) sent 150 observers headed by Claudio Fava of Italy to monitor the elections from September 23 to November 6, 2006.  The Carter Center (CC) sent 62 observers to monitor the elections from September 8 to November 14, 2006.

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