1. Dominican Republic (1902-present)

 

Crisis Phase (April 26, 1902-June 19, 1904):  Vice-President Felipe Horacio Vásquez led a rebellion against the government of President Juan Isidro Jimenez beginning on April 26, 1902. Vice-President Vásquez’s forces entered Santo Domingo, and President Jimenez was overthrown on May 2, 1902.  Vice-President Vásquez was named President of a Provisional Government on May 2, 1902.  General Alejandro Wos y Gil overthrew the government of President Vásquez on March 23, 1903.  U.S. naval ships and 25 troops commanded by Lt. Richard McConnell were deployed in support of the government in Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata on March 30-April 21, 1903.  President Vásquez formally resigned on April 23, 1903.  General Wos y Gil was elected president without opposition on June 20, 1903, and he was inaugurated as president on August 1, 1903.  President Wos y Gil was overthrown in a rebellion led by General Carlos Morales Languasco on November 24-25, 1903, and General Morales Languasco established a provisional government on December 6, 1903.  Some 300 U.S. troops were deployed in support of the government in Santo Domingo and Puerto Plata on January 2-February 11, 1904. Government troops suppressed a Jimenista rebellion in March 1904.  The political factions signed a peace agreement in June 1904.  General Morales Languasco was elected president in May 1904, and he was inaugurated as president on June 19, 1904.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis (June 20, 1904-November 18, 1911):  On February 7, 1905, representatives of the U.S. and Dominican Republic governments signed an agreement, under which the U.S. assumed responsibility for the Dominican Republic’s debt and customs duties.  President Morales Languasco resigned, and Vice-President Ramón Arturo Cáceres Vasquez was sworn in as president on January 12, 1906.  Supporters of former President Morales Languasco rebelled against the government in Santiago and Puerto Plata in January 1906.  A Constituent Assembly convened in Santiago in November 1907, and approved a new constitution on February 22, 1908. Ramón Arturo Cáceres Vasquez was elected president by an electoral college on May 30, 1908, and he was inaugurated as president on July 1, 1908.

Crisis Phase (November 19, 1911-March 29, 1914):  President Ramón Arturo Cáceres Vasquez was fatally wounded during an assassination attempt on November 19, 1911, and Colonel Alfredo Victoria took provisional control of the government on November 20, 1911. Some 30 individuals were executed for their involvement in the assassination.  Senator Eladio Victoria was elected provisional president by the Congress on December 6, 1911, and he was inaugurated as president on February 27, 1912.  A rebellion broke out against the government on June 5, 1912.  The U.S. government send a mediation commission to the Dominican Republic, and some 750 U.S. troops were deployed in support of the government on September 24, 1912.  President Victoria resigned on November 26, 1912.  Archbishop Adolfo Nouel was elected as provisional president by the Congress on November 30, 1912, and he was inaugurated as president on December 1, 1912.  President Nouel resigned on March 31, 1913.  José Bordas Valdez was elected as provisional president by the Congress, and he was inaugurated as president on April 14, 1913.  Former president Felipe Horacio Vásquez led a rebellion (Revolucion del Ferrocarril) against the government beginning on September 1, 1913.  The U.S. government mediated a ceasefire agreement between the government and Haracistas.  Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on December 15, 1913.  The U.S. government deployed 29 observers headed by Hugh Gibson, J. H. Stabler, and F. A. Sterling to supervise the elections on December 12-16, 1913. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (March 30, 1914-August 6, 1914):  General Desiderio Arias led a rebellion against the government in La Vega and Santiago beginning on March 30, 1914.  José Bordas Valdez was elected president without opposition on June 15, 1914.  U.S. naval ships intervened to end the bombardment of Puerto Plata beginning on June 26, 1914.  U.S. troops were deployed in support of the government in Santo Domingo in July 1914.  The U.S. government mediated the signing of a ceasefire agreement between government and rebel representatives on August 6, 1914. Some 500 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 7, 1914-April 14, 1916):  Ramon Baez was elected as provisional president by the Congress, and he was inaugurated as provisional president on August 27, 1914. On September 8, 1914, the U.S. government agreed to supervise the upcoming presidential elections.  Juan Isidro Jiménez was elected president on October 25, 1914, and he was inaugurated as president on December 4, 1914.

Conflict Phase (April 15, 1916-June 30, 1922):  General Desiderio Arias led a rebellion against the government of President Juan Isidro Jiménez beginning on April 15, 1916.  The Congress voted to impeach President Jiménez on May 1, 1916.  Some 280 U.S. troops were deployed in support of the government in Santo Domingo beginning on May 5, 1916,  President Jiménez  resigned on May 7, 1916, and the U.S. government demanded the withdrawal of General Arias’ troops from Santo Domingo.  Some 1,500 U.S. troops occupied Santo Domingo on May 15, 1916 (some 3,000 U.S. troops were eventually deployed in the Dominican Republic).  Three U.S. soldiers were killed during clashes in June-July 1916.  Dr. Francisco Henriquez Carvajal was elected as provisional president by the Congress on July 25, 1916, and he was inaugurated as president on July 31, 1916.  The U.S. government decided to withhold customs duties from the government in August 1916.  The Constituent Assembly convened in Santo Domingo on September 29, 1916.  U.S. troops and Dominicans clashed near Santo Domingo on October 24-25, 1916, resulting in the deaths of two U.S. soldiers and three Dominicans.  Captain H. S. Knapp of the U.S. Navy established a military government in the Dominican Republic on November 29, 1916, and he dismissed the government of President Henriquez Carvajal on December 8, 1916.  U.S. troops and Dominican rebels led by Vicente Evangelista clashed in eastern Dominican Republic beginning on January 10, 1917. Vicente Evangelista and 200 rebels surrendered to U.S. troops in El Seibo on July 4, 1917.  U.S. troops shot and killed Vicente Evangelista as he was “attempting to escape” on July 6, 1917. Ramon Batia, Bullito Batia, and Martin Peguero led a rebellion against the U.S. military government in eastern Dominican Republic beginning in July 1918.  U.S. troops were attacked near Manchado on August 13, 1918, resulting in the deaths of four U.S. soldiers.  Admiral Thomas Snowden was appointed military administrator on February 25, 1919. Dominican nationalists, including Fabio Fiallo and Americo Lugo, established the Dominican National Union (Union Nacional Dominicana – UND) in February 1920.  Rebel leaders, Ramon Batia and Bullito Batia, surrendered to U.S. troops on May 8-9, 1922, and Martin Peguero surrendered to U.S. troops in Vasca on May 13, 1922. Some 140 rebels surrendered to U.S. troops between April 6 and May 31, 1922.  The U.S. government and Dominican political parties signed the Memorandum of the Agreement of Evacuation on June 30, 1922, which provided for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country. Some 1,000 individuals, including 140 U.S. soldiers, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (July 1, 1922-September 18, 1924):  Juan Bautista Vicini Burgos was chosen as provisional president on October 2, 1922, and he was inaugurated as provisional president on October 21, 1922.  The U.S. military governor left the country on October 24, 1922.  General Felipe Horacio Vásquez of the Progressive National Alliance (PNA) was elected president on March 15, 1924, and he was inaugurated as president on July 12, 1924.  Legislative elections were held on March 15, 1924, and the PNA won 24 out of 31 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Patriotic Coalition of Citizens (PCC) won seven seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The U.S. government sent observers to monitor the elections. A new constitution went into effect on June 13, 1924.  U.S. troops completed their withdrawal from the country on September 18, 1924.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 19, 1924-February 22, 1930):  Elections for a constituent assembly were held in the Congress of the Dominican Republic on April 1, 1927.  Supporters of Vice President Federico Velásquez boycotted the election in the Congress.  On June 17, 1927, the Constituent Assembly approved amendments to the constitution providing for a six-year term for the president and vice-president.  Vice-President Federico Velásquez was replaced by Dr. José Dolores Alfonseca on August 16, 1928.  Elections for a constituent assembly were held on June 1, 1929, and the Constituent Assembly removed the limit of one term for presidents of the Dominican Republic.  President Vásquez departed to the U.S. for surgery on October 31, 1929, and he returned to the Dominican Republic on January 6, 1930.

Crisis Phase (February 23, 1930-February 27, 1963):  General Rafael Estrella Ureña led a rebellion against the government of President  Felipe Horacio Vásquez in Santiago beginning on February 23, 1930.  President Vásquez formally resigned, and General Estrella Ureña became provisional president on March 2, 1930.  On April 21, 1930, General Estrella Ureña resigned as provisional president in order to run for vice-president.  General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo was elected president and General Estrella Ureña was elected vice-president with 99 percent of the vote on May 16, 1930.  General Trujillo and General Estrella Ureña were inaugurated as president and vice-president on August 16, 1930.  Opposition political parties claimed election fraud.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1930, and President Trujillo’s Confederation of Parties won 31 out of 31 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Trujillo suppressed opposition to his government, and forced many political opponents to go into exile.  President Trujillo formally established the Dominican Party (Partido Dominicano – PD) on August 16, 1931.  President Trujillo was re-elected unopposed on May 16, 1934, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1934.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1934, and the PD won 31 out of 31 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  A new constitution was approved by a constitutional convention on June 9, 1934.  Some 20,000 Haitians, mostly born in the Dominican Republic, were massacred by government troops under President Trujillo’s orders near the border with Haiti on October 2-8, 1937.  Vice-President Jacinto Peynardo of the PD was elected president on May 16, 1938, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1938.  General Trujillo continued to exert influence over the government of President Peynardo.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1938, and the PD won all of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Peynardo died on March 7, 1940, and Vice-President Manual de Jesus Troncoso assumed the presidency.  Elections for a constituent assembly were held on December 16, 1941, and the Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution on January 10, 1942.  General Trujillo was elected president unopposed on May 16, 1942, and he was sworn in as president following the resignation of President Troncoso on May 18, 1942.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1942, and the PD won 35 out of 35 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  General Trujillo was formally inaugurated as president on August 16, 1942.  Elections for a constituent assembly were held on December 14, 1946, and the Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution on January 10, 1947.  President Trujillo was re-elected with 93 percent of the vote on May 16, 1947, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1947.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1947, and the PD won 45 out of 45 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Costa Rican government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government of the Dominican Republic on May 9, 1948.  Héctor Bienvenido Trujillo, the brother of President Rafael Trujillo, was elected president without opposition on May 16, 1952, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1952.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1952, and the PD won 50 out of 50 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Elections for a constituent assembly were held on November 13, 1955.  President Héctor Bienvenido Trujillo was re-elected unopposed on May 16, 1957.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1957, and the PD won 58 out of 58 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Dominican exiles attempted an invasion from Cuba on June 14, 1959, but the invasion was defeated by government troops. Some 80 individuals were killed during the invasions. Venezuela accused the Dominican Republic of “flagrant violations of human rights,” and referred the matter to the Organization of American States (OAS) Council on February 5, 1960. The OAS Council established a four member fact-finding mission (El Salvador, Mexico, Uruguay, U.S.) to investigate the accusation beginning on February 8, 1960. On June 8, 1960, the OAS fact-finding commission reported that the Dominican Republic had violated the human rights of its citizens.  The U.S. government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) and economic sanctions (withdrawal of the sugar quota) against the government of the Dominican Republic in June 1960.  The Congress declared a state-of-emergency at President Trujillo’s request on July 1, 1960.  President Trujillo resigned on August 2, 1960, and Vice-President Joaquin Balaguer was sworn in as president on August 3, 1960.  OAS foreign ministers imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on August 19, 1960.  Provincial and local elections were held on December 15, 1960.  OAS foreign ministers imposed economic sanctions against the government on January 4, 1961.  Roman Catholic Bishop Thomas Reilly accused the government of “acts of intimidation and persecution” on March 12, 1961.  General Rafael Trujillo was assassinated by a group led by General Juan Tomas Diaz (possibly with the assistance of the U.S. C.I.A.) on May 30, 1961, and two of the assassins were killed by government police.  The U.S. government mobilized naval ships in the area between May 30, 1961 and June 10, 1961.  Lt. General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Martínez (“Ramfis Trujillo”), the son of the former dictator, took over as chief-of-staff of the Dominican armed forces on June 2, 1961.  President Joaquin Balaguer promised to democratize the country and hold multiparty elections the following year.  The U.S. government referred the matter of reports of human rights abuses by Dominican police to the OAS Council on June 2, 1961.  The OAS Council established a five-member fact-finding mission headed by Augusto Guillermo Arango of Panama on June 5, 1961. The OAS fact-finding mission returned to Washington DC on June 15, 1961. The National Civic Union (Unión Cívica Nacional–UCN) was established on July 15, 1961. President Balaguer requested electoral assistance from the OAS Council on August 6, 1961. The OAS Council established a technical assistance mission to the country on August 7, 1961. The OAS mission, which consisted of representatives from Panama, Uruguay, and the U.S. (including three staff members), provided technical assistance from August 24 to October 19, 1961 and June 24 to December 20, 1962. The OAS fact-finding mission headed by Augusto Guillermo Arango of Panama returned to the Dominican Republic on September 12, 1961. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Ciudad Trujillo and other cities on October 16-25, 1961, resulting in the deaths of four individuals.  Lt. General Ramfis Trujillo resigned as chief-of-staff of the armed forces, and fled the country on November 17, 1961.  President Balaguer assumed control of the armed forces, and declared a state-of-emergency on November 19, 1961.  The U.S. government deployed 14 naval ships near the country in support of President Balaguer between November 19 and December 5, 1961.  Francisco Jose Oyarzun of Chile mediated negotiations between President Balaguer and Viriato Alberto Fiallo, leader of the UCN, in Santo Domingo on December 4-5, 1961.  The PD was formally dissolved as a political party on December 28, 1961.  President Balaguer relinquished power on December 31, 1961, and a seven-member provisional Council of State was installed on January 1, 1962. The OAS Council lifted economic sanctions against the government on January 4, 1962, and the U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the provisional government of the Dominican Republic on January 7, 1962.  Government troops fired on demonstrators in Santo Domingo on January 15, 1962, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. The Council of State was overthrown by a seven-member military junta on January 16, 1962, but the military junta was overthrown on January 18, 1962.  Rafael Bonnelly was installed as chairman of the Council of State, and President Balaguer went into exile. The Council of State imposed a state-of-emergency on February 21, 1962. The U.S. government agreed to provide military assistance to the government of the Dominican Republic on March 8, 1962.  Legislative elections were held on December 20, 1962, and the Dominican Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD) won 49 out of 74 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The National Civic Union (Unión Cívica Nacional–UCN) won 20 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Juan Bosch Gavino of the PRD was elected president with some 60 percent of the vote on December 20, 1962, and he was inaugurated as president on February 27, 1963. The OAS sent 36 observers from 17 countries to monitor the presidential election from December 17-21, 1962. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Palma Sol on December 28-30, 1962, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 28, 1963-September 24, 1963):  A new constitution went into effect on April 29, 1963.  On April 1, 1963, the government of President Juan Bosch permitted the return from exile of Maximo Lopez Molina, leader of the Dominican People’s Party (DPP).  A new constitution was promulgated on April 19, 1963.  The Reformist Party (Partido Reformista – PR) was established by Joaquin Balaguer in July 1963.  On July 12, 1963, General Elías Wessin y Wessin issued an ultimatum to President Bosch to adopt an anti-communist stance,  but the ultimatum was rejected by President Bosch.

Crisis Phase (September 25, 1963-April 23, 1965):  President Juan Bosch was deposed in a right-wing military coup led by General Elías Wessin y Wessin on September 25, 1963, and a military-backed provisional government headed by Dr. Emilio de los Santos assumed power and abolished the constitution on September 26, 1963. The U.S. government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations), economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance), and military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the Dominican Republic on September 25, 1963.  The Venezuelan government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on September 25, 1963.  The provisional government declared a state of siege in Santo Domingo on October 7, 1963.  The governments of Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Honduras provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the provisional government on November 1, 1963.  The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military junta and military assistance beginning on December 12, 1963.  Aurelio Manuel “Manolo” Tavarez Justo, and some 19  other members of the left-wing June 14th Revolutionary Movement  surrendered and were killed to government troops on December 21, 1963.  Dr. Emilio de los Santos resigned as head of the military-backed provisional government, and Donald Joseph Reid Cabral was appointed as head of the provisional government on December 23, 1963.  The U.S. government provided $100 million in economic assistance to the military junta between January 1964 and April 1965.

Conflict Phase (April 24, 1965-May 21, 1965): Some 2,700 Dominican soldiers led by Colonel Francisco Caamano Deno rebelled against the government of President Reid Cabral on April 24, 1965. The rebels seized the radio station and the headquarters of the army in Santo Domingo.  President Reid Cabral was overthrown during a military rebellion led by Colonel Francisco Caamano on April 25-26, 1965, and Jose Rafael Molina Urena was named provisional president on April 26, 1965.  General Elias Wessin y Wessin led a rebellion against the government of President Molina Urena. President Molina Urena requested military assistance from the U.S. on April 27, 1965. Some 32,000 U.S. troops were deployed in support of the government beginning on April 28, 1965. The Vatican (Papal Nuncio) attempted to mediate a ceasefire agreement on April 28-30, 1965. The OAS Council appealed for a ceasefire and offered to mediate on April 29, 1965. The OAS Council established a good offices commission (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Panama) chaired by Ricardo Colombo of Argentina on April 30, 1965.  The OAS Council established Operation Socorro (Operation Help) consisting of 30 personnel to provide humanitarian assistance to some 500,000 individuals affected by the conflict on May 3, 1965.  The Soviet Union referred the matter to the United Nations (UN) Security Council, and the UN Security Council held 16 meetings concerning the matter from May 3-25, 1965.  Colonel Caamano was elected president by the Dominican Congress on May 4, 1965.  On May 5, 1965, the OAS good offices commission facilitated the signing of a ceasefire agreement (Act of Santo Domingo).  OAS foreign ministers established the Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) on May 6, 1965. The IAPF, which was commanded by General Hugo Panasco Alvim of Brazil, consisted of 1,130 Brazilian soldiers, 21 Costa Rican military police, three Salvadoran soldiers, 250 Honduran soldier, 160 Nicaraguan soldiers, 184 Paraguayan soldiers, and 10,000 U.S. military personnel.  The OAS secretary-general established a coordinating committee of Operation Sorocco, which –consisted of representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), CARE, and Church World Service (CWS), on May 8, 1965. Government soldiers and rebel soldiers resumed military hostilities on May 13, 1965. The UN Security Council approved a resolution on May 14, 1965, which appealed for a cessation of military hostilities and invited the UN secretary-general to send a representative to the Dominican Republic.  On May 15, 1965, the UN secretary-general appointed Jose Antonio Mayobre of Venezuela as his personal representative to the Dominican Republic.  The UN Security Council established the UN Mission in the Dominican Republic to “observe the situation in the Dominican Republic and to report to the Secretary-General, and through him to the Security Council, on breaches of the ceasefire called by the Council or any events which might effect the maintenance of peace and order in the country.”  DOMREP consisted of two military observers commanded by Major-General Indar J. Rikhye of India.  Brazil, Canada, and Ecuador contributed military observers to the UN mission.  The OAS good offices commission completed its mission on May 20, 1965.  The UN Special Representative Jose Antonio Mayobre mediated a ceasefire agreement between the rival faction that went into effect on May 21, 1965.  Some 3,500 individuals, including 1,000 civilians and 2,000 government soldiers, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 22, 1965-September 20, 1966):  The Organization of American States (OAS) good offices commission issued a final report on June 2, 1965. OAS foreign ministers established a conciliation committee (Brazil, El Salvador, U.S.) on June 2, 1965.  Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF) forces clashed with rebels in Santo Domingo on June 15, 1965.  The OAS conciliation committee mediated the signing of the Act of Dominican Reconciliation by the parties on August 31, 1965, which provided for the establishment of a provisional government to rule the country until elections. Hector Garcia-Godoy became provisional president on September 4, 1965. Five individuals were killed in political violence in Santo Domingo on October 16-19, 1965. Government troops and rebel soldiers led by Colonel Francisco Caamana clashed in Santiago de los Caballeros on December 19, 1965, resulting in the deaths of 28 individuals. Ten individuals were killed in political violence in Santo Domingo on December 19-24, 1965. Nineteen individuals were killed in political violence in Santo Domingo on February 9-13, 1966.  Legislative elections were held on June 1, 1966, and the Reformist Party (Partido Reformista – PR) won 48 out of 74 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Dominican Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD) won 26 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Joaquin Balaguer of the PR was elected president with 58 percent of the vote on June 1, 1966, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1966. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 41 observers from 18 countries to monitor the presidential election from May to June 2, 1966, and reported that the election had been free and fair.  The U.S. government sent 72 observers to monitor the elections.  U.S. troops were withdrawn from the country beginning on June 28, 1966.  The IAPF was withdrawn from the country on September 20, 1966.  Forty-four U.S. military personnel were killed during the intervention. Some 500 individuals were killed in political violence between May 1965 and September 1966.  

Post-Crisis Phase (September 21, 1966-January 29, 1971):  The UN peacekeeping mission, DOMREP, was disbanded on October 22, 1966.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1970, and the Reformist Party (Partido Reformista – PR) won 45 out of 74 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Movement of Democratic Integration (MDI) won eleven seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Balaguer Ricardo of the PR was re-elected with 57 percent of the vote on May 16, 1970, and he was inaugurated for a second term on August 16, 1970.  The Dominican Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD) led by Juan Bosch boycotted the presidential and legislative elections. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent three observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections, and issued a report on May 19, 1970.  Some 45 individuals were killed in election-related violence.

Crisis Phase (January 30, 1971-August 16, 1978):  The government suppressed a military rebellion on January 30, 1971.  Government police and left-wing rebels clashed near Santo Domingo on January 12, 1972, resulting in the deaths of eight government policemen and 14 rebels.  Government troops and rebels led by Colonel Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó clashed in Azua province on February 4-6, 1973, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and one rebel.  President Balaguer declared a state-of-emergency on February 7, 1973.  Colonel Francisco Alberto Caamaño Deñó was captured and executed by government troops on February 16, 1973.  President Balaguer Ricardo of the Reformist Party (Partido Reformista – PR) was re-elected with 85 percent of the vote on May 16, 1974.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1974, and the PR won 86 out of 91 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Popular Democratic Party (Partido Demócrata Popular – PDP) won three seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Some 25 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The Communist Party of the Dominican Republic (CPDR) was legalized on November 9, 1977.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Esperanza on February 19, 1978.  Guillermo Rubirosa Fermin, leader of Los Trinitarios, was killed by government police in San Pedro de Macoris on March 26, 1978.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1978, and the Dominican Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD) won 48 out of 91 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PR won 43 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Silvestre Antonio Guzmán Fernández of the PRD was elected president with 52 percent of the vote on May 16, 1978, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1978.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent three observers from Colombia, Ecuador, and Guatemala to monitor the presidential election.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 17, 1978-present):  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1982, and the Domincan Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD) won 62 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Reformist Party (Partido Reformista – PR) won 50 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Salvador Jorge Blanco of the PRD was elected president with 47 percent of the vote on May 16, 1982, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1982.  President Guzmán Fernández committed suicide on July 4, 1982, and he was succeeded by Vice-President Jacobo Majluta Azar.  Salvador Jorge Blanco was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1982.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1986, and the Christian Social Reform Party (Partido Reformista Social Cristiano – PRSC) won 56 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PRD-led coalition won 48 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Joaquin Balaguer Ricardo of the PRSC was elected president on May 16, 1986, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1986.  Five individuals were killed in political violence on June 23, 1986.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1990, and the Dominican Liberation Party (Partido de la Liberación Dominicana – PLD) won 44 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PRSC-led coalition won 41 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  Joaquin Balaguer Ricardo of the PRSC was re-elected as president with 36 percent of the vote on May 16, 1990.  Juan Bosch, PLD presidential candidate, claimed election fraud.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent four observers to monitor the elections from May 13, 1990 to May 24, 1990.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the Carter Center/Council of Freely Elected Heads of Government (CC/CFEHG) sent ten observers headed by Jimmy Carter to jointly observe the presidential election on May 14-17, 1990.  The NDI and CC/CFEHG mission reported that election irregularities were insufficient to have changed the outcome of the election.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1994, and the PRD-led coalition won 57 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PRSC-led coalition won 50 out of 120 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Balaguer Ricardo was re-elected as president with 43 percent of the vote on May 16, 1994.  Opposition groups claimed election fraud.  The Organization of American States (OAS) Council sent 27 observers to monitor the election process from April 25 to August 17, 1994.  The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent observers to monitor the presidential election, and reported that there had been election irregularities that could have affected the outcome.  President Balaguer Ricardo agreed to hold a new presidential election.  Leonel Antonio Fernández Reyna of the PLD was elected president with 51 percent of the vote in the second round of the elections held on June 30, 1996, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 1996.  The NDI and CC/CFEHG sent 40 observers from eleven countries headed by Belisario Betancur of Colombia and Ramiro de Leon Carpio of Guatemala to jointly observe the presidential elections from May 12 to July 1, 1996.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 25 observers to monitor the presidential election from May 4, 1996 to July 1, 1996.  Some 15 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  One individual was killed by government police during a general strike in Santo Domingo on November 11, 1997.  José Francisco Peña Gómez, leader of the Domincan Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Dominicano – PRD), died of stomach cancer on May 10, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 1998, and the PRD-led coalition won 83 out of 149 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PLD won 49 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 10 observers headed by Santiago Murray of Argentina to monitor the elections from May 13 to May 20, 1998.  Twelve individuals were killed in election-related violence.  On January 28, 1999, the U.S.-based human rights organization, Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the government of the Dominican Republic for police shootings.  Three individuals were killed during clashes between protesters and government police in Salcedo in March 1999.  Trade unions organized a general strike in the Dominican Republic on May 19, 1999.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent a pre-election assessment mission consisting of five personnel on April 9-14, 2000.  Two opposition political activists were killed in political violence in Moca on April 29, 2000.  Rafael Hipólito Mejía Domínguez of the PRD was elected president with 50 percent of the vote on May 16, 2000, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 2000.  On August 4, 2000, General Joaquin Antonio Pou Castro was sentenced to 30 years in prison for the killing of left-wing journalist Orlando Martinez in March 1975.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 37 observers headed by Santiago Murray of Argentina to monitor the presidential election.  The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent 19 observers headed by Rosa Marina Zelaya of Nicaragua to monitor the presidential election on May 11-18, 2000.  The NDI and CC/CFEHG sent 24 observers headed by Belisario Betancur of Colombia to jointly observe the presidential election on May 12-18, 2000.  On May 11, 2001, an appeals court in the Dominican Republic overturned the corruption conviction of former president Salvador Jorge Blanco, who had been sentenced to 20 years in prison.  Three individuals were killed during clashes between protesters and government police in Santo Domingo in May 2001.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 2002, and the PRD-led coalition won 73 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PLD-led coalition won 41 seats won 36 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent observers headed by Diego Paz Bustamante to monitor the elections.  Six individuals were killed during clashes between protesters and government police across the country on November 11, 2003.  Five individuals were killed in political violence on January 29-30, 2004.  Leonel Antonio Fernández of the PLD was elected president with 57 percent of the vote on May 16, 2004, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 2004.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 2006, and the PLD-led  Progressive Bloc won 96 out of 178 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PRD-led Grand National Alliance won 60 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  President Leonel Antonio Fernández of the PLD was re-elected with 54 percent of the vote on May 16, 2008.  Three individuals were killed in election-related violence.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 70 observers to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on May 16, 2010, and the PLD-led coalition won 105 out of 183 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The PRD-led coalition won 75 seats in the Chamber of Deputies.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 53 observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Five individuals were killed in election-related violence.  Antonio Pena Ramos, a supporter of the PRD, was killed in political violence in Moca on April 8, 2012.  Danilo Medina of the PLD was elected with 51 percent of the vote on May 20, 2012, and he was inaugurated as president on August 16, 2012.  The Organization of American States (OAS) sent 71 observers from 21 countries headed by Tabare Vazquez of Uruguay to monitor the presidential election.  One individual was killed during clashes between protesters and government police in Santo Domingo on November 8, 2012.

[Sources:  Agence France Presse (AFP), May 17, 2010; Associated Press (AP), July 1, 1996, April 30, 2000, May 19, 2000, August 16, 2000; Banks and Muller, 1998, 268-271; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 762-767; Beigbeder, 1994, 231-233; Bercovitch and Jackson, 1997, 94-95, 126; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), November 11, 1997, May 11, 1998, May 18, 1998, January 28, 1999, March 19, 1999, May 19, 1999, May 1, 2000, May 16, 2000, May 18, 2000, August 4, 2000, August 16, 2000, May 11, 2001, May 17, 2001, July 14, 2002, November 12, 2003, January 30, 2004, May 17, 2004, August 16, 2004, May 17, 2008, May 22, 2012, May 23, 2012, August 16, 2012; Butterworth, 1976, 264-271, 400-402; Carter Center (CC) press release, May 10, 1996, June 26, 1996, May 12, 2000, May 18, 2000; Clodfelter, 1992, 1167; Donelan and Grieve, 1973, 254-258; Ellsworth, 1974, 65-71; Facts on File, May 9-15, 1948, April 6-12, 1961, June 1-7, 1961, June 8-14, 1961, June 15-21, 1961, October 26-November 1, 1961, November 16-22, 1961, January 11-17, 1962, February 22-28, 1962, December 27-31, 1962, September 19-25, 1963, December 12-18, 1963, April 22-28, 1965, April 29-May 5, 1965, May 13-19, 1965, May 20-26, 1965, May 27-June 2, 1965, October 14-20, 1965, December 23-29, 1965, February 10-16, 1966, May 19-25, 1966, July 23-29, 1970, January 16-22, 1972, February 4-10, 1973, May 25, 1974, March 3, 1978, April 21, 1978, June 2, 1978, August 25, 1978; Hispanic American Report (HAR), March 1960, April 1960, August 1960, September 1960, October 1960, February 1961, July 1961, August 1961, September 1961, November 1961, December 1961, January 1962, February 1962, March 1962, February 1963, March 1963, November 1963, February 1964; International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) press release, May 11, 2000; Ireland, 1941, 43-53;Jessup, 1998, 163-165; Keesing’s Record of World Events, July 11-18, 1959, September 24-October 1, 1960, April 27-May 4, 1963; October 26-November 2, 1963, June 26-July 3, 1965, July 17-24, 1965, September 25-October 2, 1965, July 2-9, 1966, June 13-20, 1970, March 5-11, 1973, June 17-23, 1974, January 13, 1978, November 5, 1982, April 1987, June 1996, May 1998; Langer, 1972, 861-862, 1073, 1248-1250; Munro, 1961, 477-493; Munro, 1964, 78-125, 259-325; Munro, 1974, 44-70, 294-308; National Democratic Institute (NDI) press release, April 14, 2000, May 18, 2000; National Democratic Institute (NDI) statement, April 14, 2000, May 18, 2000; New York Times (NYT), May 17, 2008, November 8, 2012; Nye, 1971, 145-146; Organization of American States (OAS) press release, May 14, 1998, March 21, 2000, May 23, 2002, May 16, 2004, May 17, 2008, May 21, 2012; Reuters, May 17, 2000, August 16, 2000, May 22, 2012; Robertson, 1943, 410-416; Scheina, 2003, 48-53; Schwarz, 1970, 130-132; Survey of International Affairs (SIA), 1925 (supplement), 82, 1930, 560; Tillema, 1991, 17-18; Wainhouse, 1973, 459-501; Weisburd, 1997, 219-224; Wright, 1964, 79-90.]

 

Selected Bibliography

Calder, Bruce J. 1984. The Impact of Intervention: The Dominican Republic during the U.S. Occupation of 1916-1924. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Donald, Carr L. 1975. “The Dominican Republic.” In Morris Davis, editor. Civil Wars and the Politics of International Relief. New York: Praeger Publishers, 36-49.

Espinal, Rosario. 1998. “Electoral Observation and Democratization in the Dominican Republic.” In Kevin J. Middlebrook, editor. Electoral Observation and Democratic Transitions in Latin America. La Jolla, CA: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies.

Gleijeses, Piero. 1978. The Dominican Crisis: The 1965 Constitutionalist Revolt and American Intervention. Baltimore, MD and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Pons, Frank Moya. 1998. The Dominican Republic: A National History. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers.

Schoonmaker, Herbert G. 1990. Military Crisis Management: US Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965. New York: Greenwood Press.

Slater, Jerome. 1964. “The United States, the Organization of American States, and the Dominican Republic, 1961-1963.” International Organization 18 (Spring): 268-291.

Stuart, Graham H. 1943. Latin America and the United States, 4th edition. New York and London: D. Appleton-Century Company, pp. 288-317.

Wells, Henry. 1963. “The OAS and the Dominican Elections.” Orbis 7 (Spring): 150-163.