MODELS FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS
Author, Page Number, and Year Known (Paraphrase)
Note: Note that the year should appear next to the author’s name. If you’ve used a pronoun in the lead-in phrase, you must include the author’s name in the in-text citation. In APA style, the date of publication is very important. Researchers want to know you have read the very latest research. Note also that any reference that crosses pages would appear like this (pp. 107-8).
Murray (2009) writes that students learn how important psychology is to society in Introduction to Psychology (p. 18).
Two Authors – Cite both authors’ names every time, separated by an ampersand (&) when in parenthesis, but “and” when in the actually body of the text.
Smith and Jones (1995) found…. and then (Smith & Jones, 1995)
Three-Five Authors — Cite all authors’ names the first time the citations appears; for the rest of the citations, include only the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” and the year.
Smith, Jones, and Robins (2000) found… and then (Smith et al., 2000)
Six or More Authors — Cite only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year for ALL in-text citations, including the first one.
Smith et al. (2011) found… and then (Smith et al., 2011)
Note: If two citations share last names, include as many names as necessary until the citations are distinguishable.
Smith, Jones, and Robins (2000) found…; Smith, Jones, and Tanner (2000) also discovered…
Groups as Authors
Sometimes the names of groups as authors are occasionally abbreviated; be sure to include enough information that the reference entry is easily recognizable. For short group names, or if the abbreviation wouldn’t be recognizable as the same name, spell the group name out every time.
Include the initials of the authors’ first names if more than one author has the same last name, even if there are different publication dates.
Author, Page Number, and Year Known , Same Author with Two Different Publications in the Same Year (Paraphrase)
Murray (2009a) writes that students learn how important psychology is to society in Introduction to Psychology (p.18). Murray (2009b) indicates that students who take Introduction to Psychology later in their degree requirements often have a more comprehensive understanding of the discipline (p. 2).
Author Known, No Page Numbers or Section Titles (Paraphrase)
Note: Count paragraphs in place of page numbers. “para.” stands for “paragraph.”
Allred (2009) explains that school psychologists work with particular students to help them receive the best placement to learn while counselors focus more on the mental health and academic advising for all students (para. 57).
Author Known, No Page Numbers but with Section Titles (Paraphrase)
You can imagine that counting all the paragraphs in a long, scrolling Web page would be time consuming and could also cause errors either by your own miscount or your readers’. If the Web page makes use of section headings, list them in the parenthetical note, and then count paragraphs down from that section heading. For example…
Allred (2009) explains that school psychologists work with particular students to help them receive the best placement to learn while counselors focus more on the mental health and academic advising for all students (“Differences” section, para. 1).
Note: eBooks would be cited in this way.
Author Known, No Year (Paraphrase)
Note: “N.d.” stands for “no date.” Use this when you’ve made a good faith effort to locate the year of publication.
Note: The title is shortened from “Professional Development Avenues for Educators”; long titles should be shortened in ways that are logical.
Jones (n.d.), writes that educators should consider studying cognitive science (Professional Development section, para. 18).
Author Unknown, Printed or.PDF Source (Paraphrase)
Note: Refer to the title when no author is attributed. This title is shortened from “Empirical Research in the Elementary Classroom.”
According to “Empirical Research” (2009), teachers can employ the scientific method in their classrooms to study different aspects of the learning process (p. 18).
Another Method to Document When the Author is Unknown (Paraphrase)
Note: The title is shortened from “Unlikely Source of New Teachers”; long titles should be shortened in ways that are logical.
According to an article in Newsweek (2009), more and more retirees are becoming teachers as a way of giving back to their communities (“Unlikely Source,” p. 18).
Author Unknown, No Date, No Page Numbers (Quotation)
As stated on the PRSA website, “For more than a decade, PRSA’s leaders have brought attention to the issue of diversity in the public relations profession” (PRSA Diversity Efforts section, n.d., para. 1).
Quotation that Runs More Than 40 Words
Note: Note that the quote begins on a separate line after the lead-in phrase, is indented 5 spaces, does not use quotation marks, locates the parenthetical note after the period, and is continuously double-spaced like the rest of the paper would be.
Murray (2009) writes:
I have had a fascination with psychology ever since I can remember. I think my first experience with chemistry happened when I was four years old, and my mother gave me a handful of baking powder and told me to pour vinegar over it to see what would happen. Magic. I’ve been hooked ever since. (p. 26)
A source is considered secondary when an author refers to another author’s publication. For example, let’s say you’re reading a book on treatment plans written by Allred who quotes Jones, who wrote a book on education and the scientific method. You would format your citation as follows:
Jones reports that the scientific method is a valuable tool in teacher research (as cited in Allred, 2009).
Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication
Note: Cite interviews, emails, and other personal communication list in text.
Martens concurs that it’s important for students to understand the very rhetorical nature
of a résumé (personal communication, September 29, 2011).
If citing two or more works in one set of parentheses, organize them alphabetically per the reference list (or by year if the author is the same), separated by a semi-colon.
(Jones 2011; Smith, 1996, 2000)