43. Burundi (1962-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (July 1, 1962-October 17, 1965):  Burundi formally achieved its independence from United Nations (UN) trusteeship under Belgian administration on July 1, 1962.  André Muhirwa of the Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progrès National – UPRONA) was appointed prime minister by King Mwami Mwambutsa IV on July 1, 1962.  Prime Minister André Muhirwa resigned on June 7, 1963, and Pierre Ngendandumwe of the UPRONA was appointed prime minister on June 19, 1963. On December 1, 1963, the Burundi government requested that the UN deploy international troops along the border with Rwanda.  Albin Nyamoya of the UPRONA was appointed prime minister on April 6, 1964.  Pierre Ngendandumwe of UPRONA was appointed prime minister on January 7, 1965.  Prime Minister Pierre Ngendandumwe was assassinated by a member of the Tutsi tribe in Bujumbura on January 15, 1965.  Former Prime Minister Albin Nyamoya and three other individuals were arrested for their involvement in the assassination.  Pié Masumbuko was appointed as interim prime minister on January 15, 1965.  Joseph Bamina of the UPRONA was appointed prime minister on January 26, 1965.  Parliamentary elections were held on May 10, 1965, and the UPRONA won 21 out of 33 seats in the National Assembly.  The People’s Party (PP) won ten seats in the National Assembly.  Prince Léopold Biha was appointed as prime minister on October 13, 1965.

Crisis Phase (October 18, 1965-November 11, 1976):  Some 120 Hutu rebel soldiers attacked the palace of King Mwami Mwambutsa IV and the home of Prime Minister Léopold Biha on October 18-19, 1965, resulting in the deaths of some 40 rebel soldiers and 10 loyal soldiers.  Forty government police were killed by Hutus near Muramvya on October 21, 1965. The government declared martial law.  Eighty-six Hutus, including the presidents of the National Assembly and Senate, were executed for their alleged involvement in the Hutu rebellion between October 21 and December 17, 1965. Hutus retaliated by killing some 5,000 Tutsis in the Muramvya region.  The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) sent a one-member fact-finding mission (Switzerland) to investigate possible human rights violations in the country on December 13-23, 1965.  The ICJ condemned the government on January 8, 1966.  Burundi refugees from Rwanda killed 14 individuals in the border region on January 17, 1966.  The government referred the matter to the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and UN Security Council on January 18, 1966.  King Mwami Mwambutsa IV was replaced by his son, Prince Charles Ndizeye, on July 8, 1966.  Prince Charles Ndizeye dismissed the government of Prime Minister Léopold Biha and suspended the constitution.  Prince Charles Ndizeye appointed Captain Michel Micombero as prime minister on July 11, 1966.  Prince Charles Ndizeye was formally crowned as King Mwami Ntare V on September 1, 1966.  Prime Minister Micombero suspended the constitution and dissolved the parliament in November 1966.  King Mwami Ntare V was overthrown by Prime Minister Micombero, and the Republic of Burundi was proclaimed on November 28, 1966.  The National Revolutionary Council (NRC) headed by Michel Micombero took control of the government on November 29, 1966.  The NRC confirmed the status of the Union du Progres National (UPRONA) as the country’s only legal political party on November 30, 1966.  Rwanda provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the NRC.  Michel Micombero formed a government as president on December 6, 1966.  The government suppressed a rebellion by members of the Hutu tribe in September 1969, resulting in the deaths of some 50,000 individuals. Twenty-three individuals were executed for their involvement in the rebellion on December 20, 1969.  The government suppressed a military rebellion on October 20, 1970. On January 24, 1972, nine individuals were sentenced to death for plotting to overthrow the government.  Some 2,000 to 3,000 individuals, mostly Tutsis, were killed during a Hutu rebellion in the towns of Rumonge and Nyanza-Lac from April 29 to May 5, 1972.  President Michel Micombero declared martial law.  The government of Zaire deployed some 200 troops in support of the government from May 3 to May 12, 1972.  Some 200,000 to 300,000 individuals, mostly Hutus, were killed by members of the Tutsi-dominated military from April 29 to July 31, 1972.  Some 150,000 Hutus fled as refugees to neighboring countries.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission consisting of four individuals provided humanitarian assistance to Burundians displaced by the ethnic violence from May to December 1972.  The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Program (WFP), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), Caritas International (CI), and Catholic Relief Service (CRS) provided emergency humanitarian assistance to individuals displaced by the ethnic violence. Albin Nyamoya formed a government as prime minister on July 15, 1972. Hutu rebels attacked Nyanza-Lac, Mabanda, and Kiofi on May 10-13, 1973, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals. Some 600 individuals fled as refugees to Tanzania on May 11-18, 1973.  The Libyan government agreed to provide military assistance (weapons and ammunition) to the government on May 17, 1973. Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed near Mabenda on December 13, 1973.  The World Food Program (WFP) provided humanitarian assistance to some 40,000 Burundian refugees near Tabora and Katumba, Tanzania beginning on April 30, 1974. President Micombero was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Jean-Baptiste Bagaza on November 1, 1976, and the 30-member Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) headed by Lt. Colonel Bagaza took control of the government on November 2, 1976. Some 30,000 individuals demonstrated in support of the SRC in Bujumbura on November 4, 1976. Lt. Colonel Bazaga was elected president by the SRC on November 9, 1976, and he was sworn in as president on November 21, 1976.  President Bazaga appointed Lt. Colonel Edouard Nzambimana as prime minister on November 11, 1976.

Post-Crisis Phase (November 12, 1976-September 2, 1987):  The Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) was disbanded in December 1979.  The Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People (Parti pour la Libération du Peuple Hutu – Palipehutu) was established in Tanzania in April 1980.  A new constitution establishing a presidential republic and single-party system was approved by 99 percent of the voters in a referendum held on November 18, 1981.  Legislative elections were held on October 22, 1982, and the Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progrès National – UPRONA) won 52 out of 52 elective seats in the National Assembly.  President Bagaza was re-elected with 99 percent of the vote on August 31, 1984.  The National Forces of Liberation (Forces Nationales de Libération – FNL), the armed wing of the Palipehutu, was established in 1985.

Crisis Phase (September 3, 1987-October 20, 1993):  President Bagaza was deposed in a military coup led by Major Pierre Buyoya on September 3, 1987.  Major Buyoya dissolved the National Assembly and abrogated the 1981 constitution. The 31-member Military Committee for National Salvation (MCNS) headed by Major Buyoya took control of the government on September 4, 1987.  Major Buyoya was inaugurated as president on October 2, 1987.  Government troops killed some 20,000 ethnic Hutus in August 1988, and some 60,000 Hutus fled as refugees to Rwanda.  A national charter calling for “unity, respect for human rights, and freedom of expression” was approved in a referendum on February 5, 1991. Government troops suppressed a rebellion in Bujumbura, Cibitoke province, and Kayanza province on November 23-30, 1991, resulting in the deaths of some 300 Tutsis and 1,000 Hutus.  Some 40,000 Burundians fled as refugees to Zaire and Rwanda.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum on March 9, 1992.  The government suppressed a Tutsi rebellion against the government in March 1992.  Some 50,000 individuals were killed in political/ethnic violence in 1992. Some 143,000 Burundians were refugees in Tanzania, 24,000 in Rwanda, and 17,000 in Zaire in December 1992.  Melchoir Ndadaye of the Front for Democracy in Burundi (Front pour la Democratie au Burundi – FDB) was elected president with 65 percent of the vote on June 1, 1993.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) sent observers to monitor the presidential election, and reported that the election had been free and fair.  Legislative elections were held on June 29, 1993, and the FDB won 65 out of 81 seats in the National Assembly.  The Unity for National Progress (Union pour le Progreis National – UPRONA) won 16 seats in the National Assembly.  Melchoir Ndadaye was inaugurated as president on July 10, 1993.

Conflict Phase (October 21, 1993-September 7, 2006):  President Ndadaye was killed during an attempted military coup on October 21, 1993.  The National Salvation Committee (NSC) headed by Francois Ngeze took control of the government, and the NSC declared a state-of-emergency on October 22, 1993.  The United Nations (UN) Security Council, Organization of African Unity (OAU), and European Union (EU) condemned the military rebellion. UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali established the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB) on October 25, 1993.  UNOB consisted of ten personnel headed by Amadou Keita of Guinea. Medicins Sans Frontieres (MSF) established a mission of 180 personnel to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to Burundi refugees beginning in November 1993.  Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah was appointed as UN special representative for Burundi in November 1993.  On December 7, 1993, the OAU decided to establish the Observation Mission in Burundi (OMIB) to “help restore confidence and enable the government to function without intimidation and fear.”   Some 50,000 individuals, including some 25,000 Tutsis and 25,000 Hutus, were massacred from October to December 1993.  Some 250,000 individuals were internally-displaced, and some 720,000 individuals fled as refugees to neighboring countries.  Cyprien Ntaryamira was elected president by the National Assembly on January 13, 1994, and he was inaugurated as president on February 5, 1994.  The Observation Mission in Burundi (OMIB), which consisted of 47 military observers from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, and Tunisia commanded by Lt. Colonel Ben Younnes Abdeljilil of Tunisia, was deployed in Burundi on February 5, 1994.  Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence in Bujumbura on February 1-4, 1994.  President Ntaryamira appointed Anatole Kanyenkiko as prime minister on February 7, 1994. Several non-governmental organizations established a commission of inquiry to investigate the ethnic violence following the October 1993 military coup attempt, and the commission issued a preliminary report on February 13, 1994.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali sent a fact-finding mission headed by Simeon Ake of Ivory Coast to investigate the 1993 military coup from March 19 to April 20, 1994.  President Ntaryamira was killed in a plane crash on April 6, 1994, and Sylvestre Ntibantunganya became provisional president on April 8, 1994. Some 50,000 individuals were killed in ethnic violence following the plane crash.  The World Food Programme (WFP) established a mission to provide food assistance to some one million internally-displaced individuals and refugees in neighboring countries on June 2, 1994.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appealed for peaceful negotiations between the parties on June 7, 1994.  The National Assembly elected Sylvestre Ntibantunganya as president on September 30, 1994.  President Ntibantunganya re-appointed Anatole Kanyenkiko as prime minister on October 3, 1994, and Prime Minister Kanyenkiko formed a coalition government on October 8, 1994.  The U.S. Committee for Refugees estimated that there were some 400,000 internally-displaced persons, as well as 180,000 Burundi refugees in Zaire and 150,000 in Tanzania, at the end of 1994.  The National Council for the Defence of Democracy-Forces for the Defense of Democracy (Conseil National pour la Defense de la DemocratieForces pour la Defense de la Democratie, CNDD-FDD), a Hutu rebel group headed by Leonard Nyangoma, was established in 1994.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) established a mission consisting of nearly 110 personnel to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to some 105,000 internally displaced individuals beginning in January 1995.  The UN Security Council sent a seven-member fact-finding mission (China, Czech Republic, Germany, Honduras, Indonesia, Nigeria, US) to Burundi on February 10-11, 1995, and the fact-finding mission issued a report on February 24, 1995.  Some 500 individuals were killed during clashes between government troops and Hutus on March 24-26, 1995.  Some 35,000 individuals, mostly Hutus, fled to neighboring Zaire.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance beginning in March 1995.  On April 19, 1995, the OAU decided to increase the number of OMIB military observers from 47 to 67.  A member of OMIB was killed on June 9, 1995.  The UN Security Council condemned the ethnic violence in Burundi on March 29, 1995.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed Pedro Nikken as special envoy to Burundi from June 28-July 9, 1995.  On September 15, 1995, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali appointed a five-member commission of inquiry (Canada, Madagascar, Morocco, Turkey, Venezuela) chaired by Edilbert Razafindralambo of Madagascar to investigate the assassination of President Ndadaye and the subsequent massacres. The UN commission of inquiry met from October 25, 1995 to July 22, 1996. Government troops killed some 250 Hutu rebels in Ngozi province on October 26-31, 1995.  The International Rescue Committee (IRC) established a mission to provide humanitarian assistance to internally-displaced individuals in Burundi in 1996. The ICRC resumed emergency humanitarian assistance in Bujumbura on January 5, 1996.  The UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on March 5, 1996.  The U.S. government and European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance) against the government of Burundi on April 2, 1996.  The UN established a human rights observation mission in Burundi, which consisted of 35 human rights monitors, on April 19, 1996. Juan Somavia of Chile, president of the UN Security Council, appealed for peaceful negotiations on April 25, 1996.  Qin Huasun of China, president of the UN Security Council, appealed for peaceful negotiations on May 15, 1996.  The French government imposed military sanctions (suspension of military cooperation) against the government of Burundi on May 28, 1996.  Three ICRC personnel were killed near the village of Mugina on June 4, 1996, and the ICRC suspended its mission on June 11, 1996.  Government troops killed several hundred Hutus in Cibitoke on June 27, 1996.  Hutu rebels killed 312 Tutsi refugees in Bugendana on July 20, 1996.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali condemned the Bugendana massacre on July 22, 1996.  The UN Security Council condemned the Bugendana massacre on July 24, 1996.  President Ntibantunganya was overthrown in a military rebellion on July 23, 1996.  Minister of Defense Firmin Sinzoyiheba suspended the constitution, dissolved the parliament, and banned political parties on July 25, 1996.  Major Pierre Buyoya was appointed as president on July 25, 1996.  The U.S. government condemned the military rebellion on July 25, 1996.  UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali condemned the military rebellion on July 25, 1996.  OMIB personnel were withdrawn from the country on July 31, 1996.  Government troops killed 268 Hutu civilians in Gitega province on July 26, 1996, and government troops killed some 4,050 civilians in Gitega province between July 27 and August 10, 1996. The president of the UN Security Council condemned the military rebellion and appealed for peaceful negotiations on July 29, 1996.  President Buyoya appointed Pascal-Firmin Ndimira as prime minister on July 31, 1996.  Seven regional countries (Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Congo-Kinshasa, Kenya, Rwanda, and Zambia) imposed economic sanctions (trade and transportation embargo) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government beginning on August 6, 1996.  Government troops killed some 6,000 Hutus between July 23 and August 31, 1996.  President Buyoya restored the parliament and lifted the ban on political parties on September 12, 1996.  On October 11, 1996, the government announced that it would agree to negotiate with the CNDD-FDD.  Some 300,000 individuals were internally-displaced in 1996. Government troops killed 122 refugees returning from Tanzania on January 10, 1997.  The UNHCR condemned the government for the killing of refugees on January 15, 1997.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for peaceful negotiations on January 13, 1997.  Hutu rebels killed 43 individuals in Buta in the district of Bururi on April 30, 1997.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appealed for peaceful negotiations on May 2, 1997.  The U.S. government condemned the CNDD-FDD for the Bururi massacre, and appealed for a cessation of military hostilities on May 2, 1997.  The European Union (EU) appealed for a ceasefire on May 7, 1997.  Mohamed Sahnoun was appointed by the UN and OAU as special envoy for the Great Lakes region.  The president of the UN Security Council appealed for peaceful negotiations on May 30, 1997.  On August 1, 1997, Amnesty International (AI) condemned the Burundi government for the execution of six individuals on July 31, 1997.  The six individuals were convicted and sentenced to death for their involvement in the 1993 massacres.  Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, who had been appointed as mediator for Burundi by the regional countries, attempted to mediate negotiations between representatives of the Burundi government and CNDD-FDD in Arusha, Tanzania beginning on August 25, 1997.  Representatives of the government cancelled their participation in the negotiations.  Eight government soldiers were killed in a mine explosion near Mubumbi on December 17, 1997. Hutu rebels attacked the village of Rukaramu on January 1, 1998, resulting in the deaths of 211 individuals.  The European Union (EU) condemned the CNDD-FDD for the attack on the village of Rukaramu on January 7, 1998. The UNHCR condemned the CNDD-FDD on January 7, 1998. Hutu rebels attacked the village of Minago in southern Burundi on February 10-11, 1998, resulting in the deaths of some 25 individuals.  On April 8, 1998, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the government for human rights abuses against civilians.  President Buyoya announced a transitional constitution on June 6, 1998, which replaced the constitution that was suspended after the 1996 military coup.  Representatives of the government and CNDD-FDD held negotiations in Arusha, Tanzania on June 15-21, 1998.  The UN sent a four-member landmine assessment mission headed by Wolfgang Hirsch to Burundi on July 24-31, 1998.  The EU condemned the CNDD-FDD and Burundi government for recent massacres of civilians on November 20, 1998.  The EU condemned the massacre of civilians in Gihungwe on December 3, 1998. Some 260,000 Burundians were refugees in Tanzania, and some 20,000 Burundians were refugees in Congo-Kinshasa in December 1998. South Africa provided military assistance to the government in 1998.  Some 500,000 Burundians were internally displaced in December 1998.  Seven African countries lifted economic sanctions (trade and transportation embargo) and military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government on January 23, 1999.  The ICRC resumed its humanitarian assistance mission consisting of 12 international personnel and 45 local personnel in Burundi in March 1999.  Cheikh Tidiane Sy of Senegal was appointed as special representative of the UN secretary-general in Burundi and head of the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB) on April 15, 1999.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed near Bujumbura on July 21, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 10 rebels.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed in the Bujumbura Rurale province on August 2, 1999, resulting in the deaths of five government soldiers and ten rebels.  UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan condemned the Burundi government and the CNDD-FDD on August 19, 1999 for killing civilians.  Hutu rebels killed 38 civilians near Bujumbura on August 28-29, 1999, and government troops killed some 20 Hutu rebels during the attacks.  On August 31, 1999, UN Secretary-General Kofi Anan condemned the CNDD-FDD for attacks against civilians.  Hutu rebels killed 12 civilians near Bujumbura on September 3, 1999.  The EU condemned the CNDD-FDD on September 3, 1999.  Government troops killed some 60 Hutu rebels near Bujumbura on September 15, 1999. Hutu rebels killed eight civilians in Munyika village on September 24, 1999.  Government troops killed some 30 Hutu rebels near Nyambuye on October 1, 1999.   Nine individuals, including one UNICEF personnel and one WFP personnel, were killed on October 12, 1999.  Hutu rebels killed 30 individuals in Mpehe village on October 21, 1999. Government troops killed 20 Hutu rebels on October 27, 1999.  The president of the UN Security Council appealed for a ceasefire and peaceful negotiations on November 12, 1999. Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed near Bujumbura on November 23, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 15 rebels and one government soldier.  Nelson Mandela, former president of South Africa, was appointed as mediator by the regional countries on December 1, 1999.  Government troops attacked Hutu rebels bases near Bujumbura on December 17, 1999, resulting in the deaths of 27 rebels.  Hutu rebels killed two government soldiers near Kabezi on December 1999, and government troops killed some 43 civilians near Kabezi on December 31, 1999.  Some 300,000 Burundians were refugees in Tanzania, and some 100,000 Burundians were refugees in Congo-Kinshasa in December 1999. Hutu rebels killed 18 civilians near Bujumbura on January 13, 2000.  Government troops killed 20 Hutu rebels near Makebuko on January 24, 2000.  The WFP established a mission to provide emergency humanitarian assistance to refugees in Bujumbura province beginning on January 28, 2000. Hutu rebels killed nine civilians near Mwubura on April 14, 2000. Hutu rebels killed seven civilians near Muberure on April 23, 2000.  Hutu rebels killed six Tutsi civilians near Bujumbura on May 21, 2000. Government troops and Hutu rebels near Bujumbura on May 25-26, 2000, resulting in the deaths of 10 government soldiers and one civilian. Representatives of the government and Hutu rebels signed the Nelson Mandela-mediated Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in Arusha, Tanzania on August 28, 2000.  Hutu rebels killed 13 civilians in Bujumbura on September 22, 2000.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed near Buraza in Gitega province on October 9-11, 2000, resulting in the deaths of seven rebels and six civilians.  Ukraine provided military assistance to the government in 2000 and 2001.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed in Bujumbura on February 24-27, 2001, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals.  Government troops clashed with Hutu rebels near Rubirizi on April 9, 2001, resulting in the deaths of eleven civilians.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion by Tutsi military officers on April 18, 2001. Secretary-General Salim Ahmed Salim of the OAU condemned the rebellion on April 20, 2001.  Government troops killed eight rebels in the Rumonge area on July 15, 2001.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion by Tutsi soldiers in Bujumbura on July 22-23, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two rebels.  Government and Hutu representatives signed a power-sharing agreement mediated by former President Nelson Mandela of South Africa in Arusha, Tanzania on July 23, 2001. Hutu rebels killed three civilians and one government soldier on July 27, 2001.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed in Mbali sector and Gasarara on August 16, 2001, resulting in the deaths of ten rebels. Hutu rebels killed five civilians near Rutana on October 15, 2001.  The South African governnment established the South African Protection Support Detachment (SAPSD) on October 29, 2001, consisting of some 750 military personnel from South Africa.  SAPSD military personnel were primarily responsible for protecting some 150 Hutu politicians. A transitional government came into effect on November 1, 2001.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Hutu rebels in the Tenga forest near Bujumbara from November 26 to December 4, 2001, resulting in the deaths of 100 rebels and 30 government soldiers.  Hutu rebels killed one civilian near Gihanga on January 23, 2002.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed near the town on Gihanga on April 6, 2002, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals.  The UN Security Council appealed for negotiations between the parties on April 22, 2002.  Amara Essy, interim chairman of the African Union (AU), condemned Hutu rebels for attacks against civilians on August 2, 2002.  The South African government mediated negotiations between government and Hutu representatives in Dar es Salaam beginning on August 12, 2002.  Hutu rebels attacked Bujumbura on August 27, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 30 rebels, eight civilians, and two government soldiers.  Government troops killed some 173 individuals in Gitega on September 9, 2002.  Government and Hutu representatives unsuccessfully concluded negotiations in Dar es Salaam on September 22, 2002.  Representatives of the government and the Burundi Armed Political Parties and Movements (APPM) signed a ceasefire agreement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on October 7, 2002.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed in Bubanza province on November 2, 2002, resulting in the deaths of 51 rebels. Hutu rebels killed two government soldiers near Bujumbura on November 2, 2002.  Representatives of the government and CNDD-FDD signed a ceasefire agreement mediated by Deputy President Jacob Zuma of South Africa in Arusha, Tanzania on December 2, 2002.  Government troops and Hutu rebels clashed on December 6, 2002, resulting the deaths of twelve individuals.  Palipehutu-FNL rebels killed three civilians and one government soldier near Bujumbura on February 7, 2003.  The African Union (AU) deployed 43 military observers from Burkina Faso, Gabon, Mali, Togo, and Tunisia commanded by Lt. Colonel Tahar Ayari of Tunisia beginning on February 12, 2003.  Government troops clashed with Hutu rebels on February 20, 2003, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers.  Hutu rebels killed ten civilians on February 23, 2003.  Government troops clashed with Hutu rebels in Ruyigi province on March 13, 2003, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers and 13 rebels.  On April 2, 2003, the African Union (AU) established the African Mission in Burundi (AMIB) to monitor the ceasefire agreement; to provide security for the rebels participating in the disarmament and demobilization program; and to assist with the disarmament and demobilization program.  AMIB, which consisted at maximum strength of 2,989 military personnel from South Africa (1,776 military personnel), Mozambique (228 military personnel), and Ethiopia (942 military personnel) and 43 military observers from Burkina Faso, Gabon, Mali, Togo, and Tunisia commanded by Major General Sipho Binda of South Africa, was deployed on April 27, 2003.  AMIB also included about 40 civilian staff personnel headed by Ambassador Mamadou Bah from Guinea.  Hutu rebels attacked Bujumbura on April 17, 2003, resulting in the deaths of 26 rebels.  President Buyoya resigned on April 30, 2003, and Vice-President Domitien Ndayizeye was sworn in as interim president.  SAPSD was disbanded on May 31, 2003.  Representatives of the government and CNDD-FDD signed the South African-mediated Protocol on Political, Defense, and Security Power Sharing on October 8, 2003.  Government and CNDD-FDD representatives signed a South African-mediated ceasefire agreement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on November 16, 2003.  On January 18-20, 2004, President Domitien Ndayizeye met with representatives of the Palipehutu-FNL, a faction of the FNL headed by Agathon Rwasa that had refused to negotiate with the transitional government.  On May 21, 2004, the UN Security Council established the United Nations Operations in Burundi (ONUB) to monitor the ceasefire agreement; to assist with the disarmament and demobilization program; to provide security for the provision of humanitarian assistance; and to provide security for the electoral process.  ONUB, which at maximum strength consisted of 5,400 peacekeeping troops and 168 military observers from 47 countries commanded by Major-General Derrick Mbuyiselo Mgwebi of South Africa, was deployed on June 1, 2004.  ONUB also included 97 civilian police personnel from eleven countries and 316 international civilian staff personnel.  AMIB was disbanded on June 1, 2004.  Government troops clashed with Hutu rebels near Bujumbura on December 28, 2004, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier and three Hutu rebels.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum with 92 percent of the vote on February 28, 2005.  The new constitution allocated 50 percent of the seats in the Senate and 60 percent of the seats in the National Assembly to the Hutus; the remaining seats were allocated to the Tutsis.  Representatives of the government and the Palipehutu-FNL signed a ceasefire agreement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on May 15, 2005.  Legislative elections were held on July 4, 2005, and the CNDD-FDD won 59 out of 100 contested seats in the National Assembly.  The Front for Democracy in Burundi (Front pour la Democratie au Burundi – FDB) won 25 seats in the National Assembly.  The EU sent 8 election experts, 10 long-term observers, and 60 short-term observers headed by Alain Hutchinson of Belgium to monitor the parliamentary elections beginning on June 11, 2005.  The National Assembly elected Pierre Nkurunziza of the CNDD-FDD as president by a vote of 151 to 9 on August 19, 2005, and he was inaugurated as president on August 26, 2005.  On May 1, 2006, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Nureldin Satti of Sudan as UN special representative to Burundi.  Charles Nqakula of South Africa mediated negotiations between representatives of the government and the Palipehutu-FNL beginning on May 27, 2006.  Representatives of the government and Palipehutu-FNL signed the Agreement on Principles Towards Lasting Peace, Security, and Stability in Burundi in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on June 18, 2006.  Government troops killed 13 Palipehutu-FNL rebels near Bujumbura on July 6, 2006.  Three individuals were killed in a grenade attack in Gihosha on July 31, 2006.  On August 21, 2006, former president Domitien Ndayizeye was arrested in Bujumbura and charged with involvement in a coup plot.  Four individuals were killed in a grenade attack in the Nyakabiga district of Bujumbura on September 3, 2006.  Representatives of the government and Palipehutu-FNL signed the South African-mediated “Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement” in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on September 7, 2006.  More than 300,000 individuals were killed, and more than one million individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 8, 2006-April 16, 2008):  On October 11, 2006, the Joint Verification and Monitoring Mechanism (JVMM) was established to oversee the implementation of the ceasefire agreement between the government and Palipehutu-FNL.  The JVMM consisted of 24 members representing the Burundi government, Palipehutu-FNL, AU, UN, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda.  On October 25, 2006, the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Office in Burundi (BINUB) to support the Burundi government in several areas, including demobilization and reintegration of former combatants.   ONUB was disbanded on December 31, 2006.  Twenty-four ONUB personnel, including 21 military personnel and one civilian police personnel, were killed during the mission.  On January 1, 2007, the African Union (AU) established the African Union Special Task Force (AUSTF) to provide protection for Palipehutu-FNL leaders who returned to Burundi, as well as to assist with the demobilization and disarmament of Palipehutu-FNL rebels.  At its maximum strength, the AUSTF consisted of about 750 South African military personnel.  BINUB, which was officially launched on January 1, 2007, included eight military observers, twelve civilian police personnel, and 125 international civilian personnel.  BINUB was headed by UN Executive Representative Youssef Mahmoud of Tunisia.  On January 15, 2007, former president Domitien Ndayizeye was acquitted of charges that he was involved in a 2006 coup plot.  President Pierre Nkurunziza met with Palipehutu-FNL leader Agathon Rwasa in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania on June 27, 2007.  Rival factions of the FNL, including the Palipehutu-FNL, clashed near Bujumbura on September 4, 2007, resulting in the deaths of more than 20 individuals.

Conflict Phase (April 17, 2008-May 26, 2008):  Government troops and Palipehutu-FNL rebels clashed near Bujumbura on April 17-18, 2008, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and ten rebels.  On May 4, 2008, the governments of Tanzania and Uganda issued a joint ultimatum to the Palipehutu-FNL to cease military hostilities and resume negotiations with the government of Burundi.  Government troops and Palipehutu-FNL rebels clashed near Bujumbura on May 7-8, 2008, resulting in the deaths of some 50 rebels and two government soldiers.  Representatives of the government and Palipehutu-FNL resumed negotiations in Bujumbura on May 17, 2008, and the parties signed an “unconditional ceasefire” agreement in Bujumbura on May 26, 2008.  More than 100 individuals were killed, and some 40,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (May 27, 2008-April 25, 2015):   Palipehutu-FNL leader, Agathon Rwasa, returned to Burundi on May 30, 2008.  Representatives of the government and Palipehutu-FNL signed the Ngozi Declaration on August 29, 2008.  The Palipehutu-FNL was renamed as the Forces for National Liberation (FNL) on January 9, 2009, and the FNL was registered as a legal political party on April 22, 2009.  The African Union Special Task Force (AUSTF) was disbanded on December 29, 2009.  On January 29, 2010, thirteen government soldiers were arrested for plotting to overthrow the government.  District elections were held on May 24, 2010, and the CNDD-FDD won 64 percent of the vote.  The European Union (EU) sent 82 observers to monitor the municipal elections, as well as the presidential, legislative, and local elections, from May 14 to September 8, 2010. On June 1, 2010, the presidential candidates representing five opposition political parties, including Agathon Rwasa of the Forces for National Liberation (FNL), announced that they would boycott the presidential elections.  President Pierre Nkurunziza was re-elected with 92 percent of the vote on June 28, 2010.  The Joint Parliamentary Assembly of the African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States and the European Union (ACP-EU) sent nine observers to monitor the presidential election from June 24 to June 30, 2010.  The African Union (AU) sent 40 observers headed by former Foreign Minister Dieudonne Kombo Yaya of Central African Republic monitored the presidential election from June 25 to June 29, 2010.  The Economic Community of  Central African States (Communauté Économique des États de l’Afrique Centrale – CEEAC) sent 15 observers headed by Rene Aboghe Ella of Gabon to monitor the presidential election.  The East African Community (EAC) sent 24 observers to monitor the presidential election from June 24 to July 3, 2010.  Eight individuals were killed in election-related violence prior to the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on July 23, 2010, and the CNDD-FDD won 81 out of 106 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progrès National – UPRONA) won 17 seats in the National Assembly.  Most opposition political parties boycotted the legislative elections.  The East African Community (EAC) sent 23 observers to monitor the legislative elections from July 17 to July 26, 2010.  BINUB was disbanded on December 31, 2010.  On January 1, 2011, the UN established the United Nations Office in Burundi (BNUB), including 55 international civilian personnel headed by Special Representative of the Secretary-General Parfait Onanga-Anyanga of Gabon.  Some 40 individuals were killed in an attack near Bujumbura on September 19, 2011.  Government troops clashed with armed men in Cankuzo in eastern Burundi on November 21, 2011, resulting in the deaths of 18 individuals.  On September 3, 2012, the Forces for National Liberation (FNL) rebel group called for President Pierre Nkurunziza to resign.  Six individuals were killed in clashes between government policemen and members of a Roman Catholic group led by Zebiya Ngendakumana on March 12, 2013.  President Pierre Nkurunziza dismissed Deputy President Bernard Busokoza on February 1, 2014.  On February 4-5, 2014, three government ministers from the opposition Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progrès National – UPRONA) resigned from the cabinet in protest against the dismissal of Deputy President Bernard Busokoza.  Prosper Bazombaza of the UPRONA was appointed as deputy president on February 12, 2014, and he was sworn in as deputy president on February 14, 2014.  Members of the UPRONA clashed with government police in Bujumbura on February 16, 2014.  On June 9, 2014, representatives of the government and 44 political parties signed a “code of conduct” regarding the upcoming elections scheduled for 2015.  The Belgian government suspended economic assistance to the government after pre-election violence that claimed the life of 19 individuals on May 11, 2015.  On May 14, 2015, the Dutch government suspended economic assistance to the government.  The U.S. government suspended its security assistance to the government on July 2, 2015. On April 25, 2015, the ruling political party in Burundi, the National Council for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD), announced that President Pierre Nkurunziza would run for a third term in the 2015 presidential election.

Crisis Phase (April 26, 2015-present):  Demonstrations against the government began on April 26, 2015.  On May 1, 2015, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCR) said that hundreds of protesters have been arbitrarily detained since the start of the anti-government demonstrations.  The government accused the opposition of having links to terrorists after an attack that killed two government police officers on May 2, 2015.  The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) claimed that three demonstrators lost their lives on May 4, 2015.  On May 5, 2015, the Burundi Constitutional Court cleared the way for President Pierre Nkurunziza to run for a third term.  Nearly 40,000 individuals were reported to have fled to neighboring countries such as Rwanda, Tanzania, and Congo-Kinshasa.  On May 14, 2015, Major General Godefroid Niyombare led a military coup against President Pierre Nkurunziza.  On May 15, 2015, the South African government condemned the attempted military coup.  On May 15, 2015, President Nkurunziza returned to Burundi after the failed military coup on May 15, 2015.  President Nkurunziza appealed for ethnic harmony on May 20, 2015. One government police officer was accidentally killed after police fired on demonstrators on May 20, 2015.  The head of opposition party UPD and his body guard were shot in the Ngagara district of Bujumbura on May 23, 2015.  On May 25, 2015, the Burundi opposition boycotted peace talks with the government after killing of an opposition leader.  The European Union (EU) suspended its election observation mission on May 28, 2015.  On July 22, 2015, the U.S. government said that the election in Burundi cannot be considered credible.  On July 24, 2015, President Nkurunziza was re-elected to a new five-year term with 69 percent of the vote.  On June 28, 2015, the Africa Union (AU) disengaged from observing the legislative elections in Burundi.  The East African Community (EAC) deployed an election observation mission comprised of 25 members headed by Abubakar to Burundi for the July 21, 2015 presidential election.  On July 12, 2015, government troops captured and killed some gunmen in two days of clashes in the north.  The UN electoral observation mission to Burundi questioned the outcome of the Burundi election on July 27, 2015.  Unidentified gunmen shot and killed Burundi army chief of staff, Colonel Jean Bikomagu in the Bujumbura. The leader of a small opposition party, Zedi Feruzi, was shot and killed in Bujumbura on September 8, 2015. On September 11, 2015, an assassination attempt on the Burundi army’s chief of staff failed but claimed the lives of four individuals.  On November 6, 2015, the German government ended its bilateral development cooperation with the government of Burundi given recent political developments.  On December 8, 2015, some 100 Burundi protesters were released after the government discussed aid with European Union (EU) officials. The U.S. government condemned attacks in Bujumbura on December 11, 2015.  One unidentified man was killed during gunfire in the Nyakabiga neighborhood of Bujumbura on December 12, 2015. Some 90 people died in clashes in Bujumbura on December 12, 2015. On January 19, 2016, three people were killed in a grenade attack in the Bujumbura. On March 14, 2016, the European Union (EU) suspended economic assistance to Burundi.  Some 400 individuals have been killed during the crisis.

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