Traumatic Brain Injury Therapy

Traumatic Brain Injury Therapy:

A treatment plan is developed after the evaluation. The treatment program will vary depending on the stage of recovery, but it will always focus on increasing independence in everyday life. In the early stages of recovery (e.g., during coma), treatment focuses on getting general responses to sensory stimulation and teaching family members how to interact with the loved one.  As an individual becomes more aware treatment focuses on maintaining attention for basic activities, reducing confusion, and orienting the person to the date, where he or she is, and what has happened.  Later on in recovery, treatment focuses on finding ways to improve memory (e.g., using a memory log), learning strategies to help problem solving, reasoning, and organizational skills, working on social skills in small groups, and improving self-monitoring in the hospital, home, and community.  Eventually, treatment may include going on community outings to help the person plan, organize, and carry out trips using memory logs, organizers, checklists, and other helpful aids and working with a vocational rehabilitation specialist to help the person get back to work or school. (American Speech and Hearing Association, 2013)

Key Age Groups Served:  Birth through adult

 

Characteristics of Disability:  Any injury to the head may cause traumatic brain injury (TBI).  These injuries can be penetrating, a foreign object enters the brain causing damage to specific parts, or closed head injury, a blow to the head.  Damage can be primary, occurring at the time of impact, or secondary, evolving over time after the trauma.  People with a TBI often develop cognitive and communicative impairments.  Cognition (thinking skills) includes an awareness of one’s surroundings, attention to tasks, memory, reasoning, problem solving, and executive functioning (e.g., goal setting, planning, initiating, self-awareness, self-monitoring and evaluation). Problems vary depending on the location and severity of the injury to the brain.  The person may have trouble with social communication, including: taking turns in conversation, maintaining a topic of conversation, using an appropriate tone of voice, interpreting the subtleties of conversation (e.g., the difference between sarcasm and a serious statement), responding to facial expressions and body language, keeping up with others in a fast-paced conversation. (American Speech and Hearing Association, 2013)

Forms:
Child Evaluation Form, Adult Evaluation Form

 

Useful Resources:

http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/TBI/