3. Honduras (1902-present)

 

Pre-Crisis Phase (February 27, 1902-September 30, 1902): The National Party (Partido Nacional -PN) was established by General Manuel Bonilla on February 27, 1902.

Crisis Phase (October 1, 1902-April 17, 1907): Presidential elections were held in October 1902, and General Bonilla of the PN won a plurality of the vote. President Terencio Sierra refused to relinquish control of the government to General Bonilla, and Congress elected Juan Angel Arias as president. General Manuel Bonilla led a Conservative rebellion against the government beginning on February 1, 1903, and General Bonilla’s rebels took control of the government on April 10, 1903. The US deployed several naval ships near Puerto Cortez on March 21, 1903. Some 45 US peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain order in Puerto Cortez on March 23-31, 1903. General Dionisio Gutierrez led a Liberal rebellion against the government beginning on December 23, 1906.  Honduran rebels invaded the country from Nicaraguan territory, and captured San Marcos on February 25, 1907.  Some 5,000 troops from El Salvador commanded by General Jose Dolores Perez intervened in support of the government on March 11, 1907.  President Bonilla was overthrown on March 25, 1907, and Vice-President Miguel Davila was sworn in as president on March 26, 1907. US peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain order in Trujillo, Ceiba, Puerto Cortez, San Pedro Laguna, and Choloma in Honduras from March 18 to June 8, 1907. Nicaraguan troops intervened in support of the rebels, and Nicaraguan troops entered Tegucigalpa on March 27, 1907. Honduran government troops surrendered to Nicaraguan troops on Amapala island on April 12, 1907. Nicaraguan troops withdrew from Tegucigalpa on April 17, 1907. Some 1,000 individuals, including 400 Nicaraguan soldiers and 300 Honduran government soldiers, were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (April 18, 1907-January 19, 1911): The Constituent Assembly elected General Miguel Davila as president in 1908. Rebels led by General Ramon Octavio Marin attacked government military barracks in Puerto Cortes on July 22, 1910.

Crisis Phase (January 20, 1911-July 20, 1911): General Bonilla led a rebellion against the government of President Davila, and the Congress declared martial law on January 20, 1911. Rebel troops captured La Ceiba on January 25, 1911, and President Davila requested US intervention on January 28, 1911. President William Taft of the US appealed for a ceasefire on January 31, 1911, and he offered to facilitate negotiations between the Honduran government and rebels. The parties agreed to a ceasefire on February 8, 1911. Thomas Dawson was appointed as US special envoy to Honduras on February 11, 1911. Thomas Dawson facilitated negotiations on the US warship Tacoma from February 21 to March 14, 1911. President Davilla tendered his resignation on March 28, 1911, and Francisco Bertrand was sworn in as provisional president on March 29, 1911. President Bertrand lifted martial law on July 20, 1911. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (July 21, 1911-July 21, 1919): Manuel Bonilla was elected president on October 29-31, 1911. President Bonilla died on March 21, 1913, and Vice-President Francisco Bertrand assumed the presidency on March 22, 1913. President Bertrand took full control of the government on July 19, 1919.

Crisis Phase (July 22, 1919-February 2, 1920): General Rafael Lopez Gutierrez led a Liberal rebellion against the government on July 22, 1919. The US offered to mediate negotiations between the parties in September 1919. On September 8, 1919, President Bertrand resigned after ten individuals were killed in political violence in Tegucigalpa. US peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain order in a neutral zone on September 8-12, 1919. General Lopez Gutierrez assumed de facto control of the government on September 17, 1919. Francisco Bogran was appointed as provisional president, and he was inaugurated as provisional president on October 5, 1919. General Lopez Gutierrez of the Liberal Party (Partido Liberal – PL) was elected president on October 30, 1919, and he was inaugurated as president on February 2, 1920. Some 100 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (February 3, 1920-December 31, 1921):

Crisis Phase (January 1, 1922-April 4, 1922): Francisco Martinez Funes and General Gregorio Ferrera led a rebellion against the government in Chinaandega province beginning in January 1922. Congress declared martial law on April 3, 1922. President Rafael Lopez Gutierrez requested the deployment of US naval ships on April 3, 1922, but the US decided not to deploy naval ships.

Conflict Phase (April 5, 1922-October 31, 1924): Government troops and rebels clashed near Esperanza and Ocotepeque on April 5-6, 1922, resulting in the deaths of 50 rebels. General Ferrera and 35 rebels were captured by government troops on June 10, 1922. Government troops captured El Paraiso from rebels troops on July 16, 1922, resulting in the deaths of 19 government soldiers. Guatemala provided military assistance (weapons) in support of the government in August 1922. Government troops killed 56 rebels and captured 78 rebels on September 16, 1922. General Tiburcio Carias Andino of the National Party of Honduras – (Partido Nacional de Honduras – PNH) won a plurality of votes in a presidential election on October 28-30, 1923. Eighteen individuals were killed as a result of election-related violence in Tegucigalpa and other cities. General Carias Andino led a rebellion against the government beginning on January 30, 1924. President Lopez Gutierrez took full control of the government on February 1, 1924. The US government imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of diplomatic relations) against the government of President Lopez Gutierrez on February 13, 1924. Rebels led by General Gregorio Ferrera captured Comayagua on February 26, 1924. Government troops and rebels clashed near La Ceiba on February 28, 1924, resulting in the deaths of some 50 individuals. Some 400 US troops were deployed to maintain order in neutral zones in Tela, La Ceiba, and Puerto Cortez on February 28-March 31, 1924. Rebels led by General Ferrera occupied Tegucigalpa on March 7, 1924. President Gutierrez died of an illness on March 10, 1924, and the Council of Ministers headed by Zuniga Huete assumed control of the government. General Vicente Tosta was appointed as provisional president on April 30, 1924. The US government sent Summer Welles to the country on April 8, 1924, and Summer Welles mediated an agreement between the parties in Amapala on May 3, 1924. The US imposed military sanctions (arms embargo) against the government and rebels on May 22, 1924. Gregorio Ferrara led a rebellion against the government beginning on August 6, 1924. Some 110 US peacekeeping troops were deployed to maintain order in La Ceiba on September 10-15, 1924. A new constitution went into effect on September 10, 1924. Government troops suppressed the rebellion in October 1924. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (November 1, 1924-April 9, 1925): Miguel Paz Barahona was elected president without opposition on December 28, 1924, and he was inaugurated as president on February 1, 1925. The US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the government of President Barahona, and lifted military sanctions against the government on February 1, 1925.

Conflict Phase (April 10, 1925-June 18, 1931): General Ferrera led a rebellion against the government beginning on April 10, 1925. Some 165 US peacekeeping troops commanded by Lt. Theodore Cartwright from the USS Denver were deployed to maintain order in La Ceiba on April 19-21, 1925. Vicente Mejia Colindres of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras – PLH) was elected president on October 28, 1928, and he was inaugurated as president on January 19, 1929. Rebel troops captured Santa Rosa de Copan on May 1, 1931. Rebel troops were defeated by government troops near Lake Yojoa on June 18, 1931. Some 1,000 individuals were killed during the conflict.

Post-Conflict Phase (June 19, 1931-December 21, 1957): General Carias Andino of the PNH was elected president on October 28, 1932, and he was inaugurated as president on February 1, 1933. Congressional elections were held in 1934, and the PNH won 55 seats in the Congress. The PLH won four seats in the Congress. The constitution was amended on April 15, 1936, which allowed General Carias Andino to serve as president for six more years. The government suppressed a Liberal rebellion from April to May 27, 1936. President Carias Andino suppressed a military rebellion led by General Justo Umana in January-February 1937. The government suppressed a rebellion in Octepeque on July 5, 1944, resulting in the deaths of several dozen individuals. Government troops fired on demonstrators in San Pedro Sula on July 6, 1944, resulting in the deaths of some 100 individuals. Juan Manuel Galvez of the PNH was elected president without opposition on October 10, 1948. The PLH had boycotted the presidential election. Juan Manuel Galvez of the PNH was inaugurated as president on January 1, 1949. President Galvez turned over control of the government to Vice-President Julio Lozano Diaz. Local elections were held on November 25, 1951. The United Sates agreed to provide military assistance to the government on May 20, 1954. Villeda Morales of the PLH won a plurality of 48 percent of the vote in a presidential election on October 10, 1954. The Congress convened to elect a new president on December 1, 1954, but President Lozano Dias dissolved the Congress on December 5, 1954. President Lozano Diaz took full control of the government on December 5, 1954. Villeda Morales and other PLH leaders were arrested and sent into exile in July 1956. Government troops suppressed a military rebellion led by Captain Santos Osorto Paz in Tegucigalpa on August 1, 1956, resulting in the deaths of 26 individuals. President Lozano Diaz declared a state-of-emergency on August 2, 1956. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on October 7, 1956, and the National Union Party (NUP) headed by President Lozano Diaz won 56 out of 56 contested seats. Opposition political parties had boycotted the elections. Eleven individuals were killed in election-related violence. President Lozano Diaz was overthrown in a military rebellion led by Major Roberto Galvez on October 20-21, 1956. A three-member military junta headed by Colonel Hector Caraccioli took control of the government, and nullified the recent elections on October 22, 1956. Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Panama, and the US provided diplomatic assistance (diplomatic recognition) to the military junta. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on September 21-22, 1957, and the PLH won 36 out of 58 contested seats. The PNH won 18 contested seats. Four individuals were killed in election-related violence. Ramon Villeda Morales of the PLH was elected president by the Constituent Assembly on November 15, 1957, and he was inaugurated as president on December 21, 1957. A new constitution went into effect on December 21, 1957. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (December 22, 1957-October 2, 1963): Rebels captured the town of Santa Barbara on February 7, 1959, but government troops recaptured the town on February 9, 1959. Government troops suppressed a rebellion by the National Police in July 1959. The OAS provided electoral assistance (three personnel) to the government beginning in July 1963, and issued a report on September 11, 1963.

Crisis Phase (October 3, 1963-January 27, 1982): President Villeda Morales was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Osvaldo Lopez Arellano on October 3, 1963, and Colonel Lopez Arellano took control of the government on October 4, 1963. Some 100 individuals were killed in political violence on October 3-5, 1963. The US imposed diplomatic sanctions (diplomatic non-recognition), economic sanctions (suspension of economic assistance), and military sanctions (suspension of military assistance) against the government of Colonel Lopez Arellano on October 4, 1963. The US lifted diplomatic sanctions against the government on December 14, 1963. The US lifted economic sanctions and military sanctions against the government in January 1964. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on February 16, 1965, and the National Party of Honduras – (Partido Nacional de Honduras – PNH) won 35 out of 64 contested seats. The Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras – PLH), which had won 29 seats in the Constituent Assembly, claimed election fraud. Colonel Lopez Arellano was elected president by the Constituent Assembly on March 15, 1965, and he was inaugurated as president on June 5, 1965. Ramon Ernesto Cruz of the PNH was elected president on March 28, 1971. President Cruz was deposed in a military coup led by General Osvaldo Lopez Arellano on December 4, 1972, and the three-member Defense Council took control of the government. General Lopez Arellano was appointed as head-of-state on December 5, 1972. President Lopez Arellano was deposed in a military coup led by Colonel Juan Alberto Melgar Castro on April 22, 1975, and Colonel Melgar Castro took control of the government on April 23, 1975. The government suppressed a right-wing military coup on October 21, 1977. President Melgar Castro was deposed in a military coup on August 7, 1978, and the three-member Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) headed by General Policarpo Paz Garcia took control of the government on August 8, 1978. Elections for the Constituent Assembly were held on April 20, 1980, and the PLH won 35 out of 71 contested seats. The military junta turned control of the government over to the Constituent Assembly on July 20, 1980. The Constituent Assembly approved General Paz Garcia as provisional president on July 25, 1980. Roberto Suazo Cordova of the PLH was elected president on November 29, 1981. Parliamentary elections were held on November 29, 1981, and the PLH won 44 out of 82 seats in the Congress. The PNH won 34 seats in the Congress. The Organization of American States (OAS) Council sent three observers to monitor the elections. A new constitution was promulgated on January 20, 1982. Roberto Suazo Cordova was inaugurated as president on January 27, 1982. Some 500 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 28, 1982-April 2, 1983): The Congress approved General Gustavo Adolfo Alvarez Martinez as head of the armed forces on January 27, 1982. Cinchonero People’s Liberation Movement (Movimiento Popular de Liberacion Cinchonero – MPLC) rebels occupied the chamber of commerce building in San Pedro Sula in September 1982. On November 24, 1982, the government announced a constitutional amendment, which provided for the transfer of the role of commander-in-chief from the president to the head of the armed forces.

Crisis Phase (April 3, 1983-January 26, 1990):  The United National Directorate (Directorio Nacional Unido – DNU) was established in opposition to the government on April 3, 1983. General Alvarez Martinez was dismissed as head of the armed forces on March 31, 1984, and he was replaced by General Walter Lopez Reyes on April 1, 1984. President Suazo Cordova requested that the military declared a state-of-emergency, and he dissolved the National Assembly on May 10, 1985. The military refused the request by President Suazo Cordova. Parliamentary elections were held on November 24, 1985, and the PLH won 67 out of 128 seats in the National Assembly. Jose Azcona del Hoyo of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras – PLH) was elected president on November 24, 1985, and he was inaugurated as president on January 27, 1986. Government troops and Lorenzo Zeleya Popular Revolutionary Forces (Fuerzas Revolucionarias Populares Lorenzo Zeleya – FRP) rebels clashed near San Pedro Sula on March 13, 1987, resulting in the deaths of two rebels.  The government imposed a state-of-emergency on April 8-13, 1988.  Parliamentary elections were held on November 26, 1989, and the National Party of Honduras – (Partido Nacional de Honduras – PNH) won 71 out of 128 seats in the National Assembly. Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero of the PNH was elected president with 51 percent of the vote on November 26, 1989, and he was inaugurated as president on January 26, 1990. The Organization of American States (OAS) sent four observers to monitor the elections on November 23-28, 1989.  Some 150 individuals were killed during the crisis.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 27, 1990-June 27, 2009):  Carlos Roberto Reina of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras – PLH) was elected president with 53 percent of the vote on November 28, 1993. The PLH won 71 out of 128 contested seats in the National Assembly. The OAS sent 40 observers to monitor the elections from November 18 to December 18, 1993. The OAS observation mission issued a report on March 8, 1994. Parliamentary elections were held on November 30, 1997, and the PLH won 67 out of 128 seats in the National Assembly. The PNH won 55 seats in the National Assembly. Carlos Roberto Flores Facusse of the PLH was elected president on November 30, 1997, and he was inaugurated as president on January 27, 1998. Ricardo Maduro of the PNH was elected president with 53 percent of the vote on November 25, 2001.  Jose Manuel Zelaya Rosales of the PLH was elected president with 49.9 percent of the vote on November 27, 2005.  Parliamentary elections were held on November 27, 2005, and the PLH won 62 out of 128 seats in the National Assembly.  The PNH won 55 seats in the National Assembly.  The OAS sent observers to monitor the elections.  On November 11, 2008, President Manuel Zelaya announced a non-binding referendum regarding a possible “fourth ballot box” to be held on June 28, 2009.  The “fourth ballot box” referred to a presidential proposal to asked the Honduran voters during the November 2009 general elections to consider the convening of a Constituent Assembly to draft a new Honduran constitution.  On June 23, 2009, the National Congress voted in favor of legislation forbidding the holding of the June 28th referendum.

Crisis Phase (June 28, 2009-January 27, 2010):  President Manuel Zelaya was deposed in a military coup, and he was flown by the Honduran military to Costa Rica on June 28, 2009.  Roberto Micheletti, Speaker of the National Congress, was sworn in as interim president on June 28, 2009.  The Organization of American States (OAS) imposed diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) on July 4, 2009.  One supporter of deposed President Zelaya was killed during clashes with government troops at Toncontin airport on July 5, 2009.  The European Union (EU) imposed economic sanctions (freezing of 65 million euros of budget support) against the Honduran government on July 20, 2009.  One protester was killed by government troops as a result of clashes on July 31, 2009.  Former president Manuel Zelaya returned to Honduras from Costa Rica, and he took refuge in the Brazilian embassy in Tegucigalpa on September 21, 2009.  The government suspended civil liberties, including freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, on September 22, 2009.  The government lifted the suspension on civil liberties on October 19, 2009.  Porfirio Lobo Sosa of the National Party of Honduras – (Partido Nacional de Honduras – PNH) was elected president with 57 percent of the vote on November 29, 2009.  Legislative elections were held on November 29, 2009, and the PNH won 71 out of 128 seats in the National Congress.  The Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras – PLH) won 45 seats in the National Congress.  The National Democratic Institute (NDI) and the International Republican Institute (IRI) sent missions to assess the presidential and legislative elections.  The National Congress voted 111 to 14 against reinstating Manuel Zelaya as president on December 2, 2009.  Porfirio Lobo Sos was inaugurated as president on January 27, 2010.

Post-Crisis Phase (January 28, 2010-present):  Former President Zelaya return to Honduras on May 28, 2011.  The Organization of American States (OAS) lifted diplomatic sanctions (suspension of membership) against the Honduran government on June 1, 2011.

[Sources: Associated Press (AP), January 27, 1998; Banks and Muller, 1998, 395-399; Bannon and Dunne, 1947, 727-730; Beigbeder, 1994, 232; British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) November 28, 2005, November 29, 2005; Current History, April 1924; Degenhardt, 1988, 146-149; Ellsworth, 1974, 94-98; Facts on File, October 10-16, 1948, November 30-December 6, 1951, August 1-7, 1956, October 3-9, 1956, October 24-30, 1956, October 3-9, 1957, February 5-11, 1959, October 3-9, 1963, December 12-18, 1963, March 25-31, 1971, December 3-9, 1972, April 26, 1975, August 11, 1978, November 29, 2001; Foreign Relations of the US (FRUS), 1911, 291-307, 1919, 374-395, 1922, 561-576, 1924 (vol. II), 300-324, 1925 (vol. II), 316-337; Hispanic American Report (HAR), January 1949, October 1954, December 1954, August 1956, October 1956, September 1957, October 1957, November 1957, December 1957; Jessup, 1998, 282-284; Keesing’s Record of World Events, October 23-30, 1948, March 15-22, 1958, April 24-May 1, 1971, January 1-7, 1973, May 5-11, 1975, June 16, 1978, November 24, 1978, September 26, 1980, April 2, 1982, April 1986, November 1989, November 1997, December 1997; Langer, 1972, 858, 1069, 1243-1244; Munro, 1964, 217-235, 448-456; Munro, 1974, 290-294; New York Times (NYT), November 28, 2005; Schooley, 1987, 32-45; Wright, 1964, 102-110.]