Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides your reader with the necessary information to locate any sources cited within your paper. For information about how to format a Reference page, see our APA Reference Page. This page will give examples of different publications you may need to cite. For further questions visit the Writing Center, email us, or give us a call! You can also schedule an appointment with a tutor to look over your paper, including the reference page.
Notice that titles of books and articles are not capitalized except the first letter of the first word and the first letter of the first word after a colon. Proper nouns maintain their capitalization. Journals, magazines, and newspapers are capitalized, however. Titles of journals are capitalized as they would be in the body of the paper. Use the ampersand in place of spelling out “and” between authors.
An Article in a Scholarly Journal, No DOI Number, Multiple Authors
Ito, M., Saeki, S., & Green, L. (2011). Sharing, discounting, and selfishness: A Japanese-American comparison. The Psychological Record, 60(1), 59-76.
An Article in a Scholarly Journal with a DOI Number, Up to Seven Authors
Note: Include the issue if the journal restarts the page numbers with 1 with each issue. No period should appear after DOI number numbers.
Olbrich, K., Mühlans, B., Allison, K.C., Eckhart, G.K., Schahin, S.P., & de Zwaan, M. (2009). Night eating, binge eating, and related features, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 17(2), 120-7. doi: 10.1002/erv.908
An Article from an Online-Only Journal, No DOI
Note: If the article has a DOI number, replace the URL with the DOI. Notice, there are no periods after URLs. Additionally, you should only include the link to the home page of the journal, not the direct link to the article in this case.
Rodriquez, C. (2008). Quantifying the stimulus funding. Journal of Government Accounting, 30(3), 67-72. Retrieved from http://www.agacgfm.org/publications/journal/
More Than Seven Authors
Note: In this case, include the names of the first six authors, use periods of ellipsis to denote there are one or more than those listed, and then include the final author name listed for a total of seven.
Olbrich, K., Mühlans, B., Allison, K.C., Eckhart, G.K., Schahin, S.P, de Zwaan, M., …Smith, J. (2011).
Newspaper and Magazine Articles
Newspaper Article, Author Known
Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond ‘morning after.’ The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.
Online Newspaper Article, Author Unknown
Note: Use only the domain. Notice there is no period after a URL.
Michael Moore rallies Wis. pro-union protesters. (2001, March). The Log Cabin Democrat. Retrieved from http://thecabin.net
Letter to the Editor
Gattin, H. (2011, November). Bacon flavored treats [Letter to the editor]. Conditioning Gazette, 367(4), 8.
Flora, C. (2011, September 6). The art of influence. Psychology Today, 293(5). 56–72.
Tabby, C. (1995). Learning the mind [Review of the book Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science, by Paul Thagard]. All the Psychology, 11, 199-201.
Note: For an edition other than the first, add the edition in parentheses after the title, followed by a period. Example: “Cognitive Psychology (3rd ed.).”
Note: For a multivolume work, add the volumes in parentheses after the title, followed by a period. Example: “Encyclopedia Britannica (Vols. 18-20).”
A Book by One Author
Alverez, A. (1970). The savage god: A study of suicide. New York: Random House.
Edited Book, No Author OR When Your Material Comes from the Editors Rather Than the Author
Stanton, D. C., & Farbman, E. (Eds.). (2003). The female autograph: Theory and practice of autobiography. Middletown, CT: Ibis Bookstore Press.
Edited Book with an Author or Authors
Parker, D. (2006). The portable Dorothy Parker. M. Meade (Ed.) New York, NY: Penguin Classics.
Note: Include both publication dates for a republished work.
Freud, Q. (1921). The meaning of dreams. (R. Smith & L.P. Desk, Trans.). Denver, CO: Hat Rack Publishing. (Original work published 1916).
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Roberts, B.O. & Jobs, B. (2006). Accepting help: A guide to letting go. In T. Time (Ed.), Compilation of self-help (pp. 112-156). New York, NY: Fascinating Publishing.
OTHER PRINT SOURCES
NOTE: For a work discussed in a secondary source, cite the secondary source in the reference page based on the type of source. Different rules apply for in text citations. Please see our page for Models for APA In-Text Citations for instructions.
Gatwell, S. (2010). Nonnuclear families. UCA Dissertation Abstracts, 11, 6698B.
Authorlastname, A.A. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Database Name. (Accession or Order Number)
Authorlastname, A.A. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, City.
NOTE: Sometimes it may be necessary to include the state, if it’s a small city or there are multiple cities of that name. For example, New York or Boston are major cities and can stand alone. Oxford could refer to England or Mississippi.
Government Document or Private Organization
Name of Organization. (2011). 2014 Census Data (Report No. 894-08). Washington, DC: Publisher/Author.
Smith, J. & Jones, S. (Eds.). (2004). Proceedings from FAC ’04: The Third Annual Conference of Fine Arts and Communication. Symposium/Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Fine Arts and Communication Faculty, Conway, AR.
Article from Conference Proceedings Published in a Book
Note: The location indicates where the conference was held, not where the book was published.
Michaels, S., Haenel, M., & Backhaus, A. (2004). Avoiding client/contractor nightmares: Best practices for contractor management. In J. Bommarito, R. Maggiani, K. Steele, D. Burroughs, M.J. Albers, C. Jarrett, & P. Ecker (Eds.), Navigating the Future of Technical Communication. (pp. 1-4). Baltimore, MD: Society for Technical Communication.
Brochure or Pamphlet
Brochures and pamphlets are not specifically modeled in the APA manual. The following is our recommendation. We suggest checking with your professors to see if they have a preferred format.
University of Central Arkansas. (2011). Parent guide. [Brochure]. Boulder, CO: University Parent Magazines.
Technical or Research Report, Governmental
Note: Include the entire URL linking directly to the document.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2000). Insurance parity for mental health: Cost, access, and quality. (NIH Publication No. 00-4787). Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/advisory-boards-and-groups/namhc/reports/nimh-parity.pdf
Technical or Research Report, Non-Governmental
Suppes, P. & Zinnes, J. L. (1962). Basic measurement theory (Technical Publication No. 45). Retrieved from Stanford University website: http://suppes-corpus.stanford.edu/techreports/IMSSS_45.pdf
Law, B.M. (2011, September). Seared in our memories. Monitor on Psychology,42(8). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitor/
Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report
Note: This is for almost any webpage that is not a magazine, newspaper, or journal, if you aren’t using the website entirety, which you only use when making generalized comments about it, as stated under the description for entire websites. Some information may be hard to find or nonexistent, but put in a good effort to hunt it down. Use n.d. for no date.
Cogs, A. A., & Flog, Q. Q. (Date of publication). Title of website. Retrieved from http://www.thiswebsite.com
Web Site in Its Entirety
The only time you would cite an entire Web site is when making general statements about it like the one in the example below. (NOTE: Do not include the source in the reference list.)
Example: APAStyle is an excellent source for understanding APA format (http://www.apastyle.org).
Reference Work, No Author or Editor
Freudian slip. (2011). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/freudian+slip
Note: If the DOI is not known, include “Retrieved from” and the URL from where you downloaded the book. If the DOI is known, substitute it for the URL. See the model for scholarly journals, DOI known. Use the URL that directly links to where the eBook can be downloaded.
Chua, A. (2011). Battle hymn of the tiger mother [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebooks.com/601314/battle-hymn-of- the-tiger-mother/chua-amy/
Article From a Database
Note: APA says database information is generally not needed (p. 192).
Government Document or Private Organization Report
Name of Organization. (2011). 2014 Census Data (Report No. 894-08). Retrieved from Name of organization website: http://www.thisisthewebsite.com.
Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter
Note: Instead of page numbers, provide the website or database the chapter or section was retrieved from. If providing the website, it should link to the exact chapter used, not the website homepage.
Online Book Reviews
Note: Same as print book reviews, with the exception of providing the website itw as retrieved from.
Tabby, C. (1995). Learning the mind [Review of the book Mind: Introduction to Cognitive Science, by Paul Thagard]. All the Psychology. Retrieved from: www.thiswebsite.com/bookreviews/bookireviewed
Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries
Note: when no author name is present, begin with the name of the entry. Use n.d. if no date of publication is given.
Cherokee. (n.d.) In Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/109474/Cherokee
Note: Include authority (i.e. presenter, if known); date; episode title; episode or show identifier in brackets (i.e. [Show 15]; show name; and retrieval information.
Weisz, G. (Producer). (2009, November 8). Exploring autism. [Audio/Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/us/
Note: The author’s screen name is acceptable is the real name is not known. If the post has its own URL (permalink), use that URL. This model comes from a blog without permalinks.
The Neurocritic. (2011, September. 25). The neurophysiology of pain during REM sleep [Web log post]. Retrieved fromhttp://neurocritic.blogspot.com/
Online Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies
Smalls, B. (1998). Community Ties: An Annotated Bibliography. Retrieved from http://www.thewebsiteaboutcommunityties.com/bibliographies/otherspecificwords.htm
Graphic Data (e.g. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data)
Researching Organization. (1994). [The form and explanation of the data you’re using]. Name of the project. Retrieved from http://heresanotherwebsite.com/thatiused.forinformation.pdf
Qualitative Data and Online Interviews
Note: If the interview is not in any way retrievable, only cite it in the text, providing month, day, and year. For an audio file or transcript online use the following:
Fellow, P. (Interviewer) & Wainright, O. (Interviewee). (2012). Same Sex Marriage [Interview transcript/Interview audio file]. Retrieved from Nuclear Families Website: http://www.website.com/samesexmarriage.htm
Online Lecture Notes and Presentation Slides
Note: In brackets after the name of the lecture, the file format should be provided.
King, R. Vygotsky’s theory [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Developmental Psychology Website: http://www.devpsych.com/mwf/9:00/index.html
Computer Software/Downloaded Software
Note: Software like Microsoft Office doesn’t need a citation, only specialized software. Extra information is needed if the software is from a website.
Viney, M. (2007). SoftwareName [computer software]. Dallas: Company.
Viney, M. (2007). SoftwareName (Version 4.0) [Software]. Available from http://www.softwarewebsite.com/other/things/
Online Forum Or Discussion Board Posting
Note: Screen names may be used in place of real names.
Flash, J. (2010, August 4). Technology in the classroom [Msg 3]. Message posted to http://bb.uca.edu:8901/learning.html
Note: Wikis are commonly unreliable, but can be good for finding other sources that are reliable.
Anthropology. (n.d.) Retreived July 25, 2012 from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology
Note: Include as much information as you can, but it won’t all be available.
Smither, Q. (Producer). (2011, November 8). The meaning of classical conditioning [Episode 1]. Psychology Courses. Podcast retrieved from http://www.psychcoursevids.com
Lecture or Speech You Attended
Lectures and speeches aren’t specifically modeled in the APA manual. This is our recommendation. We suggest checking with your professors to see if they have a preferred format.
Jefferson, T. (2009, April 4). Building UCA’s future. Lecture presented at the meeting of SPARC, Conway, AR.
Interviews, Email, and Other Personal Communication
Note: Cite interviews, emails, and other personal communication list in text.
Martens concurs that it’s important for students to understand the very rhetorical nature
of a résumé (personal communication, September 29, 2011).
American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2007). EMDR for trauma: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing [DVD]. Available from http://www.apa.org/pubs/videos
A Motion Picture or Video Tape
Gattin, S.J. (Producer), & Gattin, M.C. (Director). (2011). The most famous movie ever made [Motion picture]. United States: UCA Pictures.
A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability
Gattin, S.J. (Producer), & Gattin, M.C. (Director). (2011). The most famous movie ever made [Motion picture]. (Available from UCA Pictures, 201 Donaghey, Conway, AR 72035)
Television Broadcast or Series Episode
Gattin, S.J. (Writer), & Gattin, M.C. (Director). (2011). Broadcast title [Television broadcast/series]. In H. Quinn (Producer). Little Rock, AR: My Broadcasting Company.
Richman, J. (Writer), & Spiller, M. (Director). (2011). When good kids go bad. [Television series episode]. In C. Loyd and S. Levitan (Executive producers), Modern Family. New York, NY: ABC.
Producer, A. B. (Producer). (2012, July 4). The news at 11 [Television broadcast]. Conway, AR: Faulkner Broadcasting Service.
A Television Series
Gattin, M.C. (Producer). (2011). Best show ever [Television series]. Los Angeles: My Broadcasting Company.
Writer, A.A. (copyright date). Song title [Recorded by If different than song writer, A.A.]. On Album name [CD/Cassette tape/MP3]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if not same as copyright).
Beck, T. & Levine, R.E. (2000). Financial institutions and markets across countries and over time: Data and analysis [Report and data sets]. Retrieved from http://econ.worldbank.org/
**Information for this page was taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th edition, second printing).