34. Malagasy Republic/Madagascar (1960-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (June 26, 1960-May 12, 1972): The Malagasy Republic formally achieved its independence from France on June 26, 1960.  The governments of France and Madagascar signed a military assistance agreement, including French access to military bases on the island, on June 27, 1960.  The French government provided some $25 million in military assistance (weapons, equipment, and training) to the government of Madagascar from 1960 to 1965.  The French government maintained 2,500 troops (eventually up to 4,000 troops) at military bases in Madagascar.  The government of West Germany provided military assistance (30 jeeps, five coastal patrol boats, and training for 55 naval personnel) to the government of Madagascar from 1960 to 1965.  Legislative elections were held on September 4, 1960, and the Social Democratic Party (SDP) won 76 out of 107 seats in the National Assembly. The Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (Parti du congres de l’independabce de Madagascar – PCIM) won nine seats in the National Assembly.  President Philibert Tsiranana was re-elected to a second term without opposition on March 30, 1965.  Legislative elections were held on August 8, 1965, and the SDP won 104 out of 107 seats in the National Assembly.

The PCIM won three seats in the National Assembly.  Legislative elections were held on September 6, 1970, and the SDP won 104 out of 107 seats in the National Assembly. The PCIM won three seats in the National Assembly.  Government police suppressed a rebellion by the National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (Mouvement National pour l’Indépendance de Madagascar – MONIMA) headed by Monja Jaona in Tulear province on March 31-April 2, 1971, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. Monja Jaona was captured by government troops on April 23, 1971. President Tsiranana took over complete control of the SDP on May 25, 1971, and Vice-President Andre Resampa, secretary-general of the SDP, was arrested by government police on June 1, 1971. On May 31, 1971, the International Federation of Human Rights (IFHR) sent two personnel to investigate reports of human rights abuses during the rebellion in southern Madagascar. President Philibert Tsiranana was re-elected to a third term without opposition on January 30, 1972.  Opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election.  After months of student demonstrations, President Tsiranana closed public schools and arrested 375 students on May 12, 1972.

Crisis Phase (May 13, 1972-August 10, 1993):  Government police clashed with demonstrations in Antananarivo on May 13-14, 1972, resulting in the deaths of 24 demonstrators and ten government policemen.  President Philibert Tsiranana declared a state-of-emergency on May 13, 1972.  On May 17, 1972, the French government announced that it would not intervene in Madagascar.  President Tsiranana turned over control of the government to Major-General Gabriel Ramanantsoa on May 18, 1972, and General Ramanantsoa was appointed as head-of-state on May 19, 1972.  General Ramanantsoa formed a military/civilian government as prime minister on May 25, 1972.  The government imposed martial law on August 29, 1972.  General Ramanantsoa’s control of the government was approved in a referendum on October 8, 1972, and President Tsiranana resigned on October 11, 1972.  The government established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, China, and North Korea in October and November 1972.  President Ramanantsoa declared a state-of-siege on December 14, 1972, and lifted the state-of-siege on January 13, 1973.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Colonel Rajaonarison on December 31, 1974.  President Ramanantsoa dissolved the government on January 25, 1975, and Colonel Richard Ratsimandrava took full control of the government on February 5, 1975.  Colonel Ratsimandrava was assassinated by members of the Groupe Mobile de Police (GMP) on February 11, 1975, and the 18-member National Committee of Military Direction (Comite National de Direction Militaire-CNDM) headed by General Gilles Andriamahazo took control of the government on February 12, 1975.  The military directorate declared martial law on February 12, 1975.  Government troops attacked members of the GMP in Antanimora on February 12-13, 1975, resulting in the deaths of 16 members of the GMP and six government soldiers.  The CNDM appointed Lt. Commander Didier Ratsiraka as head-of-state on June 15, 1975, and Lt. Commander Ratsiraka formed a government as prime minister on June 16, 1975.  President Ratsiraka lifted martial law on June 26, 1975.  The government announced the nationalization of French banks and insurance companies in Madagascar in June 1975.  The Charter of the Socialist Revolution (CSR) was approved with 96 percent of the vote in a referendum on December 21, 1975. The Democratic Republic of Madagascar was formally proclaimed on December 30, 1975, and Lt. Commander Ratsiraka was sworn in as president on January 4, 1976.  The French government withdrew all of its military forces from Madagascar in 1975.  The Soviet Union, China, and North Korea provided military assistance (military advisers, training, weapons, helicopters, military aircraft, and equipment) to the government of Madagascar from late 1975 to 1982.  Colonel Joel Rakotomalala was appointed as prime minister on January 11, 1976.  The government banned opposition political parties.  The Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (Avant-garde de la Revolution Malgache – AREMA) was established on March 19, 1976.  Prime Minister Rakotomalala was killed in a helicopter crash on July 30, 1976, and Justin Rakotoniaina was appointed as prime minister on August 12, 1976.  Local elections were held on March 20, 1977, and provincial elections elections were held between April 3 and May 8, 1977.  The AREMA won 95 percent (or 220 seats) of the total number of provincial council seats.  Legislative elections were held on June 30, 1977, and the AREMA won 112 out of 137 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (Parti du congres de l’independabce de Madagascar – PCIM) won 16 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  Prime Minister Rakotoniaina resigned on July 28, 1977, and Lt. Colonel Desire Rakotoarijaona formed a government as prime minister on August 4, 1977.  Three individuals were killed in political violence in Antananarivo on May 29-30, 1978. Government police and students clashed in Antananarivo on February 3-4, 1981, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  President Ratsiraka was re-elected with 80 percent of the vote on November 7, 1982.  The French government provided military assistance (training for 783 military officers) from 1982 to 1988.  Legislative elections were held on August 28, 1983, and AREMA won 117 out of 137 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The PCIM won nine seats in the National People’s Assembly.  Fourteen individuals were killed in political violence in Antsirabe, Tulear, Farafangana, Fianarantsoa, and Tamatave between February 26 and March 10, 1987.  Prime Minister Rakotoarijaona resigned, and Lt. Colonel Victor Ramahatra was appointed as prime minister on February 12, 1988.  President Ratsiraka was re-elected with 63 percent of the vote on March 12, 1989.  Legislative elections were held on May 28, 1989, and the AREMA won 120 out of 137 seats in the National People’s Assembly.  The Movement for the Progress of Madagascar (Mpitolona ho an’ny Fandrosoan’i Madagasikara – MFM) won seven seats in the National People’s Assembly.  Local elections were held on September 24, 1989.  On April 5, 1990, the French government announced the provision of military assistance (jeeps, uniforms, equipment, and military advisers) to the government of Madagascar.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion in Tananarive (Antananarivo) on May 13, 1990, resulting in the deaths of 50 individuals.  Several thousand individuals demonstrated against the government beginning on June 10, 1991.  Sixteen opposition political parties established the Committee of Active Forces (Comites des Forces Vives-CFV), and nominated Jean Rakotoharison as president and Albert Zafy as prime minister on July 16, 1991.  President Ratsiraka declared a state-of-emergency on July 23 1991, and Albert Zafy was arrested by government police on July 27, 1991.  Prime Minister Victor Ramahatra resigned, and President Ratsiraka dissolved the parliament on July 28, 1991. Some 50 individuals were killed during the “March for Freedom” (Marche de la Liberte) demonstration on July 30, 1991.  President Ratsiraka appointed Guy Willy Razanamasy as prime minister on August 8, 1991. Government troops fired on anti-government demonstrators in Antananarivo and Mahajanga on August 10-11, 1991, resulting in the deaths of more than 50 individuals.  The French government ordered the withdrawal of French military advisers from Madagascar on August 15, 1991.  Government and opposition representatives signed an agreement on October 31, 1991, which provided for the appointment of Albert Zafy as president of the High Authority of the State (HAS) for a period of 18 months. Guy Willy Razanamasy formed a coalition government as prime minister on December 19, 1991.  Government troops suppressed a military rebellion on August 18-23, 1992. A new constitution was approved with 73 percent of the vote in a referendum on August 19, 1992, and the constitution went into effect on September 18, 1992. The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) sent 50 observers from 14 countries to monitor the constitutional referendum. Albert Zafy of the Committee of Active Forces (Comites des Forces Vives – CFV) coalition was elected president with 67 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on February 10, 1993, and he was inaugurated as president on March 27, 1993. The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) sent 69 observers to monitor the presidential elections from November 1992 to February 1993.  Two individuals were killed in political violence in Toliara on June 1, 1993, and one individual was killed in political violence in Arivonimamo on June 6, 1993.  Legislative elections were held on June 16, 1993, and the CFV-led coalition won 75 out of 138 seats in the National Assembly. The Movement for the Progress of Madagascar (Mpitolona ho an’ny Fandrosoan’i Madagasikara – MFM) won 15 seats in the National Assembly.  Francisque Ravony of the CFV coalition was elected prime minister by the parliament on August 10, 1993.

Post-Crisis Phase (August 11, 1993-February 21, 2002):  An amendment to the constitution providing for presidential appointment of the prime minister was approved with 64 percent of the vote in a referendum on September 17, 1993. Prime Minister Ravony resigned on October 30, 1995, and Emmanuel Rakotovahiny of the National Union for Democracy and Development (Union Nationale pour la Democratie et le Developpement – UNDD) was appointed as prime minister. Municipal elections were held on November 5, 1995. Prime Minister Rakotovahiny resigned on May 20, 1996, and Norbert Ratsirahonna was appointed as prime minister on May 28, 1996. President Zafy was impeached by the National Assembly on July 26, 1996, and the impeachment was upheld by the High Constitutional Court on September 5, 1996.  Didier Ratsiraka was elected president with 51 percent of the vote in the second round of elections held on December 29, 1996.  The UN, Organization of African Union (OAU), International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), and International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES) sent some 50 observers to monitor the first and second rounds of the presidential election held on November 3 and December 29, 1996.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent ten observers to monitor the first and second rounds of the presidential election from October 30, 1996 to January 2, 1997.  President Ratsiraka appointed Pascal Rakotomavo as prime minister on February 21, 1997.  Amendments to the constitution to allow the president to dissolve parliament and appoint the prime minister were approved with 51 percent of the vote in a referendum on March 15, 1998.  Legislative elections were held on May 17, 1998, and Vanguard of the Malagasy Revolution (Avant-garde de la Revolution Malgache – AREMA) won 63 out of 150 seats in the National Assembly.  The Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery (Libéralisme Économique et Action Démocratique pour la Reconstruction Nationale – LEADER-Fanilo) won 16 seats in the National Assembly.  Prime Minister Pascal Rakotomavo resigned on July 22, 1998, and President Ratsiraka appointed Tantely Andrianarivo as prime minister on July 23, 1998.  Provincial elections were held on December 3, 2000. Presidential elections were held on December 16, 2001. The government announced that neither President Ratsiraka nor Marc Ravalomanana, mayor of Antananarivo, won more than 50 percent of the vote in the first round. The High Constitutional Court ordered a second round of presidential elections.  Marc Ravalomanana disputed the government’s official results of the presidential election, and claimed that he had won more than 50 percent of the vote. Some 100,000 individuals demonstrated in support of Marc Ravalomanana in Antananarivo on January 24, 2002. The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent a four-member mediation commission headed by Guy Penne of France on February 7, 2002.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for peaceful negotiations on February 7, 2002.

Crisis Phase (February 22, 2002-July 5, 2002):  Marc Ravalomanana declared himself president on February 22, 2002, and President Ratsiraka declared a three-month state-of-emergency on February 22, 2002.  The UN, U.S. government, Secretary-General Amara Essy of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), European Union (EU), and the French government condemned Marc Ravalomanana on February 22, 2002. President Ratsiraka imposed martial law in Antananarivo on February 28, 2002. The OAU began mediating negotiations between the parties on March 6, 2002. Ten individuals were killed in political violence in the town of Fianarantosa in southern Madagascar on April 12-13, 2002. The OAU mediated negotiations between the parties in Dakar, Senegal on April 16-18, 2002. The parties signed an agreement in Dakar on April 18, 2002, which provided for a recount of the votes of the first round of the presidential election. On April 29, 2002, the High Constitutional Court ruled that Marc Ravalomanana won the first round of the presidential election with some 51 percent of the vote.  Marc Ravalomanana was inaugurated as president for the second time on May 6, 2002.  President Ratsiraka rejected the ruling by the High Constitutional Court, and demanded a referendum between the candidates.  Six individuals were killed in politically-motivated ethnic violence in the town of Mahajanga on May 12-13, 2002.  The presidents of Burkina Faso, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Niger, and Senegal mediated negotiations between the parties under the auspices of the OAU in Dakar, Sengal on June 8-10, 2002. The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana on June 27, 2002, and the French government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana on July 3, 2002.  The British government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana on July 10, 2002.  The governments of Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and Norway provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana.  Former President Didier Ratsiraka fled to Seychelles on July 5, 2002.  Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 6, 2002-January 25, 2009):  The government of Senegal provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana on July 18, 2002.  The governments of Burkina Faso and Mauritania provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Marc Ravalomanana.  Legislative elections were held on December 15, 2002, and I Love Madagascar (Tiako i Madagasikara – TIM) headed by President Marc Ravalomanana won 103 out of 160 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Union (Firaisankinam-Pirenena – FP) won 22 seats in the National Assembly.  The European Union (EU) sent six election experts, 16 long-term observers, and 89 short-term observers headed by Tana de Zulueta of Italy to monitor the legislative elections beginning on November 6, 2002.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent ten observers to monitor the legislative elections.  On February 19, 2003, General Bruno Rajohnson, former head of the armed forces of Madagascar, was arrested and charged with an attempted military coup.  Some 10,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Antananarivo on May 13, 2003.  Former President Didier Ratsiraka was convicted of corruption and sentenced to ten years in prison with hard labor on August 6, 2003.  General Randrianafidisoa (“Fidy”) called for the overthrown of the government of President Marc Ravalomanana on November 17, 2006.  President Marc Ravalomanana was re-elected with 55 percent of the vote on December 3, 2006.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) sent 25 observers headed by Gobopang Duke Lefhoko of Botswana to monitor the president election from November 30 to December 6, 2006.  The European Union (EU) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the presidential election.  The Electoral Institute of Southern Africa (EISA) sent 14 observers to monitor the presidential election from November 25 to December 4, 2006.  The Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) sent 18 observers to monitor the presidential election.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers headed by Salvator Matata of Burundi to monitor the presidential election.  General Randrianafidisoa was arrested December 12, 2006.  Several constitutional amendments were approved by 75 percent of the voters in a referendum held on April 4 2007.  One opposition political party, Asa Vita no Ifampitsarana (AVI), boycotted the referendum.  Legislative elections were held on September 23, 2007, and I Love Madagascar (Tiako i Madagasikara – TIM) won 105 out of 127 seats in the National Assembly.  The Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery (Libéralisme Économique et Action Démocratique pour la Reconstruction Nationale – LEADER-Fanilo) won one seat in the National Assembly.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  The African Union (AU) sent observers to monitor the legislative elections.  Andry Rajoelina, mayor of Antananarivo, called for a general strike on January 24-25, 2009.

Crisis Phase (January 26, 2009-January 25, 2014):  Some 44 individuals, including one government policeman, were killed during violent protests in Antananarivo on January 26, 2009.  Andry Rajoelina, mayor of Antananarivo, announced that he was taking control of the government on January 31, 2009.  On February 2, 2009, opposition political leaders filed a petition with the High Constitutional Court, requesting that President Marc Ravalomanana be removed from office.  On February 3, 2009, the High Constitutional Court ruled that it did not have the power to remove the president from office.  President Marc Ravalomanana removed Andry Rajoelina as mayor of Antananarivo on February 3, 2009.  Government troops killed at least 30 protesters in Antananarivo on February 7, 2009.  The Council of Christian Churches (CCC) in Madagascar facilitated meetings between President Marc Ravalomanana and Andry Rajoelina on February 21-24, 2009.  Government troops killed two protesters in Antananarivo on February 27, 2009.  Government troops killed two protesters in Ambositra on March 4, 2009.  Government soldiers mutinied against the government at a military base in Soanierana District beginning on March 8, 2009.  Government troops seized one of the presidential palaces and the Central Bank on March 16, 2009.  The African Union (AU) condemned the “attempted military coup” on March 16, 2009.  President Marc Ravalomanana resigned and turned power over to the military of Madagascar, which installed Andry Rajoelina as head of the High Transitional Authority (HTA) on March 17, 2009.  Some 135 individuals were killed during several weeks of anti-government protests.  The Southern African Development Community (SADC) condemned the overthrow of the “democratically-elected president of Madagascar” on March 19, 2009.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Madagascar on March 20, 2009.  The overthrow of President Marc Ravalomanana by the military was condemned by the governments of Canada, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Swaziland, UK, France, Zambia, and the European Union (EU) on March 20, 2009.  The Norwegian government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against Madagascar on March 16, 2009.  The U.S. government condemned the transfer of power from President Marc Ravalomanana to Andry Rajoelina as “undemocratic and contrary to the rule of law”, and imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against Madagascar on March 20, 2009.  Andry Rajoelina was inaugurated as president on March 21, 2009.  The SADC summit of heads of state imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Madagascar on March 30, 2009.  Tiébilé Dramé of Mali, who was appointed UN Special Envoy on Madagascar and Ablassé Ouedraogo of Burkina Faso, who was appointed as African Union (AU) Special Envoy to Madagascar, began a joint mediation effort on April 8, 2009.  Two protesters were killed by government police in Antananarivo on April 20, 2009.  The International Monetary Fund (IMF) suspended ties, including a freeze on assistance, to the government of Madagascar on May 8, 2009.  The SADC appointed former President Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique as Special Envoy for Madagascar on June 21, 2009.  SADC Special Envoy Joaquim Chissano mediated negotiations between the current and three former presidents of Madagascar in Maputo, Mozambique on August 4-7, 2009.  President Andry Rajoelina appointed Eugène Régis Mangalaza as prime minister on October 10, 2009.  The AU and UN special envoys mediated a power-sharing agreement among four rival political leaders – including Andry Rajoelina, Marc Ravalomanana, Didier Ratsiraka, and Albert Zafy – in Addis Ababa on November 7, 2009.  President Andry Rajoelina dismissed Prime Minister Eugène Régis Mangalaza as prime minister on December 18, 2009, and appointed Colonel Albert Camille Vital as prime minister on December 20, 2009.  President Andry Rajoelina abandoned the power-sharing agreement on December 21, 2009.  The African Union (AU) imposed economic sanctions (visa bans and assets freeze) against President Andry Rajoelina and 108 other individuals on March 17, 2010.  The Council of the European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of direct development assistance) against the government of Madagascar on June 7, 2010.  On August 28, 2010, former President Marc Ravalomanana was convicted of ordering the killing of opposition protesters in February 2009, and he was sentenced to life imprisonment with hard labor.  On September 2, 2010, the South African government condemned the government of Madagascar for the conviction against former President Marc Ravaomanana.  A new constitution was approved by 74 percent of the voters in a referendum held on November 17, 2010.  The referendum was boycotted by several political parties.  Colonel Charles Andrianasoavina led an unsuccessful military coup against the government on November 17-19, 2010.  The new constitution, which established the Fourth Republic of Madagascar, was promulgated on December 11, 2010.  The SADC mediated the signing of an agreement among eight political parties in Madagascar on September 17, 2011.  Omer Beriziky was appointed as prime minster on October 28, 2011.  Former President Didier Ratsiraka returned to Madagascar from exile in France on November 24, 2011.  Three individuals, including Colonel Koto Mainty, were killed in a military mutiny in Antananarivo on July 22, 2012.  SADC Mediator, former Mozambican President Joaquim Chissano, held negotiations with the rival political candidates on July 9-13, 2013.  On August 18, 2013, a country in Madagascar ruled that President Andry Rajoelina, former President Marc Ravalomanana, Lalao Ravalomanana, and former President Didier Ratsiraka were ineligible to run for president.  The African Union (AU) lifted economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against President Andry Rajoelina and several other individuals associated with the president on September 5, 2013.  Former Finance Minister Hery Rajaonarimampianina was elected president with 54 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections held on December 20, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on December 20, 2013, and the Party of Andry Rajoelina won 49 out of 151 seats in the National Assembly.  The Ravalomanana Movement won 20 seats in the National Assembly.  The African Union (AU) sent seven long-term observers and 50 short-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from September 24 to November 9, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 44 long-term observers, and 50 short-term observers from 26 countries headed by Maria Muniz de Urquiza to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on September 25, 2013.  The SADC sent 242 observers from 12 countries headed by Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah from Namibia to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on October 21, 2013.  The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) sent seven observers led by Ambassador Berhane Ghebray to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on October 24, 2013.  The Chinese government sent four observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections from December 17 to December 22, 2013.  The U.S.-based NGO The Carter Center (TCC) sent three election experts and six long-term observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections beginning on October 22, 2013.  The Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (EISA) sent observers to monitor the presidential and legislative elections.  Hery Rajaonarimampianina was inaugurated as president on January 25, 2014.  One individual was killed in a grenade blast in Antananarivo on January 25, 2014.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 26, 2014-present):  The African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Madagascar on January 27, 2014.  The SADC summit of heads of state lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the government of Madagascar on January 30, 2014.  The International Monetary Fund (IMF), which had suspended ties with the government of Madagascar following the military coup in March 2009, restored ties with the government on March 13, 2014.  President Hery Rajaonarimampianina appointed Kolo Christophe Laurent Roger as prime minister on April 11, 2014.  The government of Madagascar reached a deal with the IMF on a $47 million loan on May 6, 2014.  The World Bank (WB) agreed to loan $400 million to the government of Madagascar on May 19, 2014.  The European Union (EU) lifted economic sanctions (suspension of direct development assistance) against the government of Madagascar on May 19, 2014.  The U.S. government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Madagascar on May 27, 2014.

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Selected Bibliography

Allen, Philip M. 1995. Madagascar: Conflicts of Authority in the Great Island. Boulder, CO, San Francisco, and Oxford: Westview Press.

Brown, Mervyn. 1979. Madagascar Rediscovered: A History from Early Times to Independence. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.

Gow, Bonar A. 1997. “Admiral Didier Ratsiraka and the Malagasy Socialist Revolution.” Journal of Modern African Studies 35 (3): 409-439.

Heseltine, Nigel. 1971. Madagascar. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Thompson, Virginia and Richard Adloff. 1965. The Malagasy Republic: Madagascar Today. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.