11. Colombia (1910-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (August 1, 1910-December 3, 1928): Congressional elections were held in May 1911, and municipal elections were held in October 1911. Jose V. Concha of the CP was elected president on February 10, 1914. Marco Fidel Suarez of the CP was elected president on February 10, 1918. President Suarez resigned on November 9, 1921, and General Jorge Holguin was sworn in as president on November 10, 1921. General Pedro Nel Ospina of the CP was elected president in March 1922. Miguel Abadia Mendez of the CP was elected president on February 14, 1926.

Crisis Phase (December 4, 1928-August 7, 1946): President Mendez declared a state-of-siege on December 4, 1928. Government troops fired on strikers in Cienaga on December 6, 1928, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 individuals. Some 1,400 individuals were killed in political violence in July 1929. Enrique Olaya Herrera of the Liberal Party (LP) was elected president with 45 percent of the vote on February 9, 1930. Congressional elections were held on May 14, 1933, and the LP won a majority of the votes. The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) claimed election fraud. Municipal elections were held in October 1933, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won a majority of the votes. The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) claimed election fraud. Alfonzo Lopez Pumarejo of the PLC was elected president without opposition on February 11, 1934. The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) boycotted the presidential election.  Eduardo Santos of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) was elected president on May 1, 1938, and he was inaugurated as president in August 1938.  Alfonso Lopez Pumarejo of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) was elected president on May 2, 1942, and he was inaugurated as president in August 1942. The government submitted a revised concordat with the Vatican to the Congress for ratification, but Senator Laureano Gomez Castro of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) opposed the ratification. The government suppressed several Conservative rebellions in July 1944.  President Lopez resigned on July 31, 1945, and Alberto Lleras Camargo was appointed as provisional president by the Legislative Assembly on August 1, 1945. Mariano Ospina Perez of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) was elected president with 42 percent of the vote on May 4, 1946, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1946.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 8, 1946-April 8, 1948): Congressional elections were held on March 16, 1947, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 73 out of 131 seats in the House of Representatives.

Crisis Phase (April 9, 1948-November 30, 1949): Jorge Eliecer Gaitan, leader of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC), was assassinated in Bogota on April 9, 1948.  Some 1,500 individuals were killed in olitical violence in Bogota and other cities on April 9-12, 1948. The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) withdrew from the cabinet of President Ospina on May 22, 1949. Congressional elections were held on June 5, 1949, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won a majority of the seats in the House of Representatives. Some ten individuals were killed in election-related violence. Dario Echandia, presidential candidate of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC), withdrew from the presidential race on November 7, 1949.  President Ospina Perez declared a state-of-siege on November 9, 1949. Laureano Gomez Castro of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) was elected president without opposition on November 27, 1949. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (December 1, 1949-December 1, 1957): Supporters of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) launched a rebellion against the Conservative-led government beginning in December 1949. Laureano Gomez Castro was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1950. Congressional elections were held on September 16, 1951, and the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) won 71 out of 122 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 out of 62 seats in the Senate. The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) boycotted the congressional elections. Thirteen individuals were killed in political violence in Huila province on September 19, 1951. Some 50,000 individuals were internally displaced as a result of the political violence. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government on April 17, 1952. Liberals attacked the Palanquero military air base near Puerto Salgar on January 1, 1953, resulting in the deaths of 60 Liberals and seven government soldiers. Congressional elections were held on March 15, 1953, and the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) won 76 out of 132 seats in the House of Representatives. President Gomez Castro was deposed in a military rebellion on June 13, 1953, and Lt. General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla took control of the government on June 14, 1953. The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) resumed political party activity on June 17, 1953. Twelve students were killed by government police in June 1954. General Rojas Pinilla was elected president by the National Constitutional Assembly on August 3, 1954, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1954. Eleven civilians were killed by Liberals in Tolima Province on November 6, 1954. Government troops and Liberals clashed near Genova on November 10, 1954, resulting in the deaths of 30 individuals. Government troops and Liberals clashed in Tolima Province on March 17-19, 1955, resulting in the deaths of 28 individuals. Seven individuals were killed in political violence in Valle Province on March 19-22, 1955. Government police and demonstrators clashed in Bogota on February 5, 1956, resulting in the deaths of nine individuals. Government troops and demonstrators clashed in Bogota and Cali on May 2-7, 1957, resulting in the deaths of 100 individuals. President Rojas Pinilla was re-elected by the House of Representatives on May 8, 1957. President Rojas Pinilla was overthrown in a military rebellion on May 10, 1957, and a five-member military junta headed by General Gabriel Paris took control of the government on May 11, 1957. On July 26, 1957, the military junta dissolved the House of Representatives following several days of unrest. The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) and Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) signed the Pact of Sitges in July 1957, which provided for a PLC-PCC coalition government. The Pact of Sitges was approved in a referendum held on December 1, 1957. Some 200,000 individuals were killed, and some 200,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 2, 1957-August 27, 1958): Congressional elections were held on March 16, 1958. The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) and Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) agreed to split the 148 seats in the House of Representatives and 80 seats in the Senate. Alberto Lleras Camargo of a PLC-PCC coalition was elected president with 80 percent of the vote on May 4, 1958, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1958. Thirty-one individuals were killed in election-related violence in several provinces on May 4, 1958. Dario Echandia of the PLC was elected vice-president by the Congress on August 20, 1958. The government lifted the state-of-siege on August 27, 1958.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 28, 1958-October 10, 1961): President Lleras Camargo formed a cabinet consisting of six members of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) and six members of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) on March 24, 1959.

Crisis Phase (October 11, 1961-January 6, 1965): On October 11, 1961, President Lleras Camargo declared a state-of-siege after a military rebellion near Bogota, resulting in the death of one individual. Forty-seven individuals were killed in political violence in Valle on January 21, 1962. Congressional elections were held on March 18, 1962, and the PLC-PCC coalition won 68 out of 98 seats in the Senate and 109 out of 184 seats in the House of Representatives. Guillermo Leon Valencia of the National Front (PLC-PCC coalition) was elected president on May 6, 1962, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1962. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in political violence between August 1958 and August 1962.  Guillermo Leon Valencia of the National Front (PLC-PCC coalition) was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1962.  The National Liberation Army (Ejercito de Liberacion Nacional – ELN) was established by Fabio Vasquez Castano and Ricardo Lara Parada on July 4, 1964.

Conflict Phase (January 7, 1965-May 28, 1984): The ELN began a rebellion against the government in northeastern Colombia on January 7, 1965.  President Leon Valencia declared a state-of-emergency after several weeks of student demonstrations and violence in May 1965. Government troops and ELN rebels clashed in Santander Province on February 15, 1966, resulting in the deaths of five rebels and four government soldiers. The Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC), the armed wing of the Communist Party of Colombia (Partido Communista de Colombia – PCC), was established in opposition to the government in April 1966. Carlos Lleras Restrepo was elected president in May 1966, and he was inaugurated on August 7, 1966. The People’s Liberation Army (Ejercito Popular de Liberacion – EPL) was established by the Communist Party of Colombia-Marxist-Leninist (Partido Communista de Colombia-Marxist-Leninist – PCC-ML) in opposition to the government in December 1967. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in 1969. Misael Pastrana Borrero of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) was elected president on April 19, 1970, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1970. President Lleras Restrepo declared a nationwide state-of-siege on July 19, 1970. Provincial and municipal elections were held on April 16, 1972.  Five individuals were killed in election-related violence. The government lifted the state-of-siege on December 29, 1973.  The April 19 Movement (M-19) was established in opposition to the government in January 1974.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Bogota on April 19, 1974, and five individuals were killed in political violence in the village of Yacopi on April 19, 1974.  Alfonzo Lopez Michelsen of the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) was elected president with 56 percent of the vote on April 21, 1974, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1974. Parliamentary elections were held on April 21, 1974, and the PLC won 113 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives.  The PCC won 66 seats in the House of Representatives.  FARC rebels attacked Puerto Rico on April 10, 1975, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen. Three individuals were killed in political violence in La Dorada on June 13, 1975.  FARC rebels attacked Mutata on June 20, 1975, resulting in the deaths of two government officials and one government policeman. Government troops and ELN rebels clashed near Morales on June 25, 1975, resulting in the deaths of three government soldiers and three rebels.  President Lopez Michelsen declared a state  of siege on June 26, 1975. Municipal elections were held on April 18, 1976.  The government lifted the state of siege on June 22, 1976.  The government declared a state of siege on October 7, 1976.  Congressional elections were held on February 26, 1978, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 109 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives. Julio Cesar Turbay Ayala of the PLC was elected president on June 4, 1978, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1978. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses on April 1, 1980. The Organization of American States (OAS)/Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) investigated human rights conditions in Colombia beginning on April 21, 1980.  FARC rejected an amnesty offer by President Turbay Ayala on June 17, 1980. The OAS/IACHR issued a report on human rights conditions in Colombia on June 30, 1981. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the government for human rights abuses on September 22, 1980.  Congressional elections were held on March 14, 1982, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 114 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives. The Colombian Consevative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) won 84 seats in the House of Representatives. Belisario Betancur Cuartas of the Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) was elected president with 47 percent of the vote on May 30, 1982, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1982. President Turbay Ayala lifted the state of siege on June 20, 1982. FARC rebels killed 162 civilians, 13 government soldiers, and 10 government police in 1982. Jaime Bateman Cayon, leader of the M-19 rebels, died in an airplane crash on April 28, 1983. M-19 rebels attacked the Florencia prison in Caqueta on March 14, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 26 rebels, four civilians, and one prison guard. FARC and M-19 rebels attacked Corinto (Cauca) on April 4, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels, two government soldiers, and one policeman. The government declared a state of siege on May 1, 1984.  The government and FARC signed the Uribe Agreements, which provided for a cessation of military hostilities beginning on May 28, 1984. Some 60,000 individuals were killed during the conflict between 1965 and 1984.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 29, 1984-June 15, 1987): EPL rebels killed five individuals in Bogota on July 24, 1984. FARC and M-19 rebels attacked Yumbo on August 11, 1984, resulting in the deaths of 12 rebels, three government policemen, and two civilians. President Betancur Cuartas and M-19 rebels agreed to a one-year ceasefire on August 24, 1984. President Betancur Cuartas and the EPL leadership agreed to a ceasefire, which went into effect on September 1, 1984. FARC established a political party, the Patriotic Union (Union Patriotica – UP), on May 28, 1985. M-19 rebels resumed military hostilities in Genova on June 28, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 19 individuals. M-19 rebels seized the Supreme Court building and took 400 hostages on November 6, 1985. Ricardo Lara Parada, leader of the ELN, was killed by government troops on November 16, 1985. Government troops and police recaptured the building on November 7, 1985, but some 115 individuals were killed in the incident. The government and FARC renewed its ceasefire agreement on March 2, 1986. Congressional elections were held on March 9, 1986, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 100 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives. The Colombian Consevative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) won 82 seats in the House of Representatives.  Virgilo Barco Vargas of the PLC was elected president with 58 percent of the vote on May 25, 1986. On July 18, 1986, Amnesty International (AI) reported that 600 individuals were killed by government forces in the first six months of 1986. Virgilo Barco Vargas was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1986. The UP withdrew from the Congress in November 1986 following the assassinations of 18 members of the party the previous five months. On February 16, 1987, Francisco Caraballo was named as leader of the EPL following the death of the previous leader, Jairo de Jesus Calvo.

Conflict Phase (June 16, 1987-August 29, 2016):  FARC rebels resumed military hostilities against the government on June 16, 1987. Jaime Pardo Leal, leader of the UP, was assassinated on October 11, 1987. Attorney-General Carlos Mauro Hoyos was assassinated in Medellin on January 25, 1988, and he was succeeded by Alfredo Gutierrez Marquez. Municipal elections were held in March 1988. The US provided military assistance to the government beginning in 1988. FARC rebels declared a unilateral ceasefire on March 1, 1989. The government and M-19 rebel group signed a peace agreement on March 9, 1990.  Congressional elections were held on March 11, 1990, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 112 out of 199 seats in the House of Representatives. The The Colombian Consevative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) won 68 seats in the House of Representatives.  Cesar Gaviria Trujillo of the PLC was elected president with 48 percent of the vote on May 27, 1990. The government and EPL signed a ceasefire agreement on July 27, 1990.  Jacobo Arenas, founder of FARC, died of natural causes on August 10, 1990.  FARC and ELN rebels attacked military bases in northern Colombia on November 10, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 25 individuals. The OAS/IACHR sent a three-member fact-finding mission to investigate human rights conditions in Colombia on December 3-7, 1990. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on December 9, 1990. Government troops captured the FARC headquarters in Casa Verde on December 9, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 60 rebels and 20 government soldiers. The ELN and FARC agreed to peace talks in February 1991. The EPL formally agreed to end its rebellion against the government on March 1, 1991. FARC rebels killed five government policemen in El Retorno on March 7, 1991.  A new constitution was promulgated on July 6, 1991, and President Gaviria Trujillo lifted the state of siege on July 7, 1991.  Congressional elections were held on October 27, 1991, and the PL won 86 out of 161 seats in the House of Representatives. The Alianza Democratica M-19 (M-19 Democratic Alliance) won 15 seats in the House of Representatives. The OAS/IACHR sent a three-member fact-finding mission and five staff personnel to investigate human rights conditions in Colombia on May 4-8, 1992.  The government declared a state of emergency on July 10, 1992.  The government lifted the state of emergency on July 16, 1992.  FARC and ELN rebels resumed military hostilities on November 5, 1992.  FARC rebels killed 26 government policemen in southern Colombia on November 7, 1992.  The government declared a 90-day state of emergency from November 8, 1992 to February 6, 1993.  The M-19 Democratic Alliance withdrew from the government of President Gaviria Trujillo on November 24, 1992.  The government declared a 90-day state of emergency from February 6, 1993 to May 7, 1993.  Congressional elections were held on March 13, 1994, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 89 out of 163 seats in the House of Representatives. The M-19 Democratic Alliance won two seats in the House of Representatives.  The government declared a state of emergency from May 1, 1994 to July 10, 1994.  Ernesto Samper Pizano of the PLC was elected president with 50 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on June 19, 1994. The OAS sent six observers to monitor the presidential election from June 14 to June 22, 1994. Ernesto Samper Pizano was inaugurated as president on August 7, 1994. President Samper Pizano declared a state of internal disturbance on August 16, 1995, but the Constitutional Court ruled the declaration as invalid on October 18, 1995.  The government declared a 90-day state of internal disturbance from November 2, 1995 to January 31, 1996.  The government declared a 90-day state of internal disturbance from January 31, 1996 to April 30, 1996.  The government declared a state of internal disturbance on April 30, 1996.  The government lifted the state of internal disturbance on July 25, 1996.  FARC rebels killed 54 government soldiers in an attack on a military base in Las Delicias on August 30, 1996.  Municipal elections were held on October 26, 1997. The OAS Council sent 36 observers to monitor the municipal elections from October 18 to October 28, 1997.  Congressional elections were held on March 8, 1998, and the PLC won 98 out of 163 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Colombian Consevative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) won 52 seats in the House of Representatives.  Andres Pastrana of the Social Conservative Party (PCS) was elected president with 50 percent of the vote on June 21, 1998. ELN rebels attacked an oil pipeline near Machuca on October 18, 1998, resulting in the deaths of some 50 civilians. Amnesty International (AI) condemned ELN for the killings on October 22, 1998. Some 300,000 individuals were displaced in 1998. Some 30,000 Colombian refugees were in Ecuador in December 1998. On June 20, 1999, the government and FARC agreed to resume peace negotiations. FARC rebels conducted a military offensive beginning on July 8, 1999, and some 40 government troops and 38 rebels were killed near Bogota on July 8, 1999. Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in Hato Corozal and Doncello on July 9-10, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 57 rebels. FARC rebels attacked a police station in Narino in the Antioquia province on July 31-August 3, 1999, resulting in the deaths of nine police officers and eight civilians.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for peaceful negotiations on August 2, 1999. Members of the right-wing paramilitary United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) killed 36 civilians in northeastern Colombia on August 21-22, 1999. On August 22, 1999, the UN Security Council condemned the Colombian government for not taking “the measures and actions necessary to guarantee the life and safety” of the inhabitants of northeastern Colombia. Government troops killed 10 AUC members on August 29, 1999. The ICRC provided emergency humanitarian assistance to some 170,000 internally displaced individuals in 1999. Government troops killed 24 FARC rebels on September 1, 1999.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Jan Egeland of Norway as UN Special Advisor for Colombia and head of the UN good offices mission in Colombia on December 1, 1999.  FARC rebels killed eight policemen and a local government official in San Luis on December 11, 1999. FARC rebels attacked a naval base in Jurado on December 12, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 27 military personnel and 42 rebels. FARC rebels killed three policemen in Cubara on December 13, 1999. Military aircraft attacked FARC rebels near El Hobo in Huila province on December 15, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 66 rebels. Government troops and ELN rebels clashed on December 26-28, 1999, resulting in the deaths of some 30 rebels and one government soldier. The ICRC suspended its humanitarian activities on January 4, 2000 (ICRC had some 280 personnel in Colombia). Hugo Carvajal, leader of the EPL, was killed by government troops on January 13, 2000. Government troops and FARC rebels clashed near Guayabetal on January 15, 2000, resulting in the deaths of eleven rebels and three government troops. The ICRC resumed humanitarian assistance on January 20, 2000. FARC rebels attacked Vigia del Fuerte and Bojaya on March 25-26, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 24 government policemen and six civilians. Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in Boyaca province on April 4, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 17 rebels. The European Union (EU) appealed to EPL and FARC rebels to end acts of violence and condemned the groups for human rights violations. FARC rebels attacked Algeciras on June 26-27, 2000, resulting in the deaths of two government policemen. FARC rebels killed eleven government policemen in Narino province on July 24, 2000, and FARC rebels killed two government soldiers in Magdalena province on July 24, 2000. FARC rebels killed 13 government policemen and four civilians in Arboleda in Caldas province on July 29-30, 2000.  Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in Antioquia Province on September 14-16, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 19 government soldiers and seven rebels.  Amnesty International (AI) condemned the ELN on October 27, 2000.  The Vatican City appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on January 24, 2001. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for negotiations on February 1, 2001.  ELN and FARC rebels killed nine individuals in Antioquia province and Guajira province on October 21, 2001.  FARC rebels killed two government policemen and eight government soldiers in Cauca province on December 31, 2001-January 1, 2002.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed James LeMoyne as UN Special Advisor for Colombia and head of the UN good offices mission in Colombia on November 21, 2002.  President Pastrana ended negotiations with FARC rebels in February 2002.  Congressional elections were held on March 10, 2002, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 54 out of 156 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) won 21 seats in the House of Representatives.  Alvaro Uribe of the Colombia First (CF) was elected president with 53 percent of the vote on May 26, 2002, and he was inaugurated as president on August 7, 2002. The OAS sent 50 observers from 18 countries headed by Santiago Murray of Argentina to monitor the elections from March 8 to May 27, 2002. President Pastrana ended negotiations with ELN rebels on May 31, 2002. Six individuals were killed in political violence in Cartagena on July 18, 2002. FARC rebels killed two government policemen near the village of San Juan de Rioseco on July 24, 2002. Nineteen individuals were killed in political violence in Bogota on August 7, 2002. Government troops killed 20 right-wing paramilitary soldiers near Segovia on August 9-10, 2002.  President Alvaro Uribe declared a 90-day state of internal disturbance from August 11, 2002 to November 9, 2002.  FARC rebels killed three individuals near Campoalegre on October 19, 2002. Government troops and ELN rebels clashed near the village of Cerritos on November 5, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 11 rebels.  The government declared a 90-day state of internal disturbance from November 9, 2002 to February 5, 2003.  Carlos Castaño and Salvatore Mancuso, leaders of the AUC, announced a unilateral ceasefire beginning on December 1, 2002.  FARC rebels killed six policemen and one civilian north of Bogota on January 20, 2003.  The government extended the state of internal disturbance on February 5, 2003.  On April 30, 2003, the government lifted the state of internal disturbance after the Constitutional Court ruled that the state of internal disturbance had been illegally extended.  FARC rebels ambushed government troops in Bolivar province on June 24, 2003, resulting in the deaths of eleven government soldiers and three rebels.  Government and AUC representatives signed the Santa Fe de Ralito Agreement on July 15, 2003, which provided for the disarmament and demobilization of AUC paramilitary groups.  Government troops killed sixteen FARC rebels in Boyaca province and six right-wing militiamen in Santander province on September 6, 2003.  Government troops clashed with FARC rebels in northeast Colombia on September 7, 2003, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers and eight rebels.  Ten individuals were killed in a bombing in Florencia on September 28, 2003.  On February 6, 2004, the OAS Permanent Council established the OAS Mission to Support the Peace Process in Colombia (OAS/MAPP) to verify the disarmament and demobilization of AUC paramilitary groups.  OAS/MAPP consisted of some 30 international personnel and 61 local staff headed by Sergio Caramagna from Argentina.  FARC rebels killed 34 peasants in the village of Rio Chiquita on June 15, 2004.  ELN rebels kidnapped Bishop Misael Vacca Ramirez of Yopal on July 24, 2004.  Amnesty International (AI) and Pope John Paul II condemned the kidnapping of Bishop Misael Vacca Ramirez, who was released by ELN rebels on July 27, 2004.  Two government police officers were killed in a bombing in Bogota on August 27, 2004.  Ten individuals were killed by gunmen in the town of Candelaria on October 4, 2004.  UN Special Advisor James LeMoyne of the U.S. suspended his good offices mission in Colombia on January 24, 2005.  FARC rebels killed some 23 government soldiers in Iscuande on February 1-2, 2005.  FARC rebels killed eight government soldiers and one civilian in Putumayo province on February 3, 2005.  FARC rebels killed some 20 government soldiers in northwestern Colombia on February 9, 2005.  FARC rebels killed four government police officers and six government officials in the town of Puerto Rico in Caqueta province on May 25, 2005.  FARC rebels attacked government troops in Putumayo province on June 25, 2005, resulting in the deaths of some 25 government soldiers.  FARC rebels attacked government policemen in the village of Sipi in Choco province on October 2, 2005, resulting in the deaths of five government policemen.  The OAS provided landmine assistance (two supervisors) to the government beginning on November 8, 2005.  Cuba facilitated negotiations between representatives of the government and ELN in Havana on December 17-22, 2005 and April 25-28, 2006.  FARC rebels killed 28 government soldiers near the town of Vista Hermosa in Meta province on December 28, 2005.  FARC rebels killed seven policemen at Sieera Macarena National Park south of Bogota on February 7, 2006.  FARC rebels killed eight civilians near Puerto Rica in Caqueta province on February 26, 2006.  FARC rebels killed seven civilians in the village of Rivera in Caqueta province on February 27, 2006.  Legislative elections were held on March 12, 2006, and the Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano – PLC) won 35 out of 162 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) won 29 seats in the House of Representatives.  FARC and EPL rebels killed 17 government soldiers near the town of Hacari in Norte de Santander province on April 22, 2006.  President Alvaro Uribe was re-elected with 62 percent of the vote on May 28, 2006.  The European Parliament (EP) sent seven observers headed by Fernandez Martin of Spain to monitor the presidential election from May 25-29, 2006.  The OAS sent observers to monitor the congressional and presidential elections.  Six government soldier officers were killed in a FARC attack in southwestern Colombia on July 4, 2006.  Fifteen government soldiers were killed in a FARC ambush in northeastern Colombia on August 1, 2006.  Four government policemen and one civilian were killed in a bombing in Cali on August 4, 2006.  FARC rebels killed 17 government soldiers in Norte de Santander Province on December 1, 2006.  Government soldiers killed eleven FARC rebels in the Meta Province on March 5, 2007.  Four individuals were killed in a bombing in Buenaventura on March 16, 2007.  Nine government policemen were killed by FARC rebels near Landazuri on May 9, 2007.  FARC rebels killed ten government soldiers in Valle de Cauca Province on May 10, 2007.  Regional elections were held on October 28, 2007.  Some 70 individuals, including 22 candidates, were killed in election-related violence.  Pedro Antonio Marin (Manuel Marulanda Velez), FARC commander and founder, died of natural causes on March 26, 2008.  He was replaced as FARC commander by Guillermo Leon Saenz Vargas (Alfonso Cano).  The government declared a state of internal disturbance beginning on October 9, 2008.  FARC rebels killed four individuals during an attack on a police station in Narino Province on January 13, 2009.  Six individuals, including three policemen and three civilians, were killed in a FARC car bombing in the town of Convencion in February 12, 2009.  The Constitutional Court invalidated the government’s state of internal disturbance on February 12, 2009.  Eight government troops were killed during clashes with FARC rebels near the Venezuelan border on April 29, 2009.  FARC rebels killed seven government soldiers in Samaniego District on May 9-10, 2009.  FARC rebels killed seven policemen in an ambush in Cauca Province on June 22, 2009.  Government military forces killed some 25 rebels in Cauca Province on June 22, 2009.  Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in the Cauca Province on November 10, 2009, resulting in the deaths of nine government soldiers and 30 rebels.  Government military forces killed some 18 FARC rebels in Meta Province on January 1, 2010.  Congressional elections were held on March 14, 2010, and the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional-PSUN) won 47 out of 164 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano – PCC) won 38 seats in the House of Representatives.  Presidential elections were held on May 30 and June 20, 2010.  Juan Manuel Santos of the PSUN was elected president with 69 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election on June 20, 2010.  The OAS sent 81 observers headed by Enrique Correa of Chile to monitor the congressional and presidential elections.  Government military forces killed 13 FARC rebels in Bolivar Province on July 7, 2010.  FARC rebels killed three policemen, two government soldiers, and two civilians in the southern part of the country on July 10, 2010.  Government troops killed 12 FARC rebels in the Tolima mountains on July 11, 2010.  Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in Arauca Province on July 11, 2010, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers.  Juan Manuel Santos was inaugurated as president on August 7, 2010.  FARC rebels killed 14 policemen in Caqueta Province on September 1, 2010.  Government troops killed 11 ELN rebels in Arauca Province on September 2, 2010.  FARC rebels killed 14 policemen in Caqueta Province on September 8, 2010.  FARC rebels killed eight policemen in the town of San Miguel on September 10, 2010.  Government troops killed 22 FARC rebels near the town of San Miguel on September 19, 2010.  Government military forces killed 13 FARC rebels near the Ecuador border on November 15, 2010.  FARC rebels killed five policemen in Cauca and Choco provinces on April 27, 2011.  FARC rebels killed three individuals during attacks in Cauca Province on July 9, 2011.  Government troops killed five ELN rebels near the town of Fortul on October 8, 2011.  FARC rebels killed ten government soldiers in an ambush near Tumaco in Narino Province on October 21, 2011.  Alfonso Cano, commander of FARC rebels, was killed by government military forces in Cauca Province on November 4, 2011.  Two civilians were killed during a FARC attack on a police station in the town of Orito on December 31, 2011.  FARC rebels killed eleven individuals during an attack on a police station in Tumaco on February 1, 2012.  FARC rebels killed six individuals during an attack on the police station in the town of Villa Rica on February 2, 2012.  Representatives of the government and FARC held exploratory negotiations facilitated by the governments of Cuba, Norway, and Venezuela in Havana, Cuba from February 23 to August 26, 2012.  FARC rebels killed two government soldiers and one civilian near the town of Tame on March 3, 2012.  FARC rebels ambushed government troops in Arauca Province near the Venezuelan border on March 17, 2012, resulting in the deaths of eleven soldiers.  Government troops killed some 35 FARC rebels in Meta Province on March 25, 2012.  FARC rebels killed three civilians in the town of Puerto Rico in Caqueta Province on April 27, 2012.  Two individuals were killed in a FARC bombing in Bogota on May 15, 2012.  Representatives of the government and FARC began formal negotiations in Oslo, Norway on October 18, 2012.  FARC rebels killed five government soldiers in the southern Putumayo region on October 18, 2012.  The first of several rounds of negotiations between representatives of the government and FARC was launched in Havana, Cuba on November 15, 2012.  FARC agreed to a unilateral ceasefire from November 20, 2012 to January 20, 2013.  On December 1, 2012, government airstrikes against FARC camps in Narino Province resulted in the deaths of at least 20 rebels.  On December 31, 2012, government airstrikes against a FARC rebel camp in Antioquia Province in northwest Colombia resulted in the deaths of 13 rebels.  FARC rebels killed one government policeman and one civilian in Guaviare Province on February 12, 2013.  Government troops clashed with FARC rebels in Caqueta Province on February 13, 2013, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers and several rebels.  FARC rebels ambushed government troops who were guarding an oil pipeline in the Arauca region in eastern Colombia on July 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 15 soldiers and six rebels.  Government troops clashed with FARC rebels in the town of El Doncello in southwest Colombia on July 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and six rebels.  Government troops killed two FARC rebels during a military operation in southwest Cauca Province on July 22, 2013.  Roberto Menendez of Argentina was appointed as Chief of the OAS Mission to Support the Peace Process in Colombia  (MAPP/OAS) on August 2, 2013.  FARC rebels bombed a police station in the town of Pradera on January 16, 2014, resulting in the death of one individual.  Government troops and FARC rebels clashed in the Tolima area on January 21, 2014, resulting in the deaths of seven rebels.  Congressional elections were held on March 9, 2014, and the Social Party of National Unity (Partido Social de Unidad Nacional-PSUN) won 39 out of 163 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Liberal Party (Partido Liberal) won 37 seats in the House of Representatives.  Presidential elections were held on May 25, 2014 and June 15, 2014.  President Juan Manuel Santos was re-elected with 51 percent of the vote in the run-off election held on June 15, 2014.  FARC rebels captured General Ruben Dario Alzate and two other individuals in Choco Department in northwest Colombia on November 16, 2014.  General Ruben Dario Alzate and two other individuals were freed by FARC on November 30, 2014.  President Barack Obama appointed Bernard Aronson as U.S. Special Envoy to Colombia on February 20, 2015.  Government troops clashed with FARC rebels near La Esperanza in western Colombia on April 14, 2015, resulting in the deaths of ten government soldiers and one rebel.  On May 21, 2015, government airstrikes against a FARC rebel camp in Antioquia Province in northwest Colombia resulted in the deaths of at least five rebels.  Regional elections were held on October 25, 2015.  On January 25, 2016, the UN Security Council authorized the established of a political mission in Colombia to monitor/verify the disarmament of FARC rebels and monitor/verify the cessation of hostilities.  On March 9, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Jean Arnault of France as UN Special Representative and Head of the UN Mission in Colombia.  On June 16, 2016, Major General Javier Antonio Perez Aquino of Argentina was appointed as Chief Observer in the UN Mission in Colombia.  Representatives of the government and FARC signed a ceasefire agreement in Havana, Cuba on June 23, 2016.  The first group of 23 UN observers led by Major General Javier Antonio Perez Aquino of Argentina arrived in Bogota on June 28, 2016.  Some 450 observers and 150 civilian staff members from ten members of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and four members of the European Union (EU) were deployed to monitor the disarmament process and verify the ceasefire agreement.  The ceasefire agreement went into effect on August 29, 2016.  Some 160,000 individuals were killed, and nearly seven million individuals were internally displaced during the conflict between 1987 and 2016.

Post-Conflict Phase (August 30, 2016-present):  On September 13, 2016, the UN Security Council approved UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s recommendations regarding the size (450 unarmed observers), operation, and mandate of the UN Mission in Colombia.  President Juan Manual Santos and FARC leader Rodrigo Londono signed a peace agreement in Cartagena on September 26, 2016.  The UN Mission in Colombia began its monitoring and verification functions on September 27, 2016.  On September 27, 2016, the Organization of American States (OAS) secretary-general and Colombian government signed a protocol extending the mandate of the OAS Mission to Support the Peace Process in Colombia  (MAPP/OAS) until December 31, 2018.  The peace agreement was narrowly rejected by 50.2 percent of the vote in a referendum held on October 2, 2016.  Two members of the FARC were killed by government security forces in Santa Rosa del Sur in Bolivar department on November 13, 2016.  President Juan Manuel Santos and FARC leader Rodrigo Londono signed a revised peace agreement in Bogota on November 24, 2016.  The revised peace agreement was approved by both chambers of the Congress on November 30, 2016.  Opposition members of the House of Representatives and Senate boycotted the congressional votes.  Bernard Aronson stepped down as U.S. Special Envoy to Colombia on January 20, 2017.  The UN Mission in Colombia concluded the disarmament process in the 26 FARC transition camps on August 15, 2017.  More than 8,000 weapons and ammunition were removed from the camps.  Additional weapons and ammunition, including anti-personnel mines, homemade explosives, and gunpowder, were destroyed by UN personnel.  The UN Mission in Colombia was replaced by the UN Verification Mission in Colombia on September 26, 2017.

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