24. Mali (1960-present)

Pre-Crisis Phase (September 22, 1960-November 18, 1968): Mali formally achieved its independence from France, and Modibo Keita was appointed as president on September 22, 1960.  President Modibo Keita was re-elected by the National Assembly on May 13, 1964.  Legislative elections were held on June 12, 1964, and the Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally (Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – US-RDA) won 80 out of 80 seats in the National Assembly.  The National Committee for the Defence of the Revolution (Comité National de Défense de la Révolution- CNDR) headed by President Modibo Keita took control of the government on August 22, 1967.  President Modibo Keita dissolved the National Assembly on January 17, 1968.

Crisis Phase (November 19, 1968-June 8, 1992):  President Modibo Keita was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Moussa Traore on November 19, 1968, and the Military Committee of National Liberation (Comite Militaire de Liberation Nationale – CMLN) headed by Lt. Moussa Traore took control of the government on November 20, 1968. Captain Yoro Diakite formed a government as prime minister on November 23, 1968.  The Malian constitution was abrogated on December 6, 1968.  Government troops suppressed a rebellion on August 12-13, 1969.  Lt. Moussa Traore became head-of-state on September 19, 1969. The CMLN suppressed a military rebellion on April 7, 1971.  The government of the Soviet Union agreed to provide military assistance (weapons and 60 military advisers) to the Malian government beginning in 1972.  Lt. Moussa Traore announced a new constitution on April 26, 1974, and the constitution was approved by 99 percent of the voters in a referendum on June 2, 1974. The constitution provided for a one-party political system.  Twelve individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in a rebellion on June 10, 1977. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Defense Minister Kissima Doukara in February 1978.  President Ahmed Sekou Touré of Guinea and President Houari Boumediene of Algeria expressed support for the government of Lt. Colonel Moussa Traore on March 2, 1978. The Democratic Union of the Malian People (Union Democratique de Peuple Malien – UDPM) was established on March 30, 1979.  Legislative elections were held on June 19, 1979, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  Lt. Colonel Moussa Traore was elected president without opposition on June 19, 1979, and President Moussa Traore formed a government as prime minister on June 28, 1979. Government troops and student demonstrators clashed in Bamako on December 17-18, 1979, resulting in the deaths of 15 students. Student leader, Abdoul Karim Camara, was killed in detention by government police in Bamako on March 21, 1980. Government troops suppressed a rebellion on December 30-31, 1980, and two individuals were sentenced to death for their involvement in the rebellion on March 14, 1981.  Legislative elections were held on June 13, 1982, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  President Traore appointed Mamadou Dembele as prime minister on June 6, 1985.  Legislative elections were held on June 9, 1985, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly.  President Traore was re-elected without opposition on June 9, 1985.  Legislative elections were held on June 26, 1988, and the UDPM won 82 out of 82 seats in the National Assembly. Malians demonstrated in support of democracy in Bamako on December 10 and December 31, 1990. Government police and pro-democracy demonstrators clashed in Bamako on January 21-22, 1991, resulting in the deaths of four individuals. Some 200 individuals were killed during demonstrations against the government in Bamako on March 22-27, 1991.  The government declared a state-of-emergency on March 22, 1991.  President Traore was deposed in a military coup led by Lt. Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré on March 26, 1991. The Council of National Reconciliation (Conseil de Réconciliation Nationale-CRN) headed by Lt. Colonel Touré took control of the government, and suspended the constitution on March 27, 1991. The CRN established the 25-member Transitional Committee for the Salvation of the People (Comité de Transition pour le Salut du Peuple-CTSP) on March 30, 1991, and the CTSP appointed Soumana Sacko as provisional prime minister on April 2, 1991. The CTSP legalized opposition political parties on April 5, 1991.  The Rally for Democracy and Progress (Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et le Progrés- RDP) was established on April 19, 1991.  A new constitution was approved in a referendum by 98 percent of the voters on January 12, 1992, which provided for a multiparty political system and a democratically-elected president.  Municipal elections were held on January 19, 1992, and the Alliance for Democracy in Mali (ADEMA) won 214 out of 761 seats in municipal councils.  Legislative elections were held on February 23 and March 8, 1992, and ADEMA won 76 out of 116 contested seats in the National Assembly. The CNID won nine seats in the National Assembly. Alpha Oumar Konaré of ADEMA was elected president with 69 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on April 26, 1992, and he was inaugurated as president on June 8, 1992. President Konaré appointed Younoussi Touré as prime minister on June 8, 1992.

Post-Crisis Phase (June 9, 1992-March 21, 2012):  One individual was killed in political violence in Bamako on April 5, 1993. President Konare dismissed Prime Minister Younoussi Touré on April 9, 1993, and appointed Abdoulaye Sékou Sow as prime minister on April 12, 1993.  Prime Minister Sékou Sow resigned on February 2, 1994, and President Konare appointed Ibrahim Boubacar Keita as prime minister on February 4, 1994. President Konaré dissolved the National Assembly on March 4, 1997.  Legislative elections were held on April 13, 1997. On April 25, 1997, the Constitutional Court nullified the results of the parliamentary elections as a result of election irregularities. President Konaré was re-elected with 96 percent of the vote on May 11, 1997. Eight opposition political parties boycotted the presidential election. Legislative elections were held on July 20 and August 3, 1997, and ADEMA won 129 out of 147 contested seats in the National Assembly. The National Renaissance Party (NRP) won eight seats in the National Assembly, and the Front for Change and Democracy (FCD) won four seats in the National Assembly. Several opposition political parties boycotted the parliamentary elections. The International Foundation of Election Systems (IFES) sent observers to monitor the first round of parliamentary elections.  Government police arrested ten opposition political party leaders on August 10, 1997.  Municipal elections that had been scheduled for April 19, 1998 were cancelled as a result of a boycott of opposition political parties. Municipal elections were held between May 2 and June 21, 1999, and ADEMA won some 62 percent of the seats in municipal councils. Opposition political parties boycotted the municipal elections. Prime Minister Keita resigned on February 14, 2000, and President Konaré appointed Mandé Sidibé as prime minister on February 15, 2000.  Amadou Toumani Touré was elected president with 65 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential election held on May 12, 2002, and he was inaugurated as president on June 8, 2002.  The Carter Center (CC) sent seven observers to monitor the presidential election from April 20 to May 13, 2002.  Legislative elections were held on July 14, 2002, and the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali-RM)-led coalition won 65 out of 160 seats in the National Assembly.  The ADEMA-led coalition won 59 seats in the National Assembly.  Rival Islamic groups clashed in western Mali on August 25-26, 2003, resulting in the deaths of ten individuals.  Amadou Toumani Touré was re-elected as president with 71 percent of the vote in the first round held on April 29, 2007.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) sent 60 observers led by Koffi Sama of Togo to monitor the presidential election.  The Organisation Internationale la Francophonie (OIF) sent observers headed by former Prime Minister Gérard Latortue of Haiti to monitor the presidential election.  Legislative elections were held on July 1 and July 22, 2007, and the ADEMA won 51 out of 160 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for the Republic and Democracy (URD) won 34 seats in the National Assembly.  President Amadou Toumani Touré was sworn in for a second term on June 8, 2007.  Some government troops mutinied at the Kati military barracks on March 21, 2012.  The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) condemned the mutiny on March 21, 2012.

Crisis Phase (March 22, 2012-June 25, 2012):  President Amadou Toumani Touré was deposed in a military coup led by Captain Amadou Sanogo on March 22, 2012.  The National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State (Comité National pour le Redressement de la Démocratie et la Restauration de l’État-CNRDR) headed by Captain Amadou Sanogo took control of the government on March 22, 2012.  On March 22-23, 2016, the UN Security Council, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), European Union (EU), and African Union (AU) condemned the military coup.  The governments of Nigeria, Niger, Ghana, Britain, U.S., Russia, China, Norway, Uganda, and South Africa also condemned the military coup.  The African Union (AU) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Malian government on March 23, 2012.  The French government and the European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the Malian government on March 23, 2012. The U.S. government imposed economic sanctions (suspension of development assistance) against the Malian government on March 26, 2012.  The ECOWAS imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Malian government on March 27, 2012, and imposed economic sanctions (trade embargo, frozen bank accounts, and travel ban) against the Malian government on April 2, 2012.  President Blaise Compaoré of Burkina Faso and Foreign Minister Djibrill Yipènè Bassolé of Burkina Faso were appointed as ECOWAS mediators for the Malian crisis on March 27, 2012.  The CNRDR issued a new constitution for Mali on March 28, 2012, but agreed to restore the previous constitution on April 1, 2012.  The UN Security Council condemned the military coup on April 4, 2012.  On April 6, 2012, representatives of the military junta signed a ECOWAS-mediated framework agreement providing for the “restoration of constitutional order” in Mali.  That same day, ECOWAS lifted diplomatic and economic sanctions against the Malian government.  President Amadou Toumani Touré submitted his resignation on April 8, 2012.  Dioncounda Traoré, Speaker of the National Assembly, was sworn in as interim president on April 12, 2012.  Cheick Modibo Diarra was appointed as interim prime minister on April 17, 2012.  Government troops loyal to the CNRDR suppressed an attempted counter-military coup by members of the presidential guard in Bamako on April 30, 2012, resulting in the deaths of 14 individuals.  Three protesters were killed by government soldiers in Bamako on May 21, 2012.

Conflict Phase (June 26, 2012-March 31, 2013):  Islamist militants affiliated with the Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) captured Gao from Tuareg militants on June 26-27, 2012.  On July 5, 2012, the UN Security Council demanded the immediate and unconditional cessation of hostilities by rebel groups in northern Mali.  Islamist militants captured the town of Douentza on September 1, 2012.  A “government of national unity” consisting of 31 ministers headed by Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra was approved by President Dioncounda Traoré on August 20, 2012.  Islamist militants took control of the town of Douentza from a local militia on September 1, 2012.  On October 12, 2012, the UN Security Council authorized the planning for an African-led military force to assist the government of Mali to combat the Islamist militants.  The African Union (AU) lifted diplomatic sanctions against the Malian government on October 24, 2012.  Islamist militants took control of Ménaka from Tuareg militants on November 19, 2012, resulting in the deaths of dozens of militants and civilians.  Islamist militants took control of Léré from Tuareg militants on November 28, 2012.  Representatives of the largest Islamist militant group in northern Mali, Ansar Dine (“Defender of the Faith”), agreed to an ECOWAS-mediated ceasefire with the government on December 5, 2012.  Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra was arrested by government soldiers under the orders of Captain Amadou Sanogo on December 10, 2012.  Later that same day, Prime Minister Cheick Modibo Diarra announced the resignation of the government.  President Dioncounda Traoré appointed Django Sissoko as prime minister on December 11, 2012.  On December 11, 2012, the UN Security Council condemned the arrest of Prime Minister Diarra and urged the formation of a government of national unity.  On December 20, 2012, the UN Security Council authorized the deployment of the joint AU-ECOWAS African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) to assist the government of Mali against Al-Qaeda and other Islamist militants in northern Mali.  The Ansar Dine (“Defender of the Faith”) group suspended the ceasefire with the government on January 4, 2013.   Islamist militants captured the town of Konna from Malian government troops on January 10, 2013.  On January 10, 2013, the UN Security Council condemned attacks by extremist groups in northern Mali.  The Malian government declared a state-of-emergency on January 11, 2013.  Some 4,000 French military troops launched Opération Serval in support of the Malian government beginning on January 11, 2013.  The governments of Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the U.S. provided transport aircraft and support personnel to assist the French military intervention and government of Mali.  French military helicopters and aircraft attacked Islamist militants in the town of Konna on January 11, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 100 Islamist militants.  French military helicopters and aircraft attacked Islamist militants in Gao on January 13, 2013, resulting in the deaths of some 60 Islamist militants.  Islamist militants took control of the town of  Diabaly on January 14, 2013.  French troops launched a military offensive against Islamist militants on January 16, 2013. The joint AU-ECOWAS African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) was deployed in Mali on January 17, 2013.  AFISMA consisted of some 7,500 military personnel from Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo commanded by Major General Abdulkadir Shehu of Nigeria.  AFISMA also consisted of 173 civilian staff personnel.  Malian government troops took control of Konna from Islamist militants on January 18, 2013, resulting in the deaths of ten civilians and several dozen government soldiers.  French military forces took control of the town of Markala on January 19, 2013.  French and Malian military forces took control of the town of Diabaly from Islamist militants on January 21, 2013, and Malian government troops took control of the town of Hombori on January 24, 2013.  French military forces and Malian government troops took control of the cities of Gao and Timbuktu from Islamist militants on January 26-28, 2013.  AFISMA military personnel from Niger and Chad entered the country in support of the Malian government on January 29, 2013, and took control of the towns of Ansongo and Ménaka.  Former President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi was appointed as AU Special Representative and Head of AFISMA on January 30, 2013.  French troops took control of Kidal from Islamist militants on January 30, 2013, and AFISMA military personnel from Chad entered Kidal on February 2, 2013.  Some 24 Chadian soldiers were killed in an ambush by Islamist militants north of Kidal  on February 5, 2013.  French troops and AFISMA military personnel took control of the town of Tessalit on February 8, 2013.  French and Malian military forces took control of the town of Bourem on February 17, 2013.  The European Union (EU) established the EU Military Training Mission in Mali (EUTM – Mali) on February 18, 2013.  EUTM – Mali consisted of some 580 personnel from 28 EU member-states commanded by Brig. General Francois Lecointre of France.  French troops clashed with Islamist militants in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains on February 19, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 20 militants and one French soldier.  Malian government troops clashed with Islamist militants in Gao on February 20, 2013, resulting in the deaths of five militants.  The U.S. government deployed 100 military (drone surveillance) personnel to Niger to assist the government of Mali in combating Islamist militants on February 20, 2013.  French and Malian military forces clashed with Islamist militants in Gao on February 21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 15 militants.  AFISMA military personnel from Chad clashed with Islamist militants in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains in northern Mali on February 22-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 93 militants and 23 Chadian soldiers.  French and Chadian military forces clashed with Islamist militants in the Ametetai valley region on March 4-5, 2013.  Islamist militants attacked the airport in Timbuktu on March 20-21, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one Malian government soldier and ten militants.  Islamist militants attacked the city of Gao on March 23-24, 2013, resulting in the deaths of four militants, one Malian government soldier, and one civilian.  Islamist militants clashed with Malian government troops in Timbuktu on March 31, 2013, resulting in the deaths of one government soldier and 21 militants.  More than 500 Islamic militants and some 100 Malian government soldiers were killed during the conflict.  Five French military personnel were killed during the military operation between January 11 and March 31, 2013.  Some 404,000 individuals were displaced during the conflict, including 204,000 internally-displaced persons and 200,000 refugees who fled to neighboring Burkina Faso, Niger, and Mauritania.

Post-Conflict Phase (April 1, 2013-present):  The United Nations (UN) Security Council approved the establishment of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (Mission Multidimensionnelle Intégrée des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation au Mali – MINUSMA) on April 25, 2013.  The functions of MINUSMA included security-related stabilization tasks, protecting civilians & UN personnel, human rights monitoring, protecting humanitarian assistance, and assisting the Malian government with disarmament & demobilization programs.  Two Malian government soldiers and two Islamist militants were killed in a suicide bombing near Gao on May 4, 2013.  One French soldier was killed by a roadside bomb between Zaouaten and Boughessa on April 29, 2013.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Albert Gerard Koenders of the Netherlands as UN Special Representative to Mali on May 17, 2013.  The joint African Union (AU) – Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA) was transferred to MINUSMA on June 30, 2013.  Some 65 AFISMA personnel were killed during the mission, including 34 Chadians, 28 Nigerians, two Togolese, and one Burkinabé.  MINUSMA, which consisted of an authorized 11,200 military personnel and 1,440 civilian police personnel commanded by Major General Jean Bosco Kazura of Rwanda, was deployed in Mali on July 1, 2013.  The Malian government lifted the state of emergency on July 6, 2013.  Presidential elections were held on July 28 and August 11, 2013.  Ibrahim Boubacar Këita of the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali – RM) was elected president with 78 percent of the vote in the second round of presidential elections on August 11, 2013.  The European Union (EU) sent nine election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 30 short-term observers led by Louis Michel of Belgium to monitor the presidential elections from June 21 to August 12, 2013.  The AU sent nine long-term observers and 27 long-term observers led by former Prime Minister Edem Kodjo of Togo to monitor the presidential elections from June 10 to August 15, 2013.  The ECOWAS sent 250 observers led by former President John Agyekum Kufuor of Ghana to monitor the presidential elections from July 19 to August 12, 2013.  The AU Commission established the African Union Mission for Mali and the Sahel (MISAHEL) on August 1, 2013.  MISAHEL consisted of three pillars: (1) Political – promoting the rule of law, contributing to the reinforcement of the democratic institutions in the Sahelian region, protecting human rights, and building capacity for the judicial system and civil society; (2) Security – overseeing efforts of the AU with regard to security challenges in the region, such as conflicts, terrorism, and criminal networks; and (3) Development – dealing with development and environmental issues in the region.  Ibrahim Boubacar Këita was sworn in as president on September 4, 2013.  Oumar Tatam Ly was appointed as prime minister on September 5, 2013.  Four individuals were killed in a suicide bombing in Timbuktu on September 28, 2013.  French soldiers clashed with Islamic militants in the village of Douaya on October 1, 2013, resulting in the deaths of ten militants.  Islamic militants attacked the town of Gao on October 7, 2013.  On October 23, 2013, two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad and two civilians were killed in a Islamic militant suicide attack in the town of Tessalit.  On October 23, 2013, the UN Security Council condemned the suicide attack.  Malian government troops, along with French soldiers and UN peacekeeping soldiers, launched Operation Hydra against Islamic militants in northern Mali on October 24, 2013.  Two French journalists were kidnapped and killed by suspected Islamic militants near the town of Kidal on November 2, 2013.  On November 3, 2013, the French government condemned the killing of the two journalists.  French troops killed Islamic militant leader, Hacene Ould Khalil, in a military operation in northern Mali on November 21, 2013.  Legislative elections were held on November 24, 2013 and December 15, 2013, and the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali – RM) won 66 out of 147 seats in the National Assembly.  The Union for the Republic and Democracy (Union pour la République et la Démocratie – URD) won 17 seats in the National Assembly.  The AU sent 22 observers to monitor the legislative elections from November 17 to December 16, 2013.  The ECOWAS sent 100 observers led by Professor Amos Sawyer of Liberia to monitor the first round of legislative elections from November 16 to November 25, 2013.  The EU sent nine election experts, 20 long-term observers, and 20 short-term observers led by Louis Michel of Belgium to monitor the legislative elections from October 17 to December 16, 2013.  Former military junta leader, General Amadou Sanogo, was arrested by government troops and charged with “murders and assassinations” on November 27, 2013.  French troops clashed with suspected Islamic militants north of Timbuktu on December 10, 2013, resulting in the deaths of 19 militants.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Senegal were killed in a bombing in the town of Kidal on December 14, 2013.  On December 14, 2013, the UN Security Council and the French government condemned the killing of two UN peacekeepers.  On December 27, 2013, the government announced an investigation of former President Amadou Toumani Touré for “high treason”.  French and Malian government troops killed ten suspected Islamic militants on March 6, 2014.  French military forces killed senior Islamist leader, Oumar Ould Hamaha, in a missile strike in northern Mali on March 14, 2014.  On March 27, 2014, the government swore in a 18-member High Court of Justice to hear the “high treason” case presented against former President Amadou Toumani Touré.  Prime Minister Oumar Tatam Ly resigned, and Moussa Mara was appointed to succeed as prime minister on April 5, 2014.  On May 20, 2014, the UN Security Council condemned the recent violent clashes in Kidal.  Four UN peacekeepers from Chad were killed in a suicide attack on their base in the town of Aguelhoc on June 11, 2014.  On June 11, 2014, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council condemned the suicide attack on the UN base.  One UN peacekeeping soldier was killed by improvised explosive device (IED) west of Timbuktu on June 30, 2014.  On July 1, 2014, the UN Security Council condemned the killed of the UN peacekeeping soldier.  One French soldier was killed in a suicide bombing north of Gao on July 14, 2014.  The French military operation Opération Serval ended on July 15, 2014.  Eight French soldiers were killed during the operation.  The governments of Mali and France signed a defense agreement on July 16, 2014.  Some 5,100 French troops launched Opération Barkhane against Islamic militants beginning on August 1, 2014.  The French troops were supported by 95 Estonian troops, 90 British troops, and 70 Danish troops.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Burkina Faso were killed in a suicide attack in the village of Ber on August 16, 2014.  UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council condemned the suicide attack that killed two UN peacekeeping soldiers.  Four UN peacekeeping soldiers were killed in a landmine explosion south of the town of Aguelhok on September 2, 2014.  The UN Security Council condemned the killing of four UN peacekeeping soldiers in the landmine explosion.  One UN peacekeeping soldier from Chad was killed in an attack on a military vehicle near Aguelok on September 14, 2014.  The UN Security Council condemned the killed of one UN peacekeeping soldier.  Five UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad were killed in an explosion near the town of Aguelhok on September 18, 2014.  The UN Security Council condemned the killing of five UN peacekeeping soldiers.  Islamic militants ambushed a UN convoy between the towns of Menaka and Ansongo on October 3, 2014, resulting in the deaths of nine UN peacekeeping soldiers from Niger.  The UN Security Council condemned the killing of nine UN peacekeeping soldiers.  Islamic militants attacked a UN base in the town of Kidal on October 7, 2014, resulting in the death of one UN peacekeeping soldier from Senegal.  The UN Security Council condemned the killing of one UN peacekeeping soldier.  Islamic militants clashed with French troops in northern Mali on October 29, 2014, resulting in the death of one French soldier.  Two government soldiers were killed in an explosion near Almoustrate on November 2, 2014.  Two government soldiers were killed in a landmine explosion near Bourem on November 25, 2014.  French troops killed Ahmed al-Tilemsi, the leader of Al-Qaeda linked group Al Mourabitoun in northern Mali on December 11, 2014.  Mongi Hamdi of Tunisia was appointed as UN Special Representatives in Mali on December 12, 2014.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA, consisted of 8,461 troops, 1,033 civilian police personnel, and 513 international civilian staff personnel on December 31, 2014.  MINUSMA fatalities included 44 peacekeeping soldiers.  Aroudeyni Ag Hamatou, mayor of Anderaboucane, and his son were killed in an ambush by Islamic militants on January 1, 2015.  Islamic militants attacked the town of Nampala on January 5, 2015, resulting in the deaths of five individuals.  Islamic militants attacked a UN peacekeeping base in the town of Kidal on January 17, 2015, resulting in the death of a UN peacekeeping soldier from Chad.  On January 17, 2015, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and the UN Security Council condemned the killing of a UN peacekeeper.  On March 7, 2015, Islamic militants affiliated with the Al-Qaeda linked group Al Mourabitoun attacked a restaurant in Bamako, resulting in the deaths of a French national, a Belgian security official working for the EU, and three Malians.  On March 7, 2015, the UN Security Council, President Francois Hollande of France, and Foreign Minister Didier Reynders of Belgium condemned the attack.  On March 8, 2015, Islamic militants attacked the UN peacekeeping base in Kidal, resulting in the deaths of two children and one UN peacekeeping soldier from Chad.  The UN Security Council condemned the attack on the UN peacekeeping base. On May 1, 2015, the UN Security Council condemned the violations of the ceasefire in northern Mali.  On May 29, 2015, the UN Security Council condemned the killed of one UN peacekeeping soldier from Bangladesh.  On July 2, 2015, Islamic militants attacked a convoy of UN peacekeepers in the Timbuktu region, resulting in the deaths of six UN peacekeeping soldiers from Burkina Faso.  On July 2, 2015, the UN Security Council and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned the attack against the convoy and the killing of the UN peacekeepers.  On August 7-8, 2015, Islamic militants attacked the Byblos hotel in the town of Sévaré, resulting in the deaths of four militants, four Malian soldiers, and five UN employees.  On November 20, 2015, Islamic militants attacked and took hostages at a luxury hotel in Bamako, resulting in the deaths of 20 hostages held at the hotel and two militants.  President Ibrahim Boubacar Këita declared a ten-day national state of emergency.  The UN Security Council and the U.S. government condemned the attack on the luxury hotel. On February 12, 2016, Islamic militants attacked the UN base in the Kidal region, resulting in the deaths of six UN peacekeeping soldiers from Guinea.  On February 12, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned the attack against the UN base in the Kidal region. On April 4, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned attacks that killed two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad.  On May 29, 2016, Islamic militants attacked a UN peacekeeping convoy near the town of Sevare in Mopti region, resulting in the deaths of five UN peacekeeping solders.  On May 31, 2016, Islamic militant attacked a UN base in Gao, resulting in the death of one UN peacekeeping soldier from China.  In a separate attack in Gao the same day, two Malian security personnel and a French citizens were killed.  On June 1, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned the attack against the UN base in Gao.  On July 19, 2016, Islamic militants attacked a Malian military base in Nampala, resulting in the deaths of 17 government soldiers. Islamic militants attacked UN peacekeepers in the Kidal region on August 5-7, 2016, resulting in the death of one UN peacekeeping soldier from Chad.  On August 8, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of a UN peacekeeping soldier in the Kidal region.  Islamic militants attacked UN peacekeepers in Aguelhoc in northern Mali on October 3, 2016, resulting in the deaths of two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad.  The UN Security Council condemned the attack against UN peacekeepers in Aguelhoc. On November 3, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned violations of the 2015 Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation.  On November 7, 2016, the UN Security Council condemned an attack near Douentza that resulted in the deaths of one UN peacekeeping soldier from Togo and two Malian civilians.  The UN peacekeeping mission, MINUSMA, consisted on troops on December 31, 2016. On January 18, 2017, the UN Security Council condemned a terrorist attack in Gao that resulted in the deaths of dozens of individuals.  On January 24, 2017, the UN Security Council condemned an attacked against a UN base in Aguelhoc that resulted in the death of one UN peacekeeping soldier from Chad.  On June 18, 2017, Islamic militants attacked a tourist resort near Bamako, resulting in the deaths of a Portuguese soldier, a Malian government soldier, and three civilians.  On June 20, 2017, UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack against the tourist resort two days earlier.  On August 14, 2017, Islamic militants attacked UN peacekeepers in Douentza in the Mopti region and Timbuktu, resulting in the deaths of one UN peacekeeping soldier, one Malian government soldier, five Malian UN security guards, one government policeman, and one civilian.  The same day, the UN Security Council condemned the deaths of one UN peacekeeping soldier and eight other individuals in the Mopti region.  On September 5, 2017, the UN Security Council imposed economic sanctions (travel ban and assets freeze) against designated individuals accused of “derailing” the peace process in Mali.  Prime Minister Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga resigned on December 29, 2017.  On January 27, 2018, Islamic militants attacked and killed a UN peacekeeping soldier from Pakistan.  On February 28, 2018, five UN peacekeeping soldiers from Bangladesh were killed in a landmine explosion in Mopti region.  On April 5, 2018, Islamic militants attacked a UN camp in Aguelhok in the Kidal region, resulting in the deaths of two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad.  The same day, the UN Security Council condemned the deaths of two UN peacekeeping soldiers in the Kidal region.  On April 6, 2018, one UN peacekeeping soldier from Niger was killed by gunmen in Gao.  The same day, the UN Security Council condemned the death of one UN peacekeeping soldiers in Gao.  On April 14, 2018, one UN peacekeeping soldier from Burkina Faso was killed in a mortar attack against a UN base in Timbuktu.  On April 15, 2018, the UN Security Council condemned the death of one UN peacekeeping soldiers in Timbuktu.  On July 31, 2018, gunmen attacked a convoy of government soldiers in the Ségou region, resulting in the deaths of four government soldiers and eight gunmen.  President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta of the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali) was re-elected with 67 percent of the vote in the second round of the presidential elections held on August 12, 2018.  The EU sent nine election analysts, 20 long-term observers, and 30 short-term observers to monitor the presidential elections from June 21 to August 12, 2018.  On October 27, 2018, two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Burkina Faso were killed by an IED near the town of Konna in the Mopti region.  The same day, the UN Security Council condemned the deaths of two UN peacekeeping soldiers in the Mopti region.  On January 20, 2019, Islamic militants attacked a UN base in Aguelhok, resulting in the deaths of ten UN peacekeeping soldiers from Chad.  The same day, the UN Security Council and UN Secretary-General António Guterres condemned the attack and killing of ten UN peacekeepers.  On January 25, 2019, three UN peacekeeping soldiers from Sri Lanka were killed by an IED near Douentza.  The same day, the UN Security Council condemned the deaths of three UN peacekeeping soldiers near Douentza.  On January 26, 2020, militants killed about 20 government soldiers at a military base near the village of Sokolo.  Legislative elections were held on March 29, 2020 and April 19, 2020, and the Rally for Mali (Rassemblement pour le Mali) won 51 out of 147 seats in the National Assembly.  The Alliance for Democracy in Mali (Alliance pour la Démocratie au Mali) won 24 seats in the National Assembly.  Six civilians and six government soldiers were killed as a result of landmines on March 29-30, 2020.  On April 6, 2020, gunmen attacked a military base in Bamba, resulting in the deaths of at least 25 government soldiers.  On April 20, 2019, one UN peacekeeping soldier from Egypt was killed in an attack on a UN peacekeeping convoy in the Mopti region.  On April 22, 2019, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of one UN peacekeeping soldier in the Mopti region.  On May 10, 2020, three UN peacekeeping soldiers were killed by an IED in Aguelhok region.  The opposition group, June 5 Movement – Rally of the Patriotic Forces (Mouvement du 5 juin – Rassemblement des forces patriotiques), was established on May 30, 2020, and protests against President Ibrahim Boubacar Këita began in Bamako on June 5, 2020.  Two UN peacekeeping soldiers from Egypt were killed in the Tessalit region on June 13, 2020.  On June 14, 2020, the UN Security Council condemned the killing of two UN peacekeepers in the Tessalit region.  On June 14, 2020, Islamic militants attacked a government military patrol in the Segou region, resulting in the deaths of at least 24 government soldiers.  An ECOWAS Good Offices Mission was sent to Mali on June 18-20, 2020.  On July 2, 2020, Islamic militants killed 32 individuals in the villages of Gouari, Djindo and Fangadougou in the Mopti region.  The next day, Islamic militants ambushed and killed seven government soldiers near the village of Gouari in the Mopti region.  UN Envoy in Mali, Mahamat Saleh Annadif, condemned the attacks in Mopti region.  On July 10-12, 2020, anti-government protesters and government police clashed in Bamako, resulting in the deaths of at least twelve individuals.  An ECOWAS mediation mission led by former President Jonathan Goodluck of Nigeria unsuccessfully attempted to mediate negotiations to end the political crisis in Mali on July 15-27, 2020.  On August 18, 2020, Malian soldiers mutinied at the Kati military base near Bamako.  President Ibrahim Boubacar Këita, who was detained by the Malian soldiers, announced his resignation and the dissolution of the government and National Assembly.  The ECOWAS imposed economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance, trade embargo, and investments ban) against Mali on August 18, 2020.  U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, the UN Security Council, the Chairman of the AU Commission, President Emmanuel Macron of France, ECOWAS, and the EU condemned the military mutiny on August 19, 2020.  The AU imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against Mali on August 19, 2020.  A high-level ECOWAS delegation led by former President Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria held talks with the military junta led by Colonel Assimi Goita on August 22-24, 2020.  On August 31, 2020, the UN Security Council renewed sanctions against Mali for one more year.  On September 3, 2020, Islamic militants attacked government soldiers in Guire, resulting in the deaths of at least ten government soldiers.  On September 5, 2020, two French soldiers were killed by an IED during an operation in Tessalit region.  That same day, former President Ibrahim Boubacar Këita departed the country for medical treatment in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.  On September 7, 2020, ECOWAS leaders threatened the military junta with additional sanctions if it did not release a plan for a civilian-led transitional government within one week.  On September 12, 2020, the military junta agreed to an 18-month transitional government led by a military or civilian leader.  On September 13, 2020, the opposition group, June 5 Movement – Rally of the Patriotic Forces (Mouvement du 5 juin – Rassemblement des forces patriotiques), rejected the military junta’s plan for a transitional government.  On September 21, 2020, the head of the military junta, Colonel Assimi Goita, announced that he would serve as vice president in a transitional government headed by Colonel Major Bah N’Daw, a former defense minister.  Bah N’Daw was sworn in as interim president of Mali on September 25, 2020.  ECOWAS heads of state and government lifted economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance, trade embargo, and investments ban) against Mali on October 6, 2020.

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Selected Bibliography

Vengroff, Richard. 1993. “Governance and the Transition to Democracy: Political Parties and the Party System.” Journal of Modern African Studies 31 (no.4): 541-562.