1. Iran (1905-present)

 

Crisis Phase (December 1, 1905-June 22, 1908): Iranian nationalists began a movement against the government of Mazaffar al-Din Shah of the Qajar Dynasty and Prime Minister ‘Ain al-Dawlah beginning in December 1905. Government troops suppressed the demonstrations in Tehran on July 17-18, 1906, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. Some 14,000 Iranians took refuge (bast) in the British legation in Tehran between July 19 and August 10, 1906. Mazaffar al-Din Shah issued a decree (farman) on August 5, 1906, which provided for the convening of a National Assembly (Majlis). The 156-member Majlis convened in Tehran on October 7, 1906.

Mazaffar al-Din Shah signed a constitution approved by the National Assembly on December 30, 1906.  Mazaffar al-Din Shah died on January 8, 1907, and he was succeeded by Crown Prince Mohammed Ali Mirza on January 19, 1907.  Salar al-Dawlah led a rebellion of the Lurs tribe against the government in May 1907.  Prime Minister Atabak-i A’zam was assassinated on August 31, 1907, and Mushir al-Saltanah formed a government as prime minister on September 1, 1907.  Nasir al-Mulk formed a government as prime minister in September 1907. Mohammed Ali Shah swore allegiance to the Majlis on November 12, 1907.  Supporters of the Shah unsuccessfully attempted to depose the government of Prime Minister Nasir al-Mulk and the Majlis on December 13-19, 1907.  Nezam al-Saltaneh formed a government as prime minister on December 21, 1907.  Rebels unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Mohammed Ali Shah in Tehran in a bombing on February 28, 1908, resulting in the death of one individual. Rebels killed two individuals in a bombing in Tehran on March 1, 1908.  Mohammed Ali Shah declared martial law in Tehran on June 10, 1908, and issued an ultimatum to the Majlis on June 11, 1908. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (June 23, 1908-April 29, 1909): Government troops attacked and destroyed the Majlis building on June 23, 1908, resulting in the deaths of some 250 individuals.  Mohammed Ali Shah dissolved the Majlis and declared martial law. Supporters of the Majlis (mujahidin) led by Sattar Khan and Baqir Khan rebelled against the Shah in Tabriz in northern Iran beginning on June 23, 1908.  Mujahidin troops defeated government troops commanded by former Prime Minister ‘Ain al-Dawlah near Tabriz on October 5, 1908.  The Russian government threatened to occupy Tabriz to protect the life and property of Russian citizens on October 17, 1908, but the rebels provided assurances to the Russian government that its citizens and property would be protected.  Rebels assassinated Shuja’ al-Saltanah, governor and commander of government troops in Marand, on October 28, 1908.  Mohammed Ali Shah formally abolished the constitution in January 1909.  Rebel troops led by Samsam al-Saltanah occupied Isfahan on January 5, 1909.  Some 12,000 government troops established a blockade around Tabriz on February 4, 1909.  Governor Sardar Afkham of Rasht was killed during a rebellion on February 8, 1909.  Some 6,000 Russian troops intervened in support of the Shah beginning on March 26, 1909.  Government troops ended the blockade of Tabriz on April 25, 1909, and Russian troops captured Tabriz on April 29, 1909.  Some 1,100 individuals, including 100 Russian soldiers, were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 30, 1909-July 10, 1911):  Mohammed Ali Shah restored the constitution on May 10, 1909. Nationalist troops led by Eprem Khan captured Tehran on July 12-13, 1909, resulting in the deaths of 30 nationalists and 27 government soldiers.  Mohammed Ali Shah abdicated in favor of his son, Sultan Ahmad Mirza, on July 16, 1909 (Azad al-Mulk was appointed as regent).  Elections to the Majlis were held in August 1909, and the Majlis convened on November 15, 1909. Prime Minister Sepahdar-i A’zam resigned on July 12, 1910, and Mustawfi al-Mamalek of the Democratic Party (DP) formed a government as prime minister on July 26, 1910.  The Iranian government issued an ultimatum to the Mujahidin in Tehran to turn in their weapons on August 4, 1910, and government troops attacked the residence of Sattar Khan in Tehran on August 7, 1910.  Government troops attacked the Mujahidin in Atabak Park (garden of the Atabak-i A’zam) in Tehran on August 7, 1910, resulting in the deaths of some 30 Mujahidin.  Regent Azad al-Mulk died on September 22, 1910.  The British government issued an ultimatum to the government on October 14, 1910, which demanded that government troops secure the road between Bushihr and Shiraz in southern Iran.  Some 10,000 Iranians demonstrated against the British ultimatum and Russian troops in northern Iran on November 17, 1910.  At the request of the Iranian government, Sweden agreed to provide civilian police assistance on January 3, 1911 (twenty Swedish police advisors arrived in the country in August 1911). Nasir al-Mulk was appointed as regent on February 8, 1911, and Sipahdar A’zam formed a government as prime minister on March 8, 1911. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence between April 1909 and July 1911.

Conflict Phase (July 11, 1911-September 27, 1911): Mohammed Ali Mirza (former Shah) and Arshad al-Dawlah led a rebellion against the government beginning on July 11, 1911. Government troops defeated Mohammed Ali Mirza’s troops near Firuzkuh on August 9, 1911. Arshad al-Dawlah’s troops were defeated by government troops near Tehran on September 4-5, 1911. Arshad al-Dawlah was captured and executed on September 6, 1911. Mohammed Ali Mirza’s troops were defeated by government troops near Savadkuh on September 8, 1911. Rebel troops led by Salar al-Dawlah were defeated by government troops near Bagh-i Shah, southwest of Tehran, on September 27, 1911. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (September 28, 1911-April 25, 1926):  British troops intervened in southern Iran to suppress tribal unrest beginning in October 1911.  The Russian government issued an ultimatum to the government on November 11, 1911.  The Russian government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government on November 17, 1911, and some 6,000 Russian troops occupied northern Iran beginning on November 20, 1911.  Prime Minister Samsam al-Saltanah resigned on November 12, 1911, and he formed a new government on November 22, 1911.  The Russian government issued another ultimatum to the Iranian government on November 29, 1911, and the Majlis rejected the ultimatum on December 1, 1911.  Russian troops captured Tabriz on December 22-25, 1911, resulting in the deaths of some 500 individuals.  The Majlis was dissolved after the government accepted the Russian ultimatum on December 24, 1911.  Russian troops executed eight individuals in Tabriz on January 2, 1912 (several other individuals were executed through August 1912). Russian troops and Iranian demonstrators clashed in Enzeli and Rasht in January 1912, resulting in the deaths of 43 individuals.  Mohammed Ali Mirza led another unsuccessful rebellion against the government in February 1912, and he departed Iran for Baku on March 10, 1912.  Sultan Ahmad Mirza crowned himself as Shah of Persia on July 21, 1914. The Majlis was reconvened on November 1, 1914.  The Iranian government declared its neutrality in the First World War in November 1914.  Turkish troops invaded northern Iran in November 1914.  Turkish troops withdrew from northern Iran on February 26, 1917.  Several thousand Iranian Christians fled as refugees from northern Iran during the war, and several thousand of the refugees died of starvation. British troops intervened in northern Iran in 1918.  Representatives of the British and Iranian governments signed the Anglo-Persian Agreement in Tehran on August 9, 1919, which provided for British military assistance and economic assistance to the Iranian government. Soviet troops attacked anti-Bolshevik troops in northern Iran on May 18, 1920, and the Iranian government referred the matter to the League of Nations (LON) Council on May 19, 1920. Iranian communists established the Soviet Socialist Republic in Rasht in 1920.  Cossack troops commanded by Colonel Reza Khan overthrew the government in Tehran on February 21, 1921.  Sayyid Zia Tabatabai formed a government as prime minister on February 22, 1921, and Reza Khan was appointed as commander of the armed forces (Sardar Sepah) on February 23, 1921. Mohammad Mosaddeq, governor of Fars province, refused to accept the premiership of Sayyid Zia on February 24, 1921.  Iranian and Soviet representatives signed the Iranian-Soviet Treaty of Friendship in Moscow on February 26, 1921, which provided for the withdrawal of Russian troops from northern Iran.  Mohammad Mosaddeq resigned as governor of Fars province on March 5, 1921, and Nosrat al-Saltaneh was appointed as governor of the province on March 6, 1921.  Reza Khan forced the resignation of Prime Minister Sayyid Zia on May 23, 1921, and Qavam es-Saltaneh formed a government as prime minister.  British troops completed their withdrawal from the country on July 26, 1921. The Majlis reconvened on November 22, 1921.  The Majlis reconvened on June 21, 1922. Reza Khan formed a government as prime minister, and Ahmad Shah fled from the country on October 28, 1923.  Government troops launched a military offensive against Shaykh Khazal of Muhammarah on November 5, 1924, and Shaykh Khazal surrendered to government troops on December 6, 1924.  The Majlis formally deposed Shah Ahmad and the Qajar Dynasty on October 31, 1925, and named Reza Khan as successor to the throne on December 12, 1925.  The U.S. government provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of Reza Khan on December 16, 1925.  Reza Khan was formally crowned as Shah of the Pahlavi Dynasty on April 25, 1926.  Some 5,000 individuals were killed, and some 25,000 individuals were displaced as a result of political violence between September 1911 and April 1926.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 26, 1926-August 24, 1941):

Crisis Phase (August 25, 1941-November 15, 1945): British, Soviet, and U.S. troops entered Iran on August 25-29, 1941. Reza Shah Pahlavi abdicated on September 16, 1941, and Mohammed Reza Pahlavi succeeded to the throne on September 17, 1941. The parliament (Majlis) convened on December 4, 1941. The Tudeh Party was established in 1941. Britain and the Soviet Union agreed to respect the territorial integrity and independence of Iran on January 29, 1942. Prime Minister Muhammad Ali Furughi resigned in March 1942, and Ali Suhaili formed a government as prime minister in March 1942. Prime Minister Suhaili resigned on July 30, 1942, and Ahmad Qavam formed a government as prime minister in August 1942. Prime Minister Qavam resigned in February 1943, and Ali Suhaili formed a government as prime minister on February 17, 1943. The Majlis adjourned on November 22, 1943, but convened again on February 26, 1944. Prime Minister Suhaili resigned on March 16, 1944, and Muhammad Sa’id formed a government as prime minister on March 18, 1944. Prime Minister Sa’id resigned in November 1944, and Murtiza Quli Bayat formed a government as prime minister in November 1944. Prime Minister Bayat resigned in April 1945, and Ibrahim Hakimi formed a government as prime minister on May 2, 1945. The government requested the withdrawal of US, British, and Soviet troops from the country on May 10, 1945. Sayyid Muhsin Sadr formed a government as prime minister in June 1945. Supporters of the left-wing Tudeh Party rebelled against the government in Mazandaran province in northern Iran beginning on August 23, 1945. Soviet troops intervened in support of the rebels on August 24, 1945, which prevented Iranian troops from suppressing the rebellion. Government troops suppressed the rebellion in Mazandaran province in September 1945. The Democratic Party of Azerbaijan (DPA) headed by Ja’far Pishihvari demanded autonomy for Azerbaijan province in northern Iran in September 1945. Prime Minister Sadr resigned in October 1945, and Ibrahim Hakimi formed a government as prime minister in October 1945. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (November 16, 1945-December 13, 1946): The DPA rebelled against the against the government in Azerbaijan province on November 16, 1945, and Soviet troops intervened against government troops near Qazvin on November 21, 1945. The DPA established an autonomous government headed by Prime Minister Ja’far Pishihvari in Tabriz on December 12, 1945, and Governor-General Murtiza Quli Bayat returned to Tehran on December 13, 1945. Britain, the Soviet Union, and the US agreed to established a commission to investigate the situation in Azerbaijan on January 5, 1946. The government referred the matter of Soviet troops in northern Iran to the United Nations (UN) Security Council on January 19, 1946, and the UN Security Council appealed for peaceful negotiations on January 30, 1946. Prime Minister Hakimi resigned on January 20, 1946, and Ahmad Qavam formed a government as prime minister on January 26, 1946. Prime Minister Qavam held negotiations with Soviet representatives in Moscow from February 19 to March 9, 1946. The Iranian government referred the matter of Soviet troops in northern Iran to the UN Security Council on March 19, 1946. Government and Soviet representatives agreed on the withdrawal of Soviet troops on April 4, 1946. Ja’far Pishihvari, leader of the autonomous government in Azerbaijan, held negotiations with government representatives in Tehran beginning on April 28, 1946. Soviet troops completed their withdrawal from northern Iran on May 9, 1946. Government and Azerbaijan representatives signed an agreement in Tariz on June 13, 1946, which provided for partial provincial autonomy for Azerbaijan. Prime Minister Qavam established the Democratic Party of Iran (DPI) on June 28, 1946. Prime Minister Qavam formed a coalition government on August 1, 1946, which included three representatives of the Tudeh Party. Britain decided to deploy Indian troops in Basra, Iraq to "safeguard Indian and British interests in south Persia" on August 2, 1946. Nasser Khan Qashqai of the Qashqai tribe led a rebellion against the government in Fars province beginning on September 21, 1946. Representatives of the government and Qashqai tribe signed a peace agreement on October 16, 1946. Prime Minister Qavam formed a government on October 19, 1946, which excluded the three representatives of the Tudeh Party. Some 15,000 government troops entered Azerbaijan province on December 10, 1946, and occupied Tabiz on December 13, 1946. Some 2,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (December 14, 1946-April 5, 1957): Parliamentary elections were held on January 11, 1947. The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government on June 20, 1947, and the US established a military advisory mission in the country on October 6, 1947. The parliament nullified the oil agreement with the Soviet Union on October 22, 1947. Prime Minister Qavam resigned on December 10, 1947, and Ibrahim Hakimi formed a government as prime minister on December 28, 1947. Prime Minister Hakimi resigned on July 9, 1948, and Abdul Hussein Hajir formed a government as prime minister on July 10, 1948. Prime Minister Hajir resigned on November 6, 1948, and Mohammed Saed was elected prime minister by the Majlis on November 8, 1948. On February 5, 1949, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi banned the Tudeh Party following an unsuccessful assassination attempt on February 4, 1949. On May 9, 1949, the Majlis revised the constitution to give the Shah the power to dissolve the Majlis. Former Prime Minister Abdul Hussein Hajir was assassinated in Tehran on November 4-5, 1949 (the assassin was executed on November 9, 1949). The US agreed to provide military assistance to the government on May 23, 1950. Prime Minister Ali Razmara was assassinated by a member of the Crusaders of Islam on March 7, 1951, and the Shah appointed Khali Fahimi as acting prime minister on March 7, 1951. Mohammed Mossadegh, leader of the National Front (NF), was elected prime minister by the Majlis on April 29, 1951. Prime Minister Mossadegh and the Majlis nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company on May 2, 1951. Five individuals were killed in political violence in Tehran on March 28, 1952, and the government imposed martial law in Tehran on March 30, 1952. Prime Minister Mossadegh resigned on July 16, 1952, and Ahmad Ghavam formed a government as prime minister on July 17, 1952. Some 300 individuals were killed in political violence on July 19-22, 1952. Mohammad Mossadegh was re-appointed as prime minister on July 22, 1952. Prime Minister Mossadegh was granted dictatorial powers for six months by the Majlis on August 11, 1952. Three individuals were killed in political violence in Tehran and Qum on January 2-4, 1953. The Majlis extended the prime minister’s dictatorial power for six months on January 19, 1953. Four individuals were killed in political violence in Tehran on March 1-4, 1953. On August 16, 1953, the Shah fled to Iraq after unsuccessfully attempting to dismiss Prime Minister Mossadegh. Prime Minister Mossadegh was deposed in a rebellion supported by the Shah (and funded by the US Central Intelligence Agency) on August 19, 1953, resulting in the deaths of 300 individuals. The Shah returned to Iran on August 22, 1953, and appointed Major General Gazollah Zahedi as prime minister on August 23, 1953. The US provided economic assistance to the government of Prime Minister Zahedi on September 5, 1953. Iranian government troops and police fired on demonstrators in Tehran on November 12, 1953, resulting in the deaths of two supporters of former Prime Minister Mossadegh. The Shah dissolved the Majlis on December 19, 1953. Anti-government demonstrations broke out on February 2, 1954, but the demonstrations were suppressed by police. Parliamentary elections were held in March 1954. Prime Minister Hussein Ala resigned on April 3, 1957, and Manouchehr Eghbal formed a government as prime minister on April 4, 1957. Prime Minister Eghbal ended martial on April 5, 1957. Some 650 individuals were killed in political violence between December 1946 and April 1957.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 6, 1957-June 4, 1963): Parliamentary elections were held in July and August 1960, but the Shah nullified the results of the elections on September 1, 1960. Prime Minister Eghbal resigned on August 29, 1960, and Khosrow Hedayat formed a government as prime minister on August 31, 1960. Parliamentary elections were held in January 1961. The Shah dissolved the parliament on May 9, 1961. Prime Minister Assadollah Alam announced forthcoming parliamentary elections on April 23, 1963.

Crisis Phase (June 5, 1963-September 15, 1978): Muslim religious leaders (mullahs) organized demonstrations against the government of Shah Reza Mohammad Pahlavi and his White Revolution (modernization and westernization) in several cities on June 5-6, 1963. Some 100 individuals were killed after government police were ordered to suppress the demonstrations. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leading mullah, was exiled to Iraq following the demonstrations. Prime Minister Ali Mansur was assassinated by an Islamic fundamentalist on January 21, 1965, and Abbas Hoveida formed a government as prime minister on January 27, 1965. Parliamentary and Constituent Assembly elections were held on August 4, 1967, and the New Persia Party (Iran Novin) headed by Attalloh Khosravani won 180 out of 219 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Mardom Party won 30 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. The Iran Novin won 232 out of 279 seats in the Constituent Assembly, and the Mardom Party won 28 seats in the Constituent Assembly. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi was formally crowned as Shah of Iran on October 26, 1967. The US provided military assistance (500 military advisors) in support of the government. Five individuals were executed by the government for subversion in the Kurdistan region on January 5, 1973, and two individuals were executed by the government on January 11, 1973. Some 56 individuals were executed by the government between January 1972 and January 1973. One US military advisor was killed by a rebel in Tehran on June 2, 1973. The US sent an additional 600 US military advisers in support of the government in 1973. Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi dissolved the two-party political system, and banned opposition political parties on March 2, 1975. Two US military advisors were killed by left-wing terrorists on May 21, 1975. Parliamentary elections were held on June 20, 1975, and the National Resurgence Party (NRP) won 268 out of 268 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Prime Minister Amir Abbas Hoveida resigned on August 6, 1977, and Jamshid Amouzegar formed a government as prime minister on August 7, 1977. The Union of National Front Forces (UNFF) headed by Karim Sanjabi and Dariush Foruhar was established in opposition to the government in December 1977. Muslim religious leaders mounted a campaign against the Shah’s modernization policies beginning in January 1978. Six individuals were killed during anti-government demonstrations in Qum in southern Iran on January 9, 1978. Nine individuals were killed during anti-government demonstrations in Tabriz on February 18-19, 1978, and twelve individuals were killed by government police in Tabriz on February 23, 1978. Some 35 individuals were killed in political violence in Yazd and Jahrom on March 26-April 2, 1978. Some 50 individuals were killed in political violence in Tehran and other cities on May 8-11, 1978. Prime Minister Jamshid Amouzegar resigned on August 27, 1978, and Jafar Sharif-Emami formed a government as prime minister on September 16, 1978. Some 100,000 individuals demonstrated against the government in Tehran on September 7, 1978, and the government imposed martial law in Tehran on September 8, 1978. Government troops suppressed anti-government demonstrations in Tehran on September 8, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 250 individuals. President Jimmy Carter of the US expressed support for the Shah on September 10, 1978. Some 1,500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Conflict Phase (September 16, 1978-April 2, 1979): Rebels attacked government troops in Tabriz on September 16, 1978, resulting in the deaths of six government soldiers, one civilian, and two rebels. The parliament approved Jaffar Sharif Emami as prime minister on September 16, 1978. President Jimmy Carter of the US expressed support for the Shah on October 10, 1978. Government troops suppressed demonstrations in Tehran and other cities from October 22 to November 1, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 58 individuals. Government troops fired on demonstrators in Tehran on November 4, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 30 individuals. Prime Minister Jafaar Sharif-Emami resigned on November 5, 1978, and General Gholam Reza Azhari was appointed as prime minister on November 6, 1978. The Shah imposed martial law in Tehran on November 6, 1978. Libya offered military and financial assistance to opposition groups on November 22, 1978. Government troops suppressed demonstrations in Tehran and other cities on December 1-3, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 70 individuals. Amnesty International (AI) condemned the Iranian government for the torture of political prisoners on December 11, 1978. Government troops suppressed demonstration in Isfahan on December 11-12, 1978, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals. President Jimmy Carter expressed support for the Shah on December 12, 1978. Twenty-nine individuals were killed in political violence in Meshed on December 23, 1978. The Shah appointed Shahpour Bakhtiar, a member of the UNFF, as prime minister on December 29, 1978. Shahpour Bakhtiar was expelled from the UNFF on December 30, 1978. Ayatollah Khomeini formed a provisional "revolutionary Islamic council" on January 13, 1979. Shah Mohammed Riza Pahlavi and Empress Farah departed for Egypt on January 16, 1979. The US expressed support for the government of Prime Minister Bakhtiar on January 17, 1979. Some 23 individuals were killed in political violence in Ahwaz and Dizful on January 18, 1979. Government troops killed some 85 demonstrators in Resht, Tabriz, and Tehran on January 26-28, 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile in Paris on February 1, 1979, and appointed Mehdi Bazargan as head of a "shadow government" on February 5, 1979. The US expressed support for the government of Prime Minister Bakhtiar on February 6, 1979. Government troops and supporters of the Ayatollah Khomeini clashed in Tehran on February 9-11, 1979, resulting in the deaths of some 300 individuals. The government of Prime Minister Bakhtiar collapsed on February 11, 1979, and Mehdi Bazarghan formed a provisional government on February 12, 1979. Pakistan and the Soviet Union provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the provisional government on February 12, 1979. Government troops clashed with Turkoman rebels on March 26-April 2, 1979, resulting in the deaths of 50 individuals. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on March 30-31, 1979. Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed the Islamic Republic of Iran on April 2, 1979. Some 10,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 3, 1979-June 19, 1981): On April 10, 1979, the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government for the executions of some 600 former members of the Shah’s military and police forces. Twenty-one individuals were executed by the government on May 8, 1979. The US condemned the government on May 9, 1979. Elections for the Constituent Council were held on August 3, 1979, and Islamic fundamentalists won 60 out of 73 seats. The Moslem People’s Republican Party (MPRP) and other political parties had boycotted the elections. The government proclaimed a law on August 8, 1979, which called for prison sentences for the publication of negative reports concerning the government of Iran. The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) condemned the government of Iran for its press restrictions on August 14, 1979. Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan resigned on November 5, 1979. A new constitution was approved in a referendum on December 2-3, 1979. Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was elected president with some 75 percent of the vote on January 25, 1980. Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was inaugurated as president on February 4, 1980, and President Bani-Sadr was appointed as chairman of the Revolutionary Council on February 8, 1980. Parliamentary elections were held on March 14 and May 9, 1980, and the Majlis convened on May 28, 1980. The government suppressed a military rebellion on July 10, 1980, and 36 military personnel were executed for their involvement in the military rebellion. Mohammed Ali Radjai was appointed as prime minister on August 20, 1980. Amnesty International (AI) called for an end to executions on August 29, 1980. Some 8,000 individuals were executed by the government in 1979 and 1980.

Conflict Phase (June 20, 1981-April 15, 2003):  The Mujaheddin e-Khalq (MEK) launched a rebellion against the government on June 20, 1981.  President Bani-Sadr was impeached on June 21, 1981. Terrorists bombed the headquarters of the Islamic Republican Party (IRP) in Tehran on June 28, 1981, resulting in the deaths of IRP Secretary-General Ayatollah Mohammad Hossein Beheshti and 71 other IRP and government officials. Some 100 individuals were executed for their involvement in the bombing. Mohammad Ali Rajai was elected president on July 24, 1981. Bani-Sadr went into exile in Paris on July 29, 1981, and established a provisional government in-exile in Paris on October 1, 1981.  Massoud Rajavi, leader of the MEK, participated in the establishment of the provisional government, known as the National Council of Resistance (NCR). President Mohammad Ali Rajai and Prime Minister Hojatolislam Mohammad Javad Bahonar were assassinated in Tehran on August 30, 1981. Ayatollah Seyed Ali Khamenei was elected president on October 2, 1981.  MEK rebels were led by Moussa Khiabani until February 8, 1982, when Moussa Khiabani was killed by Revolutionary Guard troops in Tehran. Former Foreign Minister Sadeq Qotbzadeh was executed for his involvement in a plot to overthrow the government on September 16, 1982. President Ali Khamenei was re-elected with some 86 percent of the vote on August 16, 1985. The headquarters of the MEK was relocated to Iraq in June 1986. Ayatollah Khomeini dissolved the IRP in June 1987.  Massoud Rajavi, leader of the MEK, formed the National Liberation Army (NLA) on June 19, 1987. NLA troops launched a military offensive against government troops in the province of Khuzestan on March 28, 1988.  Several thousand political prisoners (MEK members and other leftists) were executed from July to December 1988.  NLA troops launched a military offensive ("Operation Eternal Light") against the government on July 25-28, 1988, resulting in the deaths of some 10,000 individuals.  Ayatollah Khomeini died on June 3, 1989, and he was replaced as spiritual leader of Iran by Ayatollah Sayed Ali Khamenei on June 4, 1989. Hashemi Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was elected president on July 28, 1989.  President Rafsanjani was re-elected with some 63 percent of the vote on June 11, 1993. Twenty-five individuals were killed in a bombing in Mashhad on June 20, 1994. Four individuals were killed in anti-government demonstrations in Qazvin on August 3-4, 1994. Two individuals were killed in a bombing in Khorramabad on August 24, 1994. Two individuals were killed in bombings in Tehran on November 7, 1994. Government troops launched missile attacks against MEK/NLA bases in northern Iraq on November 6, 1994.  Parliamentary elections were held on March 8 and April 19, 1996. On April 24, 1996, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) condemned the government for human rights abuses. Mohammed Khatami was elected president with some 69 percent of the vote on May 23, 1997, and he was inaugurated as president on May 23, 1997. Three individuals were killed in a bombing of the Islamic Revolutionary Court in Tehran on June 2, 1998. On June 3, 1998, Human Rights Watch (HRW) condemned the MEK/NLA for the bombing in Tehran. Student demonstrated against the government in Tehran and Tabriz in July 1999, and the government arrested thousands of individuals for their involvement in the demonstrations. The government sentenced four individuals to death for their involvement in the demonstrations on September 11, 1999. HRW condemned the government for the death sentences on September 14, 1999, and Amnesty International (AI) condemned the Iranian government for the death sentences on September 16, 1999. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed near the border on December 25, 1999, resulting in the deaths of two rebels. MEK/NLA rebels launched military offensive ("Operation Great Bahman") against the government in the Kermanshah and Ilam provinces in February 2000.  The US condemned the MEK/NLA on February 7, 2000. Parliamentary elections were held on February 18, 2000. Eight individuals were killed in election-related violence in southwestern Iran on February 19, 2000. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed near the Iraqi border on March 15, 2000, resulting in the deaths of two government soldiers. Iranians demonstrated against the government in Sarvestan in Fars Province on April 19-21, 2000. Government troops killed four MEK/NLA rebels near the Iraqi border on April 23, 2000. Government troops killed one MEK/NLA rebel near the Iraqi border on May 26, 2000. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed near Dehloran on July 30-31, 2000, resulting in the deaths of five rebels and two government soldiers. HRW condemned the government on September 28, 2000 and October 11, 2000. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed in Ilam province on May 24, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two rebels. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed near the Iraqi border on June 7, 2001, resulting in the death of one rebel. President Khatami was re-elected with 77 percent of the vote on June 8, 2001, and he was inaugurated for a second term on August 8, 2001. Government troops and MEK/NLA rebels clashed near Tehran on June 17-18, 2001, resulting in the deaths of two rebels.  Moshgan Parsaii became leader of the MEK in October 2001.  Local council elections were held on March 2, 2003.  Following the US invasion of Iraq in March 2003, the MEK/NLA agreed to disband on April 15, 2003.  Some 50,000 individuals were killed in political violence during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 16, 2003-present):  Parliamentary elections were held on February 20 and May 7, 2004, and conservatives won 54 percent (156 seats) of the vote.  Reformists won 13 percent (39 seats) of the vote.  Ten individuals were killed in political violence on June 13, 2005.  Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected president with 61.7 percent of the vote on June 24, 2005.

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