33. Nigeria (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (October 1, 1960-January 14, 1966):  The Federation of Nigeria formally achieved its independence from Britain and joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on October 1, 1960.  On October 1, 1960, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, founder of the Northern People’s Congress (NPC), was appointed as prime minister (head of government) of the Federation of Nigeria.  Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, leader of the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), was appointed as Governor-General (representative of Queen Elizabeth II, the Nigerian head of state) on November 16, 1960.  The Federal Republic of Nigeria was established on October 1, 1963, with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa as prime minister (head of government) and Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe as president (head of state).  President Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe dissolved the House of Representatives on December 8, 1964.  Parliamentary elections were held on December 30, 1964 and March 18, 1965, and the Northern People’s Congress (NPC) won 162 out of 312 seats in the House of Representatives.  The National Council of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) won 84 seats in the House of Representatives. The United Progressive Grand Alliance (UPGA) boycotted the parliamentary elections.  Regional elections were held on October 11, 1965. Chief Samuel Akintola of the Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) was re-elected as prime minister of the Western Region on October 11, 1965. Some 160 civilians and seven government policemen were killed in political violence in the Western Region following the regional elections. Some 20 individuals were killed in political violence in Ilesha on January 12, 1966.

Crisis Phase (January 15, 1966-July 5, 1967):  Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was deposed and killed in a military coup led by Major General Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi on January 15, 1966. Prime Minister Samuel Akintola of the Western Region and Prime Minister Ahmadu Bello of the Northern Region were also deposed and killed during the military coup on January 15, 1966.  The Supreme Military Council (SMC) headed by General Aguyi-Ironsi, a member of the prediminantly Christian Ibo ethnic group, took control of the government and suspended the constitution on January 16, 1966. Some 50 individuals were killed during the military coup. Some 3,000 Nigerians fled as refugees to Dahomey (Benin).  The government of Ghana provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military government on January 17, 1966. The Nigerian government abolished the four federal regions on May 24, 1966. Some 115 individuals, mostly ethnic Ibos, were killed in political violence on May 28-June 2, 1966.  Major General Aguyi-Ironsi was deposed and killed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon on July 29, 1966.  Some 30 individuals were killed in political violence in Lagos on July 29-August 1, 1966, and some 250,000 ethnic Ibos fled from the Northern Region to the Eastern Region following the military coup.  Lt. Colonel Gowon restored the four federal regions on August 31, 1966.  Some 2,000 ethnic Ibos were killed in political violence in the Northern Region from September 29 to October 4, 1966.  Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, military governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria, declared that the region would no longer recognize Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon as head of the federal military government on March 2, 1967.  Lt. Colonel Gowon assumed full powers as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of the military government on May 27, 1967.  Lt. Colonel Gowon proclaimed a state-of-emergency on May 28, 1967.  Lt. Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu, military governor of the Eastern Region, declared the independence of the Republic of Biafra in southern Nigeria on May 30, 1967.

Conflict Phase (July 6, 1967-January 15, 1970): Government troops launched a military offensive against Biafran rebels on July 6, 1967. The Egyptian government provided military assistance (military aircraft and pilots) to the Nigerian government. The presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and the Emperor of Ethiopia jointly appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on July 8, 1967. The East African Community (EAC) offered to send a four-member conciliation commission (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia) to Nigeria, but the mediation offer was rejected by the government. The Vatican City appealed for peaceful negotiations in July 1967. Foreign Minister Emile Zinsou of Dahomey offered to mediate negotiations in August 1967, but the mediation offer was rejected by the Nigerian government.  The British government provided military assistance to the Nigerian government beginning on August 9, 1967. The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (military aircraft and 170 military technicians) to the Nigerian government beginning on August 19, 1967.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) heads-of-state condemned the rebellion, and established a six-member consultative commission (Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Ethiopia, Ghana, Liberia, Niger) chaired by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia on September 14, 1967. Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith attempted to facilitate negotiations between Biafran rebel and government representatives beginning in October 1967.  Government troops captured Enugu, the Biafran capital, on October 4, 1967.  Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin of the Soviet Union offered economic assistance to the government on October 16, 1967.  Some 2,000 government soldiers were killed during an attack against Biafran rebels near Onitsha on October 18, 1967.  The Switzerland-based NGO, World Council of Churches (WCC), established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning on November 20, 1967. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in January 1968. The Society of Friends (Quakers) established a three-member committee to facilitate negotiations between the parties beginning on February 3, 1968. The Vatican and WCC jointly appealed for a ceasefire on March 20, 1968, but the ceasefire appeal was rejected by the parties. Government troops captured Onitsha on March 22, 1968. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission (“International Airlift West Africa”) to provide humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced during the conflict beginning in April 1968.  The Tanzanian government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on April 13, 1968.  The government of Czechoslovakia imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the government and Biafran rebels on April 24, 1968.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith facilitated preliminary negotiations between the parties in London on May 2-15, 1968.  The government of Gabon provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 8, 1968.  Government military aircraft attacked rebel targets in Port Harcourt and Aba on May 9, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 150 civilians.  The government of Ivory Coast provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 15, 1968.  Government troops captured Port Harcourt on May 18, 1968.  The government of Zambia provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to Biafra on May 20, 1968.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) Secretary-General Arnold Smith and President Milton Obote of Uganda facilitated formal negotiations between the parties in Kampala, Uganda on May 23-31, 1968.  The Dutch government imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the Nigerian government and Biafran rebels on June 6, 1968.  The Belgian government imposed military sanctions (suspension of arms shipments) against the Nigerian government and Biafran rebels on July 5, 1968. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) established a commission of inquiry, which visited the region from July to September 1968. The ICRC appointed August Lindt of Switzerland as coordinator of the ICRC mission in Nigeria and Biafra on July 19, 1968. The OAU consultative committee, chaired by President of Hamani Diori of Niger, facilitated preliminary negotiations between the parties in Niamey, Niger on July 20-26, 1968.  The French government expressed its support for the Biafran rebels on July 31, 1968, and provided military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the Biafran rebels beginning in August 1968.  The OAU consultative committee, chaired by Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, facilitated formal negotiations between the parties in Addis Ababa between August 5 and September 9, 1968.  Government troops captured Aba on September 4, 1968.  The governments of Britain, Canada, Poland, and Sweden established a four-member fact-finding mission to investigate allegations of genocide by government troops beginning on September 7, 1968.  Government military aircraft bombed the Aguleri market near Onitsha on September 16, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 510 individuals.  Government military aircraft attacked Umuahia township on September 28, 1968, resulting in the deaths of 31 individuals.  Government troops killed two ICRC personnel, two WCC personnel, and 100 civilians in Okigwi on September 30, 1968.  OAU heads-of-state appealed for a ceasefire in September 1968.  The Joint Church Aid (JCA) mission – which consisted of the Catholic Relief Service (CRS), Caritas International (CI) – the Vatican City humanitarian assistance organization, and Church World Service (CWS) – was established in 1968. The AFSC and the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to Nigerians beginning in January 1969. The Common African, Malagasy, and Mauritanian Organization (Organisation Commune Africaine et Malgache – OCAM) established a conciliation commission on January 29, 1969.  Prime Minister Harold Wilson of Britain attempted to mediate a ceasefire agreement between Biafran rebel and government representatives on March 27-31, 1969.  The OAU consultative committee facilitated negotiations between the parties in Monrovia, Liberia on April 17-20, 1969.  The OAU consultative committee appealed for a ceasefire on April 20, 1969.  UN Secretary-General U Thant appointed Said-Uddin Khan as his representative for relief activities in Nigeria on April 28, 1969.  Government military aircraft shot down an ICRC aircraft on June 5, 1969, and the ICRC suspended its airlift operation in Biafra on June 10, 1969.  August Lindt resigned as coordinator of the ICRC mission on June 19, 1969.  The ICRC terminated its humanitarian mission in Nigeria on October 2, 1969.  The Quaker mission ended its efforts to facilitate negotiations between the parties in November 1969.  The OAU consultative committee was dissolved on December 15, 1969. Biafran leader Colonel Ojukwu fled the country on January 11, 1970.  The governments of Denmark, Ireland, and the US provided humanitarian assistance to refugees beginning on January 12, 1970.  The governments of Australia, Ethiopia, Italy, Norway, and West Germany provided humanitarian assistance to refugees beginning on January 13, 1970.  The Nigerian government banned the JCA on January 14, 1970.  Biafra formally surrendered to government troops on January 15, 1970. Some 45,000 government troops, 45,000 Biafran rebels, and 30,000 civilians were killed, and some 500,000 individuals died as a result of starvation during the conflict.  Some 3 million individuals were internally displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (January 16, 1970-October 1, 1979):  Lt. Colonel Gowon was deposed in a military coup led by General Murtala Ramat Mohammed on July 29, 1975.  The Libyan government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of General Ramat Mohammed on July 30, 1975, and the British government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the Nigerian government on August 1, 1975.  The SMC appointed the 25-member Federal Executive Council (FEC) on August 6, 1975.  General Mohammed appointed a 50-member committee to draft a new constitution, and the committee convened on October 18, 1975.  Government troops and civilians clashed in Ugep on December 25, 1975, resulting in the deaths of nineteen individuals.  General Ramat Mohammed and 24 other military personnel were killed during a military rebellion headed by Lt. Colonel Bukar Suka Dimka on February 13, 1976, and Lt. General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed as head of the SMC on February 14, 1976.  Thirty individuals were executed for their involvement in the assassination of General Ramat Mohammed on March 11, 1976.  Lt. Colonel Dimka and six other individuals were executed for their involvement in the assassination of General Ramat Mohammed on May 16, 1976.  The 50-member committee appointed in October 1975 submitted a draft constitution to the SMC on September 14, 1976.  The SMC formally established a 230-member (mostly elected by local councils in December 1976) Constituent Assembly on August 31, 1977, and the Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on October 6, 1977.  Nine individuals were killed during demonstrations in Lagos on April 20-28, 1978.  General Obasanjo ended the state-of-emergency and lifted the ban on political parties on September 21, 1978.  One the same day, the Constituent Assembly submitted a draft constitution, which created a presidential system of government in Nigeria.  Three political parties – the Unity Party of Nigeria (UPN), the Nigerian People’s Party (NPP), and the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) – were organized on September 22, 1978.  Legislative elections were held on July 14, 1979, and the NPN won 168 out of 449 seats in the House of Representatives.  The UPN won 111 seats in the House of Representatives. Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the NPN was elected president with 34 percent of the vote on August 11, 1979, and he was inaugurated as president on October 1, 1979.  The new constitution went into effect on October 1, 1979.

Post-Crisis Phase (October 2, 1979-December 30, 1983):  Government police and members of the Muslim fundamentalist (Yen Izala) sect headed by Malam Mohammadu Marwa clashed in Kano in northern Nigeria on December 18-31, 1980, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 civilians and 50 government policemen.  Some 5,000 individuals were killed in political violence in 1980 and 1981.  Government police clashed with members of the Yen Izala sect in Maiduguri in the state of Borno and Kaduna in northeastern Nigeria on October 26-31, 1982, resulting in the deaths of some 100 government policemen and 400 civilians.  The government banned the Yen Izala sect on November 18, 1982.  The government expelled some 2.2 million illegal immigrants from the country between January 17 and February 28, 1983. Eight individuals were killed in political violence in Ibadan in the state of Oyo on July 8, 1983.  President Shagari was re-elected for a second term with 48 percent of the vote on August 6, 1983, and he was inaugurated on October 1, 1983.  The NPN won 13 out of 19 state governorships in elections on August 13, 1983.  Eighty-two individuals were killed in political violence in the state of Ondo on August 18-20, 1983.  Legislative elections were held on August 20-27, 1983, and the NPN won 60 out of 96 seats in the Senate and 306 out of 450 seats in the House of Representatives.  The UPN won 16 seats in the Senate and 51 seats in the House of Representatives.

Crisis Phase (December 31, 1983-May 29, 1999):  President Alhaji Shagari was deposed in a military coup led by Major General Muhammed Buhari on December 31, 1983, and the 19-member Supreme Military Council (SMC) headed by General Buhari took control of the government on January 3, 1984.  Government troops clashed with members of a Muslim fundamentalist sect headed by Musa Makaniki in Yola in the state of Gongola on February 27, 1984, resulting in the deaths of some 1,000 individuals.  Government police clashed with members of the Muslim Fundamentalist sect Yen Izala headed by Yusufu Adamu in Gombe on April 26, 1985, resulting in the deaths of 150 individuals.  General Buhari was deposed in a military coup led by Major General Ibrahim Babangida on August 27, 1985, resulting in the deaths of one government policeman.  The 28-member Armed Forces Ruling Council (AFRC) headed by General Babangida took control of the government on August 29, 1985.  The government announced the discovery of a plot within the military to overthrow the government on December 20, 1985, and several hundred military personnel were arrested for their involvement in the plot.  Thirteen military personnel were convicted and sentenced to death on February 25, 1986 (ten of the military personnel were executed in Lagos on March 5, 1986).  A new constitution went into effect on May 3, 1989, and the ban on political parties was lifted.  On October 7 1989, President Babangida dissolved thirteen political parties that had applied for registration since May 1989.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Major Gideon Okar on April 22, 1990, resulting in the deaths of some 200 individuals.  Forty-two military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on July 27, 1990, and twenty-seven individuals were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion on September 13, 1990.  Government police clashed with anti-government demonstrators in Lagos on May 4-13, 1992, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Some 300 individuals were killed in religious violence throughout the country on May 16-18, 1992.  Legislative elections were held on July 4, 1992, and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) won 314 out of 593 seats in the House of Representatives. The National Republican Convention (NRC) won 275 seats in the House of Representatives. The Transitional Council (TC), a civilian government headed by Ernest Adegunle Shonekan, replaced the military government on January 4, 1993.  Moshood K. O. Abiola of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) was elected president with 58 percent of the vote on June 12, 1993.  President Babangida nullified the results of the presidential election on July 4, 1993, resulting in the deaths of eleven individuals during rioting in Lagos on July 5, 1993.  The European Community (EC) imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on July 13, 1993.  President Babangida resigned on August 26, 1993, and the Interim National Government (ING) headed by Ernest Adegunle Shonekan formed a civilian government.  General Sani Abacha deposed the civilian government and dissolved the parliament on November 17-18, 1993.  The Provisional Ruling Council (PRC) headed by General Abacha took control of the government on November 24, 1993.  Moshood Abiola was arrested and charged with treason on June 23, 1994.  General Abacha lifted the ban on political activity on June 27, 1995.  The military government convicted and executed Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other members of the Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP) on November 10, 1995.  The British-based NGO, Amnesty International (AI), condemned the Nigerian government for the executions on November 10, 1995.  The European Union (EU) condemned the Nigerian government for the executions on November 10, 1995.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government on November 11, 1995.  The CON established an eight-member Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG-Nigeria) on November 11, 1995, which consisted of the foreign ministers of Britain, Canada, Ghana, Jamaica, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, and Zimbabwe, to monitor human rights and political conditions in the country.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance and travel ban) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Nigerian government on November 20, 1995.  On December 22, 1995, the UN General Assembly approved a resolution condemning the Nigerian government for the executions of MOSOP members.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali sent a four-member fact-finding mission headed by Atsu Koffi Amega of Togo to investigate human rights conditions in Nigeria from March 28 to April 12, 1996.  The United Democratic Front of Nigeria (UDFN) was established on April 1, 1996.  Commonwealth of Nations (CON) foreign ministers imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel embargo and freeze on foreign-held assets) against the government on April 24, 1996.  The CMAG-Nigeria sent a 17-member fact-finding mission to the country on November 18-20, 1996.  The government charged 15 individuals with treason on March 12, 1997.  The Canadian government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the Nigerian government on March 13, 1997.  Government troops clashed with demonstrators in Ibadan on April 15, 1998, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  At least three individuals were killed in an explosion in Lagos on April 23, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on April 25, 1998, and the United Nigeria Congress Party (UNCP) won 229 out of 282 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Democratic Party of Nigeria (DPN) won 39 seats in the House of Representatives.  Opposition political parties were banned from participating in the legislative elections and called for a boycott of the legislative elections.  General Sani Abacha died on June 8, 1998, and was replaced by General Abdulsalami Abubakar.  Chief Moshood Abiola, a prominent political prisoner, died in prison on July 7, 1998.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (travel ban) against the Nigerian government on November 1, 1998.  Nigeria’s National Electoral Commission (NEC) requested international monitoring of local, state, and national elections to be held between December 5, 1998 and February 27, 1999.  Elections for local councils were held on December 5, 1998, and elections for state governors and assemblies were held on January 9, 1999.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 17 observers to monitor the election process from November 30, 1998 to January 11, 1999.  The Association of African Elections Authorities (AAEA) and the International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent 15 observers headed by K. Afari-Gyan of Ghana to jointly observe the local elections from November 15 to December 8, 1998.  Nineteen individuals were killed in political violence in the Niger Delta region on February 1, 1999.   Legislative elections were held on February 20, 1999, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 206 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives.  The All People’s Party (APP) won 74 seats in the House of Representatives, and the Alliance for Democracy (AFD) won 68 seats in the House of Representatives.  Olusegun Obasanjo of the PDP defeated Olu Falae of the APP by a margin of 63 percent to 37 percent to win the presidential election on February 27, 1999.  The AAEA/IFES sent 28 observers to jointly observed the elections from February 16 to March 2, 1999.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU) sent 50 observers from 18 countries headed by Ali Hassan Mwinyi of Tanzania to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from February 18 to March 2, 1999.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 34 observers from 23 countries headed by Ketumile Masire of Botswana to monitor the elections from February 12 to March 2, 1999.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and The Carter Center (TCC) sent 60 observers from 10 countries headed by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter and Mahamane Ousmane of Niger to jointly monitor the legislative and presidential elections from February 17 to March 1, 1999.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 43 observers headed by General Colin Powell of the U.S. to monitor the president election from February 22 to February 28, 1999.  The European Union (EU) sent 100 observers to monitor the presidential election.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  General Abdulsalami Abubakar signed into law a new constitution on May 5, 1999.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Nigerian government on May 29, 1999.  Olusegun Obasanjo was inaugurated as president on May 29, 1999.

Post-Crisis Phase (May 30, 1999-July 25, 2009):  The European Union (EU) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) against the Nigerian government on June 1, 1999.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) lifted military sanctions (arms embargo) and economic sanctions (travel embargo and freeze on foreign-held assets) against the Nigerian government on November 1, 1999.  Some 100 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in Lagos on November 28, 1999.  Governor Alhaji Ahmed Sani announced the introduction of Islamic law (Sharia) in the state of Zamfra on January 27, 2000.  The state of Kaduna introduced Sharia in February 2000.  Some 400 individuals were killed, and some 100,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in the city of Kaduna in the state of Kaduna on February 21-23, 2000.  More than 50 individuals were killed in religious violence in the town of Aba in southeastern Nigeria on February 28, 2000.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided humanitarian assistance to individuals adversely affected by the violence in the state of Kaduna beginning on February 28, 2000.  President Olusegun Obasanjo met with the country’s 36 state governors on February 29, 2000, and the group agreed to suspend Sharia in the states of Niger, Sokoto, and Zamfara.  Government police arrested 40 supporters of an independent state of Biafra on April 19, 2000.  Some 200 individuals were killed as a result of religious violence in the state of Kaduna on May 22-25, 2000.  Some 25 individuals were killed in violence in Bambam in the state of Gombe on September 7-9, 2000.  Bariya Ibrahim Magazu was given a sentence of 180 lashes for fornication by a Sharia court in the state of Zamfara in September 2000. Some 100 individuals were killed and some 20,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in Lagos in October 2000. Some 1,500 individuals were killed as a result of violence in 2000. A reduced Sharia sentence of 100 lashes against 17-year old Bariya Ibrahim Magazu was carried out in the state of Zamfara on January 19, 2001.  The government of Canada condemned the flogging on Janaury 22, 2001. The United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the flogging on January 23, 2001.  Government police arrested the leader of a Biafran secessionist movement, Ralph Uwazuruike, on February 8, 2001.  Some 200 individuals were killed, and some 50,000 individuals were diplaced as a result of violence in the state of Nassarawa on June 12-26, 2001. Some 1,000 individuals were killed in violence in the state of Bauchi in July 2001.  Some 1,000 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on September 7-17, 2001.  President Olusegun Obasanjo deployed government troops to suppress the violence in Jos on September 8, 2001.  Members of the Tiv ethnic group killed 19 government soldiers in the village of Zaki-Biam in the state of Benue on October 11-12, 2001. Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Kano on October 13-14, 2001. Government troops killed some 200 civilians, and some 300,000 were displaced as a result of the violence in the state of Benue on October 22-24, 2001. Eleven individuals were killed as a result of violence in the state of Kaduna state in northern Nigeria on November 2-4, 2001. Some 20 individuals were killed as a result of violence in the village of Dagwom Turu in the state of Plateau on December 30, 2001. Some 400,000 individuals were displaced as a result of violence in 2001.  Sani Yakubu Rodi was executed under Sharia in a prison in Kaduna on January 3, 2002.  The U.S.-based NGO, Human Rights Watch (HRW), condemned the execution on January 8, 2002.  Government police clashed with members of the Oodua People’s Congress (OPC) in southwest Nigeria on January 12, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 36 individuals.  Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Lagos on February 2-5, 2002.  Government troops were deployed to suppress the violence in Lagos on February 5, 2002.  The Nigerian government declared that certain aspects of Sharia were unconstitutional on March 22, 2002.  The death sentence against Safiya Husaini for adultery was overturned by a Sharia appeals court on March 25, 2002.  On April 20, 2002, the U.S. government agreed to provide $4 million in military assistance to the government.  Muslim clerics in the state of Oyo introduced Sharia on May 1, 2002, but the state government declared that it would not enforce Islamic law in the state.  Some 15 individuals were killed as a result of violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on May 2, 2002.  Some 100 individuals were killed as a result of violence in the town of Nembe in the state of Bayelsa on July 20-22, 2002.  On August 3, 2002, President Olusegun Obasanjo announced a postponement of local elections, which were scheduled for August 10, 2002.  The Nigerian House of Representatives demanded the resignation of President Olusegun Obasanjo on August 13, 2002, but the demand was rejected on August 14, 2002.  Six individuals were killed as a result of violence in the village of Kassa on October 14, 2002.  Eight individuals were killed as a result of violence in Jos on October 22-23, 2002.  On November 13, 2002, President Olusegun Obasanjo granted amnesty to 80 government soldiers who fought in the Biafran conflict on the side of the rebels between 1967 and 1970.  Some 215 individuals were killed in violence in Kaduna and Abuja on November 20-23, 2002.  Some 4,500 individuals were displaced in Kaduna.  Some 25,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2002.  Six individuals were killed in political violence in the state of Benue on February 19, 2003.  Some 64 individuals were killed in northeastern Nigeria on February 24-28, 2003.  Fulani tribesmen attacked the village of Dumne on February 27, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 50 individuals.  The U.S.-based NGOs, National Democratic Institute (NDI) and The Carter Center (TCC), sent a pre-election assessment mission to Nigeria on March 16-21, 2003.  Government police clashed with supporters of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) near the town of Owerri on March 29, 2003, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Legislative elections were held on April 12, 2003, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 76 out of 109 seats in the House of Representatives, and the All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) won 27 seats in the House of Representatives.  President Olusegun Obasanjo was re-elected with 62 percent of the vote on April 19, 2003.  The African Union (AU) sent 21 observers headed by Abdoulaye Bathily of Senegal to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 3 to April 22, 2003.  The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 38 long-term observers, and 62 short-term observers headed by Max van den Berg of the Netherlands to monitor the elections from March 11 to May 20, 2003.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections, and issued its final report on the elections on April 29, 2003.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 50 observers from 12 countries to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 7 to April 21, 2003.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent fourteen observers and eight staff headed by Salim Ahmed Salim of Tanzania to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from April 8 to April 25, 2003.  The International Republican Institute (IRI) sent 55 observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  Some 12,000 individuals fled as refugees as a result of ethnic/political violence in the Nigerian Delta region, including the town of Warri, in May 2003.  Some 100 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in the town of Warri on August 15-19, 2003.  Some 78 individuals were killed in religious violence in Yelwa on February 4, 2004.  Some 630 individuals were killed in religious violence in Yelwa on May 2-4, 2004.  President Olusegun Obasanjo declared a state-of-emergency in the state of Plateau on May 18, 2004.  On May 9, 2005, government authorities charged some 80 members of the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) with holding an illegal “secessionist rally” in southeastern Nigeria.  On July 6, 2005, government authorities dropped charged against 53 Nigerian “footballers” (soccer players) who were arrested for playing in a soccer tournament organized by the banned Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB).  Ralph Uwazuruike, leader of MASSOB, was arrested by government police on October 27, 2005.  Ralph Uwazuruike, leader of MASSOB, and six supporters were charged with treason by government authorities in Abuja on November 8, 2005.  Government police and ethnic-Igbo supporters of MASSOB clashed in Onitsha in southeast Nigeria on December 5-6, 2005, resulting in the deaths of at least three individuals.  Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) militants attacked the offices of an oil company in Port Harcourt on January 24, 2006, resulting in the deaths of seven government policemen and two civilians.  More than 30 Christians were killed during protests by Muslims in the state of Borno on February 18, 2006.  At least 80 individuals, mostly Muslims, were killed in anti-Muslim riots in the town of Onitsha on February 21-22, 2006.  MEND militants exploded a car bomb near a military barracks in Port Harcourt on April 19, 2006, resulting in the deaths of two individuals.  MEND militants killed one individual, a U.S.-based oil company executive, in Port Harcourt on May 10, 2006.  MEND militants killed six government policemen in Port harcourt on May 14, 2006.  Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on June 6, 2006, resulting in the deaths of at least five government soldiers and one militant.  Government troops killed ten MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on August 20, 2006.  MEND militants killed ten government soldiers in the Niger Delta region on October 2, 2006.  Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on October 4, 2006, resulting in the deaths of nine government soldiers.  Government police killed two protesters in Jos on October 13, 2006.  Governor Ayo Fayose of the state of Ekiti was impeached on corruption charges by the state assembly on October 16, 2006.  On October 19, 2006, President Olusegun Obasanjo declared a state-of-emergency in the state of Ekiti after suggesting that the impeachment of Governor Ayo Fayose was “a clear case of usurpation of power” by the state assembly.  One government soldiers was killed by MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on November 22, 2006.  MEND militants killed three security guards in Obagi in the Niger Delta region on December 21, 2006.  Some 13,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2006.  Gunmen killed 12 individuals, including four local chiefs, on a boat traveling to the village of Kula in the Niger Delta region on January 16, 2007.  Gunmen killed two oil workers on a vessel near Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region on January 16, 2007.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent a six member (pre-election) fact-finding mission led by Sir Dawda Jawara of Gambia to Nigeria on February 10-27, 2007.  MEND militants killed one government soldier in the Niger Delta region on March 4, 2007.  Elections for state governors and assemblies were held on April 14, 2007.  Government troops clashed with Islamic militants in Kano on April 17-18, 2007, resulting in the deaths of some 25 militants.  Legislative elections were held on April 21, 2007, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 260 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives.  The All Nigeria People’s Party (ANPP) won 62 seats in the House of Representatives.  Umaru Yar’Adua of the PDP was elected president with 70 percent of the vote on April 21, 2007, and he was inaugurated as president on May 29, 2007.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 200 observers from 29 countries led by Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara of Gambia to monitor the governorship, state assembly, legislative, and presidential elections from April 8 to April 23, 2007.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent eleven observers led by Joseph Warioba on Tanzania to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 10 to April 27, 2007.  The European Union (EU) sent eleven election experts, 66 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers from 23 countries led by Max van den Berg of the Netherlands to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  The U.S.-based NGO, National Democratic Institute (NDI), sent 61 observers (long-term and short-term) from 16 countries to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 15 to April 23, 2007.  The U.S.-based NGO, International Republican Institute (IRI), sent 59 observers to monitor the legislative and presidential elections.  At least 200 individuals were killed in election-related violence.  MEND militants killed two government policemen in Port Harcourt on April 27, 2007.  MEND militants attacked Chevron facilities in the state of Bayelsa on May 1, 2007, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Umaru Yar’Adua was inaugurated as president on May 29, 2007.  MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on June 2, 2007.  Government troops killed eight MEND militants in the state of Bayelsa on June 13, 2007.  Government troops clashed with MEND militants on the Ogboinbiri oil platform in the Niger Delta region on June 21, 2007, resulting in the deaths of 12 militants, two civilians, and one government soldier.  MEND militants attacked two boats in the Niger Delta region near Port Harcourt on August 3, 2007, resulting in the deaths of three individuals.  MEND militants ended their unilateral cessation of military hostilities on September 24, 2007.  Government naval personnel clashed with MEND militants in the Niger Delta region on October 31, 2007, resulting in the deaths of at least two individuals.  Six individuals were killed in local election-related violence in the state of Kano on November 19, 2007.  Some 14,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2007.  Government police clashed with Niger Delta militants in Port Harcourt on January 1, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen, six militants, and three civilians.  MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on June 24, 2008.  MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire on July 12, 2008.  MEND militants declared a unilateral ceasefire on September 21, 2008.  Some 381 individuals were killed and some 10,000 individuals were displaced as a result of religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on November 28-29, 2008.  Some 14,000 Nigerians were refugees (externally displaced) in 2008.  MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire on January 30, 2009.  Four individuals were killed in religious violence in Bauchi in the state of Plateau on February 21, 2009.  Government troops launched a military offensive against MEND militants in the Niger Delta on May 15, 2009.  On June 26, 2009, President Umaru Yar ‘Adua announced an amnesty plan for militants fighting against the government in the Niger Delta region.  MEND militants killed five oil industry workers in Lagos on July 11-12, 2009.  MEND militants declared a 60-day ceasefire on July 15, 2009.

Crisis Phase (July 26, 2009-present):  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in northeastern Nigeria on July 26-30, 2009, resulting in the deaths of more than 1,000 individuals.  Boko Haram, a Sunni Muslim group established by Mohammed Yusuf in Maiduguri in the state of Borno in 2002, supported the establishment of Sharia in Nigeria.  Government troops captured and killed Mohammed Yusuf, founder and leader of Boko Haram, in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 30, 2009.  The Nigerian Government granted amnesty to Niger Delta militants who agreed to lay down their arms between August 6 and October 4, 2009.  MEND militants ended their 90-day ceasefire with the government on October 16, 2009, but announced a unilateral ceasefire with the government on October 25, 2009.  MEND militants killed two government sailors on an oil tanker in the Niger Delta on November 24, 2009.  Government troops clashed with members of the Islamic sect Kala Kato in the state of Bauchi on December 27-28, 2009, resulting in the deaths of at least 38 individuals.  Some 200 individuals were killed and more than 20,000 individuals were displaced as a result of religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on January 17-20, 2010.  MEND militants ended their unilateral ceasefire with the government on January 30, 2010.  Vice-President Goodluck Jonathan was approved as Acting-President by the National Assembly on February 10, 2010.  President Umaru Yar’Adua died of an illness on May 5, 2010, and Vice-President Goodluck Johnson was sworn in as Interim President on May 6, 2010.  MEND militants bombed a Nigerian independence day parade in Abuja on October 1, 2010, resulting in the deaths of twelve individuals.  Henry Okah, leader of the MEND militant group that claimed responsibility for the Abuja bombings, was arrested by South African police in Johannesburg on October 2, 2010.  Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on October 11, 2010.  Boko Haram militants killed some 80 individuals in bombings in Jos in the state of Plateau on December 24, 2010.  Six individuals were killed in attacks on churches in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 24, 2010.  On December 27, 2010, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the “deplorable acts of violence” in Nigeria.  Boko Haram militants killed three government police officers and two civilians in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 29, 2010.  At least four individuals were killed in a bombing in Abuja on December 31, 2010.  Some 18 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on January 7-10, 2011.  Another 13 individuals were killed in religious violence near Jos on January 11, 2011.  Eleven individuals were killed in a stampede at a political rally in Port Harcourt on February 12, 2011.  Three individuals were killed in a bombing at a political rally near Abuja on March 3, 2011.  Six individuals were killed in a bombing of an office of Nigeria’s election commission in Suleja on April 8, 2011.  Legislative elections were held on April 9, 2011, and the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) won 199 out of 360 seats in the House of Representatives.  The Action Congress of Nigeria (ACN) won 69 seats in the House of Representatives.  Goodluck Jonathan of the PDP was elected president with 59 percent of the vote on April 16, 2011.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 13 observers and ten staff members led by Festus Gontebanye Mogae of Botswana to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 25 to April 18, 2011.  The African Union (AU) sent 40 observers led by Ahmed Issack Hassan from Kenya and former President John Agyekum Kufor of Ghana to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 27 to April 18, 2011.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 52 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers from 29 countries led by Alojz Peterle of Slovenia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from March 1 to May 21, 2011. The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent 12 long-term observers and 52 short-term observers from 23 countries led by Joseph Clark from Canada to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from January to May 22, 2011.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 300 observers led by Amos Claudius Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the legislative and presidential elections from April 12 to April 17, 2011.  The Congress for Progressive Change (CPC) claimed fraud in the presidential election.  At least three individuals were killed in bombings in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on April 25, 2011.  At least 16 individuals were killed in an attack on a predominantly Christian village in the state of Bauchi on May 7, 2011.  Some 800 individuals were killed, and some 65,000 individuals were displaced following the April 2011 elections.  Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as president on May 29, 2011.  At least 14 individuals were killed in Boko Haram bombings near the Shadawanka military barracks in the state of Bauchi on May 29, 2011.  Eight individuals were killed in a Boko Haram suicide bombing at the police headquarters in Abuja on June 16, 2011.  Boko Haram militants attacked a police station and bank in the town of Kankara in the state of Katsina on June 20, 2011, resulting in the deaths of seven individuals.  Boko Haram militants killed at least ten individuals in a series of attacks in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 3, 2011.  Government troops killed eleven Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 9, 2011.  Boko Haram militants killed three government policemen and one civilian in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on August 19, 2011.   Boko Haram militants attacked several police stations and banks in the town of Gombi in the state of Adamawa on August 25, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 12 individuals.  The UN compound in Abuja was damaged by a suicide car bombing by Boko Haram militants on August 26, 2011, resulting in the deaths of 23 individuals.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the suicide car bombing.  More than 40 individuals were killed in religious violence in Jos in the state of Plateau on September 1, 2011.  At least 27 individuals were killed in religious violence in the villages of Babale, Dabwak, and Tatu in the state of Plateau on September 3-4, 2011.  At least 19 individuals were killed during an attack on the village of Lingyado in the state of Zamfara on October 2, 2011.  As of October 2011, there were some 370,000 internally-displaced persons (IDPs) in Nigeria, including some 74,000 IDPs in camps.  Boko Haram militants attacked the police headquarter, several government buildings, two banks, and several churches in Damaturu in northern Nigeria on November 4, 2011, resulting in the deaths of more than 100 individuals.  Boko Haram militants attacked a military school near Kano on December 15, 2011, resulting in the deaths of four military officers.  Government policemen clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on December 17, 2011, resulting in the deaths of three policemen and four militants.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damaturu, Maiduguri, and other towns in northern Nigeria on December 22-23, 2011, resulting in the deaths of at least 68 individuals.  At least 42 individuals were killed in church bombings by Boko Haram militants in Madalla, Jos, Gadaka, and Damaturu on December 25, 2011.  Representatives of the African Union (AU), European Union (EU), and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) condemned the church bombings.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council condemned the church bombings.  Representatives of the governments of Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Qatar, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, U.S, and Zambia condemned the church bombings.  At least 50 individuals were killed in ethnic violence in the state of Ebonyi on December 31, 2011.  President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in the states of Yobe, Borno, Plateau, and Niger on December 31, 2011.  Some 90,000 Nigerians were displaced in Damaturu in December 2011.  Boko Haram militants attacked the town hall in Mubi in the state of Adamawa on January 5, 2012, resulting in the deaths of at least 18, mostly ethnic Igbo, individuals.  Eight individuals were killed in Yola in the state of Adamawa on January 5, 2012.  At least five individuals were killed at a mosque and Islamic school in the city of Benin on January 9, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed eight individuals, including four policemen, in the town of Potiskum in the state of Yobe on January 9, 2012.  Boko Haram militants attacked police stations and government buildings in Kano on January 20, 2012, resulting in the deaths of some 150 civilians and 32 government policemen.  The U.S. government condemned Boko Haram on January 24, 2012.  Government troops killed eleven Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on January 28, 2012.  The military headquarters in Kaduna was damaged by a suicide bombing by Boko Haram on February 8, 2012.  Government troops killed eight Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on February 20, 2012.  Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and bank in the town of Jama’are on February 27, 2012, resulting in the deaths of three policemen.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 20 individuals at churches in northern Nigeria on April 29, 2012.  Boko Haram militants attacked a police convoy in the town of Jalingo in the state of Taraba on April 30, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 11 individuals.  Boko Haram militants killed at least nine individuals in a suicide attack on a church in the state of Bauchi on June 3, 2012.  Government troops killed 16 suspected Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on June 5-6, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed at least five individuals in a suicide bombing of the police headquarters in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on June 8, 2012.  Some 50 individuals were killed by Boko Haram militants in suicide bombings of churches in the state of Kaduna on June 17, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed some 130 individuals in the state of Plateau on June 17, 2012.  At least five individuals were killed in a suicide bombing of a mosque in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on July 13, 2012.  MEND militants killed two government soldiers in a clash in the Niger Delta region on August 4, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed at least six government soldiers and two civilians in a suicide bombing of a military convoy in Damaturu in the state of Yobe on August 5, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed 19 individuals at a church in Okene in the state of Kogi on August 6, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed two government soldiers near a mosque in Okene in the state of Kogi on August 7, 2012.    Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on August 12, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 20 militants and one government soldier.  Government troops killed seven suspected Boko Haram militants in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on September 7, 2012.  Government troops killed at least 35 suspected Boko Haram militants in the states of Adamawa and Yobe on September 24, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed more than 25 individuals in the town of Mubi on October 3, 2012.  Government troops killed some 30 suspected Boko Haram militants in Damaturu on October 7, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed three policemen during an attack on a government police station near Damaturu on November 9, 2012.  Eleven individuals were killed in a suicide bombing of a military barracks by Boko Haram militants in Jaji in the state of Kaduna on November 25, 2012.  Boko Hara militants attacked a government police station in Abuja on November 26, 2012, resulting in the deaths of two policemen.  Boko Haram militants killed ten individuals in the village of Chibok and five government policemen in Gamboru Ngala in the state of Borno on December 1-2, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed six individuals at a church in the village of Peri in the state of Yobe on December 24, 2012.  Boko Haram militants killed 15 individuals near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 28, 2012.  Some 600 individuals were killed by Boko Haram militants in 2012.  Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and government office in the town of Song in the state of Adamawa on January 2, 2013.  Government troops clashed with MEND militants in the state of Ogun on January 9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 40 civilians, seven militants, and three government soldiers.  Boko Haram militants killed 23 individuals in Damboa in the state of Borno and Kano on January 21-22, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in the state of Borno on February 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 17 militants and one government soldier.  MEND militants attacked an oil vessel near Bonny Island in the Niger Delta region on February 4, 2013, resulting in the death of one government sailor.  MEND militants attacked an oil barge in the Niger Delta on February 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four foreign oil workers.  Four opposition political parties merged to form the All Progressive Congress (APC) on February 6, 2013.  Government troops killed 20 Boko Haram militants in the village of Monguno in the state of Borno on March 3, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 22 individuals in a suicide car bombing of a bus station in Kano on March 18, 2013.  Henry Okah, former leader of the MEND militant group, was sentenced to 24 years in prison by a South African court on March 26, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on March 31, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 14 militants and one government soldier.  MEND militants killed twelve government policemen in the state of Bayelsa on April 6, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in the town of Baga on April 19-20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals.  Boko Haram militants attacked military barracks, a prison, and a police station in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on May 7, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 22 policemen, 14 prison guards, two government soldiers, four civilians, and 13 militants.  Boko Haram militants killed 53 individuals in the state of Benue on May 14, 2013.  President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency and government troops launched a military offensive against Boko Haram militant camps in the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa on May 14, 2013.  Some 42 individuals, including at least 27 students, were killed by Boko Haram militants during an attack against a boarding school in the town of Potiskum in the state of Yobe on July 6, 2013.  Boko Haram militants attacked a government police station and bank in the town of Karim Lamido in the state of Taraba on July 6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three policemen.  Boko Haram militants killed 20 individuals in the town of Baga in the state of Borno on July 27, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 12 individuals in Kano on July 29, 2013.  Boko Haram militants attacked a military base in the town of Malam Fatori and a police station in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on August 4, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 32 militants, two government soldiers, and one government policeman.  Boko Haram militants killed 44 individuals at a mosque in the town of Konduga and 12 individuals in the village of Ngom in the state of Borno on August 11, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed 11 individuals in the town of Damboa in the state of Borno on August 15, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed 44 individuals in the village of Demba in the state of Borno on August 19, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 20 pro-government militiamen in the town of Bama and the village of Damasak in the state of Borno on August 25-26, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 24 pro-government militiamen near the town of Monguno in the state of Borno on August 30, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed 15 individuals in the town of Gajiram and five individuals in the village of Bulabilin Ngaura in the state of Borno on September 4-5, 2013.  Government troops killed some 50 Boko Haram militants in the state of Borno on September 6, 2013.  Boko Haram militants clashed with members of a pro-government militia in the town of Benisheik in the state of Borno on September 8, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants near Maiduguri in the state of Borno on September 10-12, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several dozen militants and at least 16 government soldiers.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 143 individuals on the road between Maiduguri and Damaturu in the state of Borno on September 17, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 16 individuals on the road between Maiduguri and Bamboa in the state of Borno on September 19, 2013.  Government security forces clashed with suspected Boko Haram militants in Abuja on September 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least seven individuals.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 41 students at an agriculture college in Gujba in the state of Yobe on September 28, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damboa in the state of Borno on October 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 individuals.  Boko Haram militants killed 19 individuals near the town of Logumani in the state of Borno on October 20, 2013.  Government troops killed 74 suspected Boko Haram militants in the villages of Galangi and Lawanti in the state of Borno on October 24, 2013.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Damaturu in the state of Yobe on October 24-25, 2013, resulting in the deaths of dozens of individuals.  Boko Haram militants killed 27 individuals in the village of Gulumba in the state of Borno on October 31, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed 13 individuals in the village of T-Junction on the state of Borno on November 2, 2013.  Boko Haram militants attacked a wedding convoy near the town of Bama in the state of Borno on November 2, 2013, resulting in the deaths of more than 30 individuals.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants in Kano on November 9, 2013, resulting in the deaths of five militants and two government soldiers.  On November 13, 2013, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) stated that some 40,000 Nigerians had been displaced to Niger during the recent Nigerian military offensive against Boko Haram militants.  On November 13, 2013, the U.S. government designated Nigeria’s Boko Haram and Ansaru militant groups as “foreign terrorist organizations.”  Boko Haram militants killed 12 individuals in the village of Sandiya in the state of Borno on November 23, 2013.  Government troops killed more than 50 Boko Haram militants in the Gwoza hills in the state of Borno on November 28, 2013.  Boko Haram militants attacked several military bases in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on December 2, 2013, resulting in the deaths of several individuals.  Boko Haram militants attacked a military barracks in the town of Bama in the state of Borno on December 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with Boko Haram militants near the border with Cameroon in the state of Borno on December 23, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 50 militants, 15 government soldiers, and five civilians.  Government troops killed some 56 Boko Haram militants in Alafa forest in the state of Borno on December 28, 2013.  Boko Haram militants killed eight individuals in the village of Tashan Alade in the state of Borno on December 29, 2013.  Some 470,000 Nigerians were displaced, mostly as a result of the Boko Haram insurgency, in 2013 (more than three million Nigerians overall were internally-displaced at the end of 2013).  At least 17 individuals were killed in a Boko Haram car bombing in Maiduguri in the state of Borno on January 14, 2014.  Boko Haram militants killed 52 individuals in the village of Kawuri in the state of Borno and 22 individuals in the village of Waga Chakawa in the state of Adamawa on January 26, 2014.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 39 individuals in the town of Konduga in the state of Borno on February 11, 2014.  Boko Haram militants killed some 106 individuals in the village of Izghe in the state of Borno on February 15, 2014.  Boko Haram militants killed at least 29 students at a boarding school in Buni Yadi in the state of Yobe on February 24-25, 2014.  Boko Haram militants attacked the town of Michika and the villages of Shuwa and Kirchinga in the state of Adamawa on February 26, 2014, resulting in the deaths of 37 civilians and six militants.

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Selected Bibliography

Akuchu, Gemuh E. 1977. “Peace Settlement of Disputes: Unsolved Problem for the OAU.” Africa Today 24 (October-December): 39-58.

Anber, Paul. 1967. “Modernisation and Political Disintegration: Nigeria and the Obos,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 5 (2): pp. 163-179.

Amate, C. O. C. 1986. “Intervening in Africa’s Civil Wars.” Inside the OAU: Pan-Africanism in Practice. London: Macmillan Press, 431-458.

Edgell, Alvin G. 1975. “Nigeria/Biafra.” In Morris Davis, editor. Civil Wars and the Politics of International Relief. New York: Praeger Publishers, 50-73.

Phillips, Claude S. 1980. “Nigeria’s New Political Institutions, 1975-1979,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 18 (1), pp. 1-22.

Wiseberg, Laurie S. 1972. “Christian Churches and the Nigerian Civil War.” Journal of African Studies 2 (Fall): 297-331.

Woronoff, Jon. 1970. “The Nigerian Civil War.” In Organizing African Unity. Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, Inc, 395-434.

Zukerman, Morris E. 1970. “Nigerian Crisis: Economic Impact on the North,” The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 8 (1), pp. 37-54.