CMS Models

Models of Full Notes and Bibliographic Entries: Print-Based Sources

Book with One Author

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Names, Title of the Book: Subtitle of the Book(Place ofPublication: Publisher, Year of Publication), page number(s).
1. Phillipe Bordes, Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile(New Haven, CT: Yale UniversityPress, 2007), 22-3.
B: Author’s Last Name, Author’s First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication.
Bordes, Phillipe. Jacques-Louis David: Empire to Exile. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.

 

Book with Two Authors

Always list multiple authors in the order they appear on the cover or copyright page.

N: Note Number. Author 1 First and Last Name and Author 2 First and Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
2. Leon Chertok and Raymond de Saussure, The Therapeutic Revolution: From Mesmer toFreud (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1979), 187.
B: Author 1 Last Name, Author 1 First Name, and Author 2 First and Last Names. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
Chertok, Leon, and Raymond de Saussure. The Therapeutic Revolution: From Mesmer to Freud.                      New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1979.

 

Book with both Author and Editor

N:  Note Number. Author First and Last Name, Title of Book, ed. Editor's Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication), page number(s).
 1. Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, ed. John Bigelow (Philadelphia:      J. P. Lippincott & Co., 1868), 94.
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Edited by Editor's Name. Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication.
Franklin, Benjamin. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Edited by John Bigelow. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott & Co., 1868.

 

Introduction in a Book 

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, introduction to Title of Book, trans./ed. Translator or Editor's First and Last Name (City of Publication: Publisher, Year Published), page number(s).
1. B. H. Liddell Hart, introduction to The Art of War, trans. Samuel B. Griffith (New York: Oxford University Press, 1963), 4.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Introduction to Title of the Book. Translated by/Edited by Translator or Editor’s First and Last Name. City of Publication: Publisher, Year Published.
Hart, B. H. Liddell. Introduction to The Art of War. Translated by Samuel B. Griffith. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.

 

Chapter in a Multi-Authored or Edited Book 

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Chapter,” in Title of the Book: Subtitle of the Book , ed. Editor’s First and Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher’s Name, Date of Publication), page number(s).
3. Steve Bruce, “Terminal Faith,” in Religion, Modernity, and Postmodernity: Religion and Spirituality in the Modern World ed. Paul Heelas (Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1998), 57.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Chapter.” In Title of the Book: Subtitle of the Book edited     by Editor’s First and Last Name, beginning page-ending page. City of Publication: Publisher, Year Published.
Bruce, Steve. “Terminal Faith.” In Religion, Modernity, and Postmodernity: Religion and Spirituality in the Modern World edited by Paul Heelas, 56-68. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 1998.

 

Article  from a Print Journal

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Journal0, no.00 (Date of Publication): 000.*Zero is the volume number, 00 is the edition number, and 000 is the page number. All numerals should be Arabic, even if the publication  uses Roman numerals.
4. Christian K. Kleinbub, “Raphael’s Transfiguration as Visio-Devotional Program,” The Art Bulletin 90, no. 3 (September 2008): 370.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal0, no. 00 (Date of Publication): 000-000.*Zero is the volume number, 00 is the edition number, and 000-000 are the page numbers the article appears on. All numerals should be Arabic, even if the publication  uses Roman numerals.
Kleinbub, Christian K.  “Raphael’s Transfiguration as Visio-Devotional Program.” The Art Bulletin 90, no. 3 (September 2008): 367-93.

Newspaper

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Headline,” Title of the Newspaper, Date of Publication, edition.*Edition and section numbers are optional. Use if helpful.
5. James M. Markham, “In the Revolution’s Footsteps,” The New York Times, March 18, 1989, New York edition.
B: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Headline." Title of the Newspaper. Date of Publication.*Edition and section numbers can be added to the end of the citation if necessary.
Markham, James M. "In the Revolution's Footsteps." The New York Times. March 18, 1989. New York edition.

 

Magazine Article

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Magazine, Date of Publication, page number(s).
6. Anthony Hiss, “The Talk of the Town: Memoir,” New Yorker, December 13, 1976, 33.
B: Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of the Article." Title of the Magazine. Date of Publication.
Hiss, Anthony. "The Talk of the Town: Memoir." New Yorker. December 13, 1976.

 

Book Review 

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Review,” review of Title of Book, by Author's First and Last Name, Title of Publication, Publication Date, page number.
7. Carol Hardin, "Review: The Physical Geography of North America" review of The Physical Geography of North America, by Antony R. Orme, ed., Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Sept. 2003, 751.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Review.” Review of Title of Book, by Author's First and Last Name. Title of Publication, Publication Date.
Hardin, Carol. "Review: The Physical Geography of North America." Review of The Physical Geography of North America, by Antony R. Orme, ed. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Sept. 2003.

 

Thesis or Dissertation

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Thesis or Dissertation” (                   , University, Year of Completion) page number(s), URL.*If accessed online. Fill in the blank with one of the following: 1) master’s thesis 2) PhD diss.
7. Priscilla Coit Murphy, “What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public Debate” (PhD diss., University of North Carolina, 2000) 165.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Thesis or Dissertation.”                  , University, Year of Completion. In Name of Database (ID number)*Fill in the blank with one of the following: 1) master’s thesis 2) PhD diss. If the document was accessed online, give the URL in place of the database  and ID number.
Murphy, Priscilla Coit. “What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public Debate.” PhDdiss., University of North Carolina, 2000. In ProQuest (9979475).

 

Reference Works

Reference works are cited in the notes rather than the bibliography, unless they are not widely known. Most publication information is omitted, but any edition besides the first should be noted. If the work is arranged alphabetically cite the subject preceded by s.v. (sub verbo, “under the word”; or plural s.v v.). You would only use the plural when citing one or more subjects in a single sentence.

N: Note Number. Title of Reference Work, 0th ed., s.v. “subject.” (singular)Note Number. Title of Reference Work, 0th ed., s.vv. “subject,” “subject.” (plural)
8.    Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th ed. s. v “injunction.”9.    Black’s Law Dictionary, 9th e.d. s.vv. “injunction,” “stay of judgment.”

 

 

Digital and Web-Based Sources

 

Journal  Article  from a Database with and without a DOI

If you copy and paste the URL of an article found in a library database, it will generally be unstable. That means you can’t go back to the article by re-copying and re-pasting the URL into your browser. Therefore, if a journal article has a stable URL or a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) listed in the bibliographic information, the preference should be given to the DOI. In the absence of a DOI, use the stable URL. In the absence of a stable URL, use the unstable URL. Everything in the note and bibliographic entry will remain the same, except that the URL will be replaced by “doi:” and then the DOI number assigned to the article. Here’s an example:

Hammersly, Rachel. “Jean-Paul Marat’s ‘The Chains of Slavery in Britain and France,’ 1774-1833.”

Historical Journal 48, no. 3 (Sept. 2005): 641-60. doi:10.1017/S0018246X05004607.

For more information on the DOI system, visit http://www.doi.org/ or  CrossRef.org.

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of the Article,” Title of the Journal 0, no. 00 (Date of Publication): 000, URL (accessed                    ).*0 is the volume number, 00 is the edition number, and 000 is the page number. All numerals should be Arabic. Fill in the blank with the date of access.
10. Robert O’Sullivan, “The Doctor Responsible for Mass Executions,” Irish Medical Times 43, no. 7 (February 2009): 32, http://0-proquest.umi.com.ucark.uca.edu/pqdweb? index=0&did=1651083271&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309& VName=PQD&TS=1252418116&clientId=8427 (accessed September 1, 2009).
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Journal 0, no. 00 (Date of Publication): 000-000. URL (accessed ________ ).
O’Sullivan, Robert. “The Doctor Responsible for Mass Executions.” Irish Medical Times 43, no. 7 (February 2009): 32-40. http://0-proquest.umi.com.ucark.uca.edu/pqdweb? index=0&did=1651083271&SrchMode=2&sid=1&Fmt=4&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQ T=309&VName=PQD&TS=1252418116&clientId=8427 (accessed September 1, 2009).

 

E-books—Not  Books Accessed  from Websites or Other Fixed Media (Such as a DVD)

Note that pagination varies from platform to platform. Rather than using page numbers, indicate the chapter or section title. Indicate the platform as the last part of the bibliographic entry. The note will give the information related to the original print publication. The bibliographic entry omits this information.

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, Title of Book. (City: Publisher, Year of Original Publication), platform, date of digital release), platform e-book, chap. #.
 11. Elaine Scarry, The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the World. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), Kindle e-book, chap. 5.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Year of Digital Release. Platform.
Scarry, Elaine. The Body in Pain: The Making and Unmaking of the Word. New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 2010. Kindle edition.

 

Online Magazine

N: Note Number. Author First and Last Name, “Title of Article,” Title of Magazine, Publication Date, URL.
 1. Andrew Kent, "Just Don’t Ask for Money: Why won’t courts ever award damages to the victims of drone strikes?" Slate, July 23, 2012, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2012/07/anwar_al_awlaki_suit_courts_should_award_damages_in_national_security_cases_.html
B: Author Last Name, Author First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Magazine, Publication Date. URL.
Kent, Andrew. "Just Don't Ask for Money: Why won't courts ever award damages to the victims of drone strikes?" Slate, July 23, 2012. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2012/07/anwar_al_awlaki_suit_courts_should_award_damages_in_national_security_cases_.html.

 

Blog

If you cite a blog post frequently in your text, include it in the bibliography. If you cite it only once or twice, include it only in the notes. The word “blog” would appear immediately after the title unless the word is part of it:

Studying Abraham Lincoln (blog), September 28, 2011, http://lincolnblog.blogspot.com/bookreview.

N: Note Number. Author’s First and Last Name, “Title of Blog Post,” Title of Blog (blog), Date of Post, Direct URL to Post.
12. Geoffrey M. Elliott, “Book Review: A First Rate Madness,” The Abraham Lincoln Blog, September 28, 2011, http://abrahamlincolnblog.blogspot.com/2011/09/book-review-first-rate- madness.html.
B: Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Blog Post.” Title of Blog (blog). Domain Name.
Elliott, Geoffrey M. “Book Review: A First Rate Madness.” The Abraham Lincoln Blog. http://abrahamlincolnblog.blogspot.com/.

 

Website

When referring to a page in a website, include as much information as you can: titles or descriptions of pages, authors (if known), sponsoring organizations, URL, and dates of publication and access.

N:  Note Number. “Title or Description of Webpage,” last modified             , accessed            , URL.*insert appropriate dates in blanks.
13. “Facebook Data Policy,” last modified 2011, accessed September 20, 2011, http://www.facebook.com/about/privacy/
B: Sponsor. “Title or Description of Webpage.” Last modified             . URL.*insert appropriate date in blank.
Facebook. “Facebook Data Policy.” Last modified 2011. http://www.facebook.com/about/privacy/

 

Online Reference Works

See the model for subjects from printed reference works for a full explanation. Authored references should include the author’s name in both the note and the bibliography. If no publication date is available, include an access. Authored entries that are relatively long should be included in the bibliography.

N: Note Number. Title of Website, s.v. “subject,” accessed                  , URL. � fill in blank withappropriate date.
14. Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Law, s.v. “injunction,” accessed September 20, 2011,http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/injunction.
B:

Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Subject.” In Title of Reference Work, edited by ______.          Sponsoring Organization, Year of Copyright. URL.

*fill in the blank with the editor’s name if known.

Bennett, Larry. “Community Organizing.” In Encyclopedia of Chicago, edited by Janice L. Reiff,                                Ann Durkin Keating, and James R. Grossman. Chicago Historical Society, 2005. http:// encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/320.html.

 

Congressional Reports & Documents

Congressional reports and documents do not need to be listed in the bibliography if they are cited within the text.

N: Note Number. House of Representatives Report No. 000-00, at 0 (Year).*Note that “house,” “representatives,” and “report” are abbreviated. The first number in the report number is the session of Congress, the second refers to the agenda number. The number after “at” indicates the page.
15. H.R. Rep. No. 111-16, at 9 (2009).

 

Presidential Documents

Presidential documents include addresses, proclamations, orders, and vetoes among other type of texts. They are published in Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, Public Papers of the Presidents

of the United States, Federal Register, and Code of Federal Regulations. Abbreviations for these publications are listed below (note: they are not italicized when abbreviated). For presidential addresses, use the complete title as given in the publication. If they are cited in text, they do not need to be included in the bibliography.

Abbreviations of Some Presidential Publications
Weekly Comp. Pres. Doc
Pub. Papers
Fed. Reg.
C.F.R.

 

N: Author Note. Type of Publication No. 000, 00 Publication 0000 (Date of Publication).*“000” is the document number, “00” is the volume number (depending on the publication),  and “0000” is the page number.
16. Proclamation No. 8335, 9 Fed. Reg. 1439 (Jan. 6, 2009).

 

Pamphlets,  Reports, etc.

Pamphlets, brochures, published reports (non-governmental) and other types of independent documents are treated similarly to the model for books. Omit any information that is not available (such as author or publisher) only after making a good-faith effort to locate it. If cited within the text, they do not need to be included in the bibliography.

N: Note Number. Title of Publication (City of Publication: Publisher, Year).
17. The BellSouth Telephone Museum (Atlanta, GA: The BellSouth Center, 1996).

 

Other Common Sources

 

Interviews and Personal Communications

When you conduct an interview or engage in personal correspondence with an expert, you will cite the information in text. It’s not necessary to include a bibliographic entry.

N: Note Number. Interviewee’s First and Last Names, (Credentials If Relevant), in discussion with the author, date.*“In discussion” may be substituted with “in an e-mail message to.”
18. Niall Ferguson, (professor of history, Harvard University) in discussion with the author, September 2011.

 

Published or Broadcast Interviews

Notice that the example below is a radio interview. For interviews broadcast over the radio, use the radio frequency and call sign for the station. For television interviews, use the network/channel name.

N: Note Number. Interviewee First and Last Name, interviewed by Interviewer(s) first and last name(s), Title of Program, Station Identification, Air Date.
11. Tom Brady, interview by John Dennis and Gerry Callahan, The Dennis & Callahan Morning Show, 93.7 WEEI FM, May 30, 2012.
B: Interviewee Last Name, First name. Title of Program. By Interviewer(s). Station Identification, Air Date.
Brady, Tom. The Dennis & Callahan Morning Show. By John Dennis and Gerry Callahan. 97.3      WEEI FM, May 30, 2012.

 

Podcasts

Note that if the title of the podcast contains the word "podcast," the words "podcast audio" can be omitted from the citation.

N: Note Number. Author First and Last Name, Podcast Title, podcast audio, publisher, format, accessed date, URL.
14. Bill Simmons, The B.S. Report, podcast audio, ESPN Radio: The B.S. Report, MP3, accessed July 18, 2012, http://espn.go.com/espnradio/play?id=8177260.
B:  Author Last Name, First Name. Podcast Title. Podcast audio. Publisher. Format. Accessed Date. URL.
 Simmons, Bill. The B.S. Report. Podcast audio. ESPN Radio: The B.S. Report. MP3. Accessed   July 18, 2012. http://espn.go.com/espnradio/play?id=8177260.

 

DVDs and Other Multimedia

Citation information will vary depending on the type of source, who was quoted and/or paraphrased, and the medium (TV show, movie, musical score; videocassette, DVD). For a TV show, you will probably want to include the episode title, season, and episode number. For a movie, you may want to include the scene number from the DVD.

N: Note Number. Name of Person Narrating, “Episode or Scene Title,” Film or TV Series Title, directed by Director’s First and Last Name (Year Film Was Shown in Theaters; City of Publication: Distribution Company, Year of DVD Release), Medium.
19. Jonathan Ressler, “Triumph of the Shill,” The Corporation, directed by Jennifer Abbott and Mark Achbar (2003; New York, NY: Zeitgeist Films, 2005), DVD.
B: Name of Narrator. Title of Film. Medium. Directed by Director’s First and Last Name. City of Publication: Distributor, Year of Distribution.
Ressler, Jonathan. The Corporation. DVD. Directed by Jennifer Abbott and Mark Achbar. New York, NY: Zeitgeist Films, 2005.

 

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