59. Mozambique (1975-present)

 

Crisis Phase (June 25, 1975-May 29, 1977):  Mozambique formally achieved its independence from Portugal on June 25, 1975.  Samora Machel, leader of the Front of the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Libertacao de Mocambicana – FRELIMO), was chosen as the first president of the country.  The Cuban government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Mozambique on August 29, 1975, and the U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Mozambique on September 24, 1975.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Lourenco Marques on December 17-18, 1975, resulting in the deaths of six individuals.  The Cuban government provided military assistance (600 military advisors) in support of the government of Mozambique beginning in February 1976. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (May 30, 1977 – October 15, 1992):  After FRELIMO declared itself to be a Marxist-Leninist party, the Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana – RENAMO) headed by Afonso Dhlakama began a rebellion against the government on May 30, 1977.  The conflict was largely fought between ethnic Makondes from northern Mozambique and ethnic Shanganas from southern Mozambique.  The Rhodesian government provided military assistance to RENAMO rebels from 1977 to 1980.  The government of the Soviet Union provided military assistance (weapons and 800 military advisers) to the FRELIMO government beginning in 1977.  Local elections were held on September 25, 1977.  Provincial assemblies approved 210 FRELIMO candidates for the People’s Assembly.  The South African government provided military assistance to RENAMO rebels from 1980 to 1989.  South African and Rhodesian military forces launched a joint raid against an oil storage depot in Beira, Mozambique in March 1979.  The Tanzanian government agreed to provide military assistance (200 military advisors) to the FRELIMO government on February 15, 1982.  The West German government agreed to provide economic assistance to the FRELIMO government in July 1982.  The government of Zimbabwe deployed some 14,000 troops in support of the FRELIMO government beginning in July 1982.  President Machel and Soviet leader Yuri Andropov met in Moscow in March 1983, after which the Soviet Union agreed to provide military assistance (military advisors) in support of the government.  On March 16, 1984, the governments of Mozambique and South Africa signed an agreement, known as the Nkomati Accord, to end support for opposition groups in the two countries.  The British government agreed to provide military assistance (military training) to the government on July 2, 1985.  Government troops and Zimbabwean troops captured Gorongosa from RENAMO rebels in August 1985.  RENAMO rebels recaptured Gorongosa on February 15, 1986.  President Banda of Malawi expelled RENAMO supporters from camps in his country in October 1986, and Malawi eventually deployed some 700 troops in Mozambique to guard the Malawi-Nacala railway.  Local elections were held on October 15, 1986.  President Samora Machel and 34 other individuals were killed in a plane crash near Mbuzini, South Africa on October 19, 1986.  Joaquim Chissano was elected as the new president by FRELIMO on November 6, 1986.  Provincial assemblies approved 249 FRELIMO candidates for the People’s Assembly on December 15, 1986.  The Tanzanian government deployed some 3,000 troops in support of the government beginning in March 1987.  The South African government provided military assistance (non-lethal military equipment, including trucks) to the government beginning on November 28, 1988.  The South African government offered to mediate negotiations between the parties, but RENAMO rejected the mediation offer on February 13, 1989.  The government of the Soviet Union began withdrawing its military advisors from Mozambique in June 1989.  President Mugabe of Zimbabwe and President Moi of Kenya began mediation in the dispute in August 1989.  The Italian government, the Vatican (represented by Archbishop Jaime Goncalves), and the Sant ‘Egidio Community established a four-member delegation, which mediated negotiations between government and RENAMO representatives in Rome beginning on July 8 1990. The parties signed a partial ceasefire agreement in Rome on December 1, 1990.  The parties agreed to established the ten-member Joint Verification Commission (JVC) chaired by Ambassador Manfredi di Camerana of Italy, which included 38 personnel from Italy, Zimbabwe, Congo-Brazzaville, Kenya, Zambia, Britain, France, Portugal, Russia, and the United States, to monitor the ceasefire from December 19, 1990 to December 15, 1992. A new constitution providing for a multiparty political system went into effect on November 30, 1990, but RENAMO rejected the constitution.  President Joaquim Chissano and Afonso Dhlakama signed the General Peace Agreement in Rome on October 4, 1992, which established a framework for ending the civil war. Government and RENAMO representatives agreed to a full ceasefire, which went into effect on October 15, 1992. Some 600,000 individuals were killed during the conflict. Some 3.5 million individuals were internally displaced, and some 2.2 million individuals fled as refugees to Malawi, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Swaziland, and Tanzania during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (October 16, 1992-February 2, 2005):  The United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees (UNHCR) provided humanitarian assistance to refugees in neighboring countries. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Aldo Ajello of Italy as special representative to Mozambique on October 13, 1992.  On December 16, 1992, the UN Security Security Council established the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) to monitor and verify the ceasefire agreement; to monitor and verify the withdrawal of foreign troops from Mozambique and to provide security in the transport corridor; to monitor and verify the demobilization of military forces; to monitor and verify the electoral process; and to monitor the civilian police.  The ONUMOZ-military component consisted of 6,576 peacekeeping troops and military observers from 40 countries commanded by Major-General Lélio Gonçalves Rodrigues da Silva of Brazil.  The ONUMOZ-civilian police component, which consisted of 1,087 civilian police personnel commanded by Brig.-General Ali Mahmoud of Egypt, was established on February 23, 1994.  The ONUMOZ-electoral component, which consisted of 900 election observers, monitored the electoral process beginning on June 1, 1994.  The International Organization for Migration (IOM) provided repatriation assistance to displaced individuals in 1993 and 1994. The Mozambique government and RENAMO signed an agreement on September 3, 1993, which provided for the establishment of a national police force administered by a Police Commission (COMPOL). World Vision International (WVI) provided humanitarian assistance in 1993 and 1994. The UNHCR, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Save the Children Fund (STCF), and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) provided repatriation assistance to some 1.7 million refugees and 3 million internally displaced individuals from 1993 to July 24, 1996.  The World Bank (WB) provided reconstruction assistance to the government between March 30, 1993 and December 31, 1998.  The UN established the Accelerated De-mining Programme (UN-ADP) in June 1994.  Legislative elections were held on October 27-29, 1994, and FRELIMO won 129 out of 250 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  RENAMO won 109 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  President Chissano of FRELIMO was re-elected with 53 percent of the vote on October 29, 1994, and he was inaugurated on December 9, 1994.  The Organization of African Unity (OAU), Commonwealth of Nations (CON), and European Union (EU) sent personnel to monitor the elections.  The UN Security Council endorsed the results of the election on November 21, 1994.  ONUMOZ was disbanded on January 31, 1995. Twenty-six ONUMOZ personnel, including 23 military personnel and two civilian police personnel, were killed during the mission.  Mozambique joined the Commonwealth of Nations (CON) on November 13, 1995.  The UN-ADP was disbanded on February 29, 1996.  Municipal elections were held on June 30, 1998, and FRELIMO won 33 out of 33 mayoral elections.  RENAMO boycotted the municipal elections.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 13 observers to monitor the election registration process – which lasted from July 20 to September 17, 1999 – from August 10 to August 20, 1999.  Legislative elections were held on December 3-5, 1999, and FRELIMO won 129 out of 250 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  RENAMO won 112 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  President Chissano was re-elected with 52 percent of the vote on December 4, 1999.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent sixteen observers from ten countries headed by Brandford Taitt of Barbados to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning in November 1999. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Parliamentary Forum sent eleven observers from nine countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from November 29 to December 7, 1999. The European Union (EU) sent 64 observers from 15 countries headed by Pertti Paasio to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on December 1, 1999.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 50 observers from 16 countries headed by Jimmy Carter of the US and Quett Masire of Botswana to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on November 12, 1999. The EU mission issued a preliminary report on December 12, 1999, which suggested that the presidential and legislative elections were free and fair.  RENAMO members of the Assembly of the Republic boycotted the legislature on November 9, 2000.  Government police and RENAMO demonstrators clashed in northern Mozambique on November 9, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 41 individuals. Eighty-two RENAMO supporters, who had been arrested for their involvement in the demonstrations, died from asphyxiation in prison in Montepuez in Cabo Delgado province on November 21, 2000.  Local elections were held on November 19, 2003.  The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 14 long-term observers, and 34 short-term observers headed by Jose Maria Mendiluce Perreiro of Spain to monitor the local elections from October 20 to December 6, 2003.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 15 observers to monitor the local elections from November 16 to November 21, 2003.  Legislative elections were held on December 1-2, 2004, and FRELIMO won 160 out of 250 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  RENAMO won 90 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  Armando Guebuza of FRELIMO was elected president with 64 percent of the vote on December 1-2, 2004.  The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 26 long-term observers, and 80 short-term observers headed by Jose Javier Pomes Ruiz of Spain to monitor the elections from October 13 to December 31, 2004.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 35 observers headed by Brigalia Bam of South Africa to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections from November 23 to December 5, 2004.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent ten observers and six staff members headed by Vaughan Lewis of St. Lucia to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections from November 15 to December 7, 2004.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), sent 60 observers headed by Jimmy Carter of the U.S. and Nicephore Soglo of Benin to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections from November 28 to December 4, 2004.  The Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) sent observers to monitor the presidential and parliamentary elections.  Armando Guebuza was inaugurated as president on February 2, 2005.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 3, 2005-April 2, 2013):  Four individuals were killed during clashes between government policemen and demonstrators in Maputo on February 5-12, 2008.  A mob attacked a Red Cross office in the village of Quinga in Nampula province on March 4, 2009, resulting in the deaths of two Red Cross employees and two government policemen.  Thirteen individuals, who had been arrested and detained for their involvement in the killing of two Red Cross employees, died of asphyxiation while in police custody on March 17, 2009.  Legislative elections were held on October 28, 2009, and the FRELIMO won 191 out of 250 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  The RENAMO won 51 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  President Armando Guebuza was re-elected with 75 percent of the vote on October 28, 2009.  The African Union (AU) sent 22 observers led by Roberto de Almeida of Angola to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 23 to October 30, 2009.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 98 observers led by Dr. Eustarckio Kazonga of Zambia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 11 to October 30, 2009.  The Electoral Commissions Forum (ECF) of the SADC sent 17 observers from eight countries led by Florence Mumba of Zambia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 19 to October 30, 2009.  The European Union (EU) sent seven election experts, 24 long-term observers, and 100 short-term observers from 27 countries led by Fiona Hall of the United Kingdom to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 22 to November 21, 2009.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent eleven observers led by former President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 21 to November 4, 2009.  The Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (CPLP) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) coordinated the International Observer Mission (IOM), which consisted of 67 observers from 12 countries, to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 23 observers led by Dr. Christiana Thorpe of Sierra Leone to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 20 to October 30, 2009.  Thirteen individuals were killed during riots over rising food and fuel costs in Maputo on September 1-3, 2010.  Government policemen clashed with members of RENAMO in Nampula on March 8, 2012, resulting in the deaths of one government policeman and one RENAMO member.

Crisis Phase (April 3, 2013-September 5, 2014):  Government police raided RENAMO headquarters in the town of  Muxúnguè in Sofala province on April 3, 2013, resulting in the arrest of 15 members of RENAMO.  RENAMO rebels attacked a government police station in the town of Muxúnguè in Sofala province on April 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four government policemen and one rebel.  RENAMO rebels attacked a bus and a truck near the town of  Muxúnguè in Sofala province on April 6, 2013, resulting in the deaths of three civilians.  RENAMO rebels raided a government weapons depot in the town of Savane on June 17, 2013, resulting in the deaths of seven government soldiers.  RENAMO rebels attacked three vehicles in central Sofala province on June 21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of two civilians.  Government troops attacked a RENAMO camp in Muxúnguè district in Sofala province on August 10-11, 2013, resulting in the death of at least one government soldier.  RENAMO rebels ambushed and killed seven government soldiers in Gorongosa district in Sofala province on October 17, 2013.  Government troops attacked and captured the headquarters of the RENAMO in Gorongosa district in Sofala province on October 18-21, 2013.  The RENAMO opposition announced that it was abandoning the 1992 peace agreement with the governing FRELIMO political party on October 21, 2013.  The U.S. government appealed to the government and RENAMO to “de-escalate the current tense environment” on October 22, 2013.  RENAMO rebels attacked three vehicles near the town of Muxúnguè in Sofala province on October 26, 2013, resulting in the death of one civilian.  Thousands of individuals demonstrated against the “threat of armed conflict in the country” in Maputo, Beira, and Quelimane on October 31, 2013.  On October 21, 2013, the U.S. government condemned the “reprehensible attacks” on civilians in Mozambique.  Government troops clashed with RENAMO rebels in central Mozambique on November 5, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  Government troops clashed with RENAMO rebels in central Mozambique on November 16, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier and one rebel.  Local elections were held on November 20, 2013.  RENAMO boycotted the local elections.  Gunmen killed Judge Dinis Silica in Maputo on May 8, 2014.  Government troops clashes with RENAMO rebels on May 31-June 1, 2014, resulting in the deaths of at least 20 government soldiers.  The U.S. government urged the Mozambican government to reach a peaceful settlement of the political crisis.  On August 13, 2014, the Assembly of the Republic approved an amnesty law that will allow RENAMO leader, Afonso Dhlakama, to contest the upcoming presidential election.  Leaders of the FRELIMO-led government and the RENAMO signed a peace agreement on September 5, 2014.

Post-Crisis Phase (September 6, 2014-present):  Legislative elections were held on October 15, 2014, and the FRELIMO won 144 out of 250 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  RENAMO won 89 seats in the Assembly of the Republic.  Filipe Nyusi of the FRELIMO was elected president with 57 percent of the vote on October 15, 2014.  The African Union (AU) sent ten long-term observers and 35 short-term observers led by the Honorable Justice Sophia Akuffo of Ghana from 24 countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 8 to October 17, 2014.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 145 observers led by the Honorable Maite Nkoana-Mashabane of South Africa to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 3 to October 17, 2014.  The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 20 short-term observers led by Judith Sargentini of the Netherlands to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 22 to October 17, 2014.  The Commonwealth of Nations (CON) sent 14 observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from October 9 to October 17, 2014.  The U.S.-based NGO, The Carter Center (TCC), and the Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent 23 long-term observers and 64 short-term observers from 40 countries to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from August 25 to October 17, 2014.  RENAMO claimed that the results of the elections were fraudulent.

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Selected Bibliography

Alden, Chris. 1995. “The UN and the Resolution of the Conflict in Mozambique.” Journal of Modern African Studies 33 (no.1): 103-128.

Branco, Carlos. 2011. “Non-Governmental Organizations in the Mediation of Violent Intra-State Conflict:  The Confrontation between Theory and Practice in the Mozambican Peace Process,” JANUS.Net e-journal of International Relations, vol. 2 (2), pp. 77-95.